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was kind enough to accompany me through it and to introduce me to its President and Faculty. These I found to be exceedingly courteous and well accomplished gentlemen, and very prompt to answer all my questions and to give me any information solicited upon their modus operandi, and the present condition and prospects of the institution.
As this is one of the most recent colleges in the empire, and as it may be presumed to be an improvement more in unison with the spirit and genius of this age of improvement and of almost universal reformation, it may be both pleasing and profitable, if not to yourself, at least to many of my readers, to have a synopsis of its Con. stitution, of its general course of study, terms, &c. Its Patrons, Council, and Faculty, are as follows:
Patrons.—The most noble the Marquis of Normanby. The right honorable the Earl of Carlisle. The right honorable Lord Viscount Morpeth. Sir George Strickland, Bart. M. P. Sir Francis Lindley Wood, Bart. W. R. C. Stansfield, Esq., M. P. E. Ellice, Jun. Esq. M. President, John Sutcliffe, Esq. Vice-President, William Willans, Esq. Treasurer, Frederic Schwann, Esq. Hon. Secretary, Thomas Pitt, Esq.
Council.-G. Crosland, Esq.; H. Edwards, Esq.; W. Greenwood, Esq.; E. L. Hesp, Esq; Rev. G. Highfield: R. G. Jackson, Esq. S. Makin, Esq.; T. Mallinson, Esq.; B. Robinson, Esq.; B. Shaw, Esq.; F. Shaw, Esq.; H. Shaw, Esq.; J. Shaw, Esq.; J. Sykes, Esq.; J. Webb, Esq.; J. Wrigley, Esq.
Faculty.- Principal, Rev. John Milne, M. A. Masters. Upper School. Classical and Mathematical Masters, Mr. T. K. Faulls; Rev. d. Morgan, M. A. Commercial Master, Mr. R. D. Gooch. French Master, Mons. Roy, B. L. Lower School-Mr. Meaby. Assistant, Mr. J. Bates. Extra Masters-Mr. L. Sulau, German; Mr. G. D. Tomlinson, Drawing; Mr. J. Harry, Gymnastics; Mr. E. Alarriott, Chemistry. Assistant Secretary, Mr. E. Battye.
Its general course of Study, Terms, Rewards, fc. Its general course of study, in the Upper School, comprises that of the Holy Scriptures; the Greek, Latin, English, and French languages; arithmetic, pure and commercial; writing; the principles of book-keeping; algebra; geometry; trigonometry; the elements of natural and experimental philosophy; ancient and modern history; geography, physical, descriptive, and political; composition, and elocution.
The Lower School course of instruction comprises the scriptures; reading; spelling; the elements of arithmetic; writing; the properties of natural and artificial objects; and the outlines of history and geography.
A monthly report of the conduct and progress of each pupil is eent to his parent or guardian. The daily course of study is preceded and closed by prayer.
The discipline of the school is maintained withod corporal punishment.
The terms for the general course, in the Upper School, are ten pounds per annum; for the Lower School, five pounds, ten shillings per annum; to nominees of proprietors nine pounds, and five pounds per annum respectively; to be paid half-yearly in advance. An entrance fee of half a guinea is also charged for the purpose of raising a fund for procuring philosophical apparatus, and a library for the use of the pupils.
Extras–German, two guineas; drawing, two guineas; chemistry, two guineas per annum.
The following Masters receive pupils of the college as boarders, on moderate terms:-Rev. J. Milne, Belgrave Terrace; Mr. Faulls, College; Reverend J. Morgan, Brunswick Place; Mr. Meaby, York Place.
A quarter's notice, in writing, is required to be sent to the Secretary, previously to the removal of a pupil from the college; a similar notice must also be sent to a Master, prior to the removal of a boarder from his house. In default of either notice, a quarter's terms will be charged.
In addition to the distribution of prize books and certificates, the following medals are offered for annual competition:
A gold medal, of the value of five pounds, by the Rt. Hon. Visa count Morpeth, for the best English essay;
Silver medals, to the amount of four pounds, for the promotion of classical literature, by W. R. C. Stansfield, Esq., M. P.;.
Silver medals, to the amount of five pounds, for proficiency in mathematical and commercial knowledge, by John Sutcliffe, Esq., President;
A silver pen, for the best specimen of writing, by W. Willans, Esq., Vice-President.
Certificates are granted to those pupils who, up to the period of their leaving college, have distinguished themselves by exemplary conduct and general proficiency.
Certificates of honor are presented to those pupils of the senior class, whose conduct has been uniformly good, and who have attain. ed the highest proficiency in classical or mathematical learning.
The college, which is intended to give, without distinction of religious party, a sound classical, mathematical, and commercial education, is most eligibly and healthily situated; and is furnished, according to the most improved principles, with every convenience for the purposes of instruction."
As respects the style of the boarding-houses, if I may judge of them all by that of Mr. Faulls, which occupies a portion of the college buildings, I must say, having passed through its chambers, parlors, dining hall, &c., that, for good taste, neatness, and convenience, without extravagance, I have never seen so large a number of chambers in any one scholastic edifice, called by any name, Academy, College, or University, that wonld compare with them. It was kept with all the neatness and taste of a lady's toilet-a place for every thing, and every thing in its place; and although, as I was assured, in its general or common style, had a visit from Prince Albert been expected, we could not imagine how it could have been improved or exhibited to greater advantage. It needed no living witness to depose that no Yankee had ever been a boarder within its walls, as there was no index that any penknife or wad of Indian tobacco had ever been within its clean,neat and beautiful apartments.
I have not seen any college in which more pains appeared to be taken philologically to induct the youth into the ancient languages, or to give them a more thorough knowledge of the construction of the Greek and Latin tongues.
It does not appear, from any thing I learned when at this institution, that it has the power of conferring literary degrees. This authority seems to be peculiar to the English Universities. But as it did not occur to me to make this inquiry, I cannot speak with historical certainty. At all events, I have no hesitation in affirming the conviction that in few, very few of our American institutions, is a more radical acquaintance with the languages and some of the sciences communicated that was indicated to me in the pro gramme of its course of teaching and examinations, presented to me by its Principal.
This town and its vicinity abounds with very extensive woollen manufactures--one of the best of which, owned by the Messrs. Shaws, I particularly visited and very minutely surveyed. Much German wool, of the finest qualities, is manufactured here; and also much of other fine wool, if I might judge by passing through a circular arcade of shops,-in the whole extent, I presume, some three quarters of a mile,-in which were displayed, from the country mills around, an immense quantity of finished and unfinished cloths-sold on stated days every week, to retailers or to manufacturers who finish cloths already in a certain state of forwardness.
I was pleased to see a much better state of things amongst the woollen manufactories of Huddersfield, as respects the remuneration and condition of the operatives, than I have noted in the cotton mills of Manchester. One thing is very evident—the manufacture of wool is much more favorable to health than that of cotton. This, together with the better wages given, imparts to this class of operatives a more cheerful appearance than the general contour of things in Manchester. Still it is to be regretted that in those manufactories, as in the cotton, there are too many employed at a period of life when they ought to be at school.
During my visit to Huddersfield, it happened, as before intimated, that the election of members of Parliament was in progress. Having a leisure hour one evening during my stay, I was induced to attend the speech of one of the candidates for that office. I listened with attention to a calm, intelligent, and discreet expose of the policy espoused by the orator as an advocate of reform, in which there were many pointed and lucid intimations of an intention liberally to entrench upon the vested rights of a portion of the English aristocracy. Ever since the passage of the Reform Bill in Parliament, there has been a gradual advance of the claims of the English people. They are seeking, and will seek, and will ultimately obtain, a redress of many of the grievances and oppressions under which, with the exception of the privileged orders political and hierarchal, the whole nation more or less groans and agonizes. There is a spirit abroad in Britain which cannot be extinguished, and which the progress of free institutions in America, despite of all the disre. spect which is occasionally shown by some of their popular writers for our Yankeeisms, continually grows and struggles for reformation. The freedom of opinion and of debate in many popular English journals, and as appears at the hustings, seems to be but little behind that which animates our own people, and which has given to us a vigor and an elevation of mind—a grandeur of enterprize and a national character, which, to say the least, stand in no disadvantageous comparison with those of any other nation or people extant on the rolls of time. But of the political condition and prospects of Britain we may speak more opportunely hereafter.Meantime, we shall proceed to the ancient and venerable capital of Yorkshire, so celebrated both as the seat of one of the two Archbishops of the Realm, and as having been the theatre of many a political struggle and many a bloody deed recorded in the annals of England. But this I shall make the subject of another letter. Affectionately, your father,
LETTERS FROM EUROPE-No. XXIV. My dear Clarında-YORKSHIRE is much the largest county in England. It commands an extensive seacoast, embraces many important towns besides its capital, is well supplied with rivers, and much of it in the highest state of cultivation. Halifax, Huddersa field, Leeds, Richmond, Kingston-on-Hull, &c. &c., are within its precincts. York, its capital, is situated on the river Ouse, a branch of the Humber discharging its waters into the North Sea. Indeed, the two counties of York and Lancaster occupy the entire space between the Irish Sea and the North Sea, so far as the western coast of Lancaster extends. But the empire of the Red Rose and that of the White Rose are so disproportionate, that, were we to measure the two families of York and Lancaster by the territories which bear their name, we should wonder why the latter ever contended with the former, unless upon the principle that a lion will make war with an ox.
The city of York is centuries older than its present name. The common faith is that it was first named Eure-wic, because the Ouse, on which it stands, was formerly called Eure. From Eure-wic it has been corrupted or contracted into York. By the Romans it was called Eboracum; and, for a time Civitis Brigantium. ·
We have collected from its own records the following facts, which associate themselves with much of the history of England, and develope the mutability of all earthly fortunes. The history of York is, more or less, the history of every ancient city in the British empire. If they have not, in their annals, the same scenes, and changes, and events, they have the same ebbings and flowings of good and bad fortune; or, to speak in a more Christian style, they have their days of grace, and their days of vengeance-their eras of mercy, and their eras of wrath. But I shall collate a few of the facts and events of its history, and leave you to philosophize upon them for yourself:
“The eai est no ce recor in history of the Britons was on the invasion of the country by the Romans: and though Geoffry of Monmouth, bishop of Asaph, a monkish chronicler of the 12th century, has left behind a foolish story that York was founded by Ebraucus,
the grandson ofÆneas, 983 years before the Christian era, there can be little doubt that the description of Britain, given by Cæsar in his Commentaries, is correct. He states that the people he found in Britain knew nothing of building with stone, but called that a town which had a thick entangled wood defended with a ditch and bank about it, the natives clothing themselves in the skins of beasts, and puncturing and painting their bodies. There is, however, reason to believe that the site on which now stands the city of York, was, when the Romans invaded this country, occupied as a fortress, or accustomed station, known to the hardy hunters who then possessed the district, and was called by them Kaer, the Celtic word for seat or city. Drake, the celebrated historian, thinks it probable that the city was first planted and fortified by Agricola, a Roman commander, whose conquests extended beyond York, about A. D. 80, and that he there built a fortress to guard the frontiers after his return. There is no dispute that when the emperor Hadrian came into Brilain, A. D. 124, for the purpose of subduing the Caledonians, he