Abbildungen der Seite
[ocr errors]

They contain a variety of new equa- Professor BERNARDI of Esport, tions, of which the elementary parts communicated to the academy of have been verified by observation. sciences in that place, two kinds of New Lunar Tables are also to be the herb Speedwell or Fluellin, nearly printed, which will be followed by resembling the veronico spicata. The those of the primary planets.

one he calls veronica cristata, and According to the experiments of the other veronicus sternberjiani. It MORICHINI, one hundred parts of may be thus characterised in the bothe enamel of human teeth contain ranical system,-Ver. spica termina30 parts of animal substance, and 22 li, carollæ subrotatæ, laciniis postice parts of Auid, and phosphat of lime, convolutis, falcis oppositis. l'he second with some manganesia, alumine, and specimen, which Count Sternberg had carbonic acid. He has not yet been already remarked in Italy, may be able to separate the fluoric and phos- thus recognised.--V. racemo termi. phoric acids from each other, but nali, carollæ rotatæ, lacinis potentithinks that the proportion of the lat. bus, foliis oppositis cauleque glabris. ter must be certainly minute. Me

An account of twenty-eight experiBRANDE, however, has found that ments on falling bodies, made in the the enamel of human teeth contain coal mines of Schebusch, has been no fluoric acid. A hundred grains published by Proffessor BENZENof this enamel were ignited, pulverised, BERG of Dusseldorf. Balls well tur. and then exposed to the action of ned and polished were made to fall sulphuric acid ; and the white suffo. from a height of 262 French feet.cating fumes were extricated during At a medium they exhibited a deviathe process of distillation ; they pro ation of 5 lines towards the East, duced no effect upon the glass which while the theory

gives 4.6 lines. The covered the crucible, which certainly experiments of Guglielmini at Bologwould have been corroded had any na gave nearly the same results, and fluoric acid been present.

furnish an additional proof of the According to the analysis of A. diurnal motion of the earth. LAUGIER, a hundred parts of the According to Mr Gough's experi. chromate of iron from the Purolian ments, water expands by a loss of mountains in Siberia, contains oxide temperature between 41 and 32° ; of chrome 53, oxide of iron 34, alu- or else this Auid begins to crysta, mnine 11, Silica 1, traces of manganese lize at the upper term ; in conseand loss, 1.

quence of which, the lower term, or It appears from the experiments 32°, is not, properly speaking, the of Mr Gough, that the elasticity of commencement of congellation, but cæoutchone, or Indian rubber, is not the point at which the chrystals of a constitutional quality of the sub. water begin concrete joto mashes by stance, but a contingent effect, ari. aggregation. sing from the loss of equilibrium be- A new ruler, exempt from lateral tween the portion of calonic which deviation, has been invented by Mr the resin happens to contain at any Q. W. Boswell. By the application moment, and its capacity to receive of toothed segments, which lock into that Auid at the same instant. Mr each other, the lateral motion is Gough has attempted likewise to transferred to the middle rule, while demonstrate that the faculty of this the external rules move only in an body to absorb the calorific principle opposite and parallel direction.' See may be lessened, by forcibly dimini. Nicholson's Journal, No. 52. p. 196. shing the magnitude of its parts.

D. B.

[ocr errors]

Account He soon

Account of ALEXANDER SELKIRK, Ty; he found there also a black pep

with a Description of the Island of per called Malagita, which was very JUAN FERNANDEZ.

good to expel wind, and against gri

ping of the guts. (Concluded from page 20.)

wore out all his shoes

and cloaths by running through the WHI

HEN his powder failed, he woods ; and at last, being forced to

took them by speed of foot; shift without them, his feet became for his way of living, and continual so hard that he run every where exercise of walking and running, without annoyance; and it was some cleared him of all gross humours, so time before he could wear shoes, afthat he ran with wonderful swiftness ter we found him ; for, not being uthrough the woods, and up the rocks sed to any so long, his feet swelled and hills, as we perceived when we when he came first to wear them a. employed him to catch goats for us. gain. We had a bull dog, which we sent After he had conquered his me. with several of our nimblest run- lancholy, he diverted himself someners to help him in catching goats ; times in cutting his name on the trees, but he distanced and tired both and the time of his being left and the dog and the men, catched the continuanoe there. He was at first goats, and brought them to us on his pestered with cats and rats, that had back.

bred in great numbers from some of He told us, that his agility in each species which had got ashore pursuing a goat had once like to from the ships that put in there to have cost him his life; he pursued it wood and water. The rate gnawed with so much eagerness, that he his feet and cloaths while asleep, catched hold of it on the brink of which obliged him to cherish the a precipice, of which he was not a- cats with his goats flesh ; by which ware, the bushes having hid it from many of them became so tame, that him, so that he fell with the goat they would lie about him in hundown the precipice a great height, dreds, and soon delivered him from and was so stunned and bruised with the rats. He likewise tamed some the fall, that he narrowly escaped kids ; and, to divert himself, would with his life, and when he came to now and then sing and dance with his senses, found the goat dead under his cats; so that by the care of him. He lay there about twenty- Providence, and vigour of his youth, four hours, and was scarce able io being now but about thirty years crawl to his hut, which was about old, he came at last to conquer all a mile distant, or to stir abroad again the inconveniences of his folitude, in ten days.

and to be very easy: He came at last to relish his When his cloaibs wore out, he meat without salt or bread, and, made himself a coat and cap


goat. in the season, had plenty of good skins, which he stitched together turnips, which had been sowed there with little thongs of the same, that by Captain Dampier's men, and have he cut with his knife. He had no now overspread some acres of ground. other needle but a nail, and when his He had enough of good cabbage knife was wore to the back, he made • from the cabbage trees, and seasoned others as well as he could, of some his meat with the fruit of the Pie. iron hoops that were left ashore, mento trees, which is the same as the which he beat thin, and ground upon Jamaica pepper, and smells delicious stones. Having some linen cloth March 1806.


him, he sewed himself shirts with a Ringrose, in his account of Capt. nail, and stitched them with the wors. Sharp's voyage and other buccaneers, ted of his old stockings, which he pul- mentions one who had escaped ashore led out on purpose. He had his last out of a ship which was cast away, shirt on when we found bim in the with all the rest of his company, and island.

says, he lived 5 years alone, before he At his first coming on board us, had an opportunity of a ship to carry he had so much forgot his language, him off. Capt. Dampier ialks of a for want of use, that we could scarce Moskito Indian, that belonged to understand him, for he seemed to Capt. Watlin ; who, being bunting speak his words by halves..

in the woods when the Captain left We offered him a dram, but he the island, lived 3 years alone, and would not touch it, having drank shifted much in the same manner as nothing but water since his being Mr Selkirk did, till Capt. Dampier there, and it was some time before came hither in 1684, and carried him he could relish our victuals.

off. The first that went, ashore He could give us an account of no was one of his countrymen, and they other product of the island than saluted one another, first by prostiawhat we have mentioned, except ting themselves by turns

on the small black plums, which were good, ground, and then by embracing. but hard to come at, the trees which But, whatever there is in these bear them growing on high moun- stories, this of Mr Selkirk I know to tains and rocks. Piemento trees are be true ; and his behaviour afterwards plenty here, and we saw one sixty gives me reason to believe the acfeet high, and about two yards count he gave me, how he spent thick ; and cotton trees higher, and his time, and bore up under such an nearly four fathoms round in the affliction, in which nothiog but the stock.

divine Providence could have fupThe climate is so good, that the ported any man. By this one may trees and grass are verdant all the see, that solitude, and retirement year. The winter lasts no longer than from the world, is not such an in. June or July, and is not then severe, sufferable state of life, as most men ehere being only a small froșt and a imagine, especially when people are little hail, but sometimes great rains. fairly thrown into it unavoidably, as

The heat of the summer is equally this man was; who, in all probability, moderate ; there is not much thunder must otherwise have perished in the or tempestuous weather of any sort, seas, the ship which left him being He saw no venomous or savage crea- cast away not long after, and few of ture on the island, nor any other the company escaped. sort of beast but goats, &c. as above We may perceive, by this story, mentioned; the first of which had the truth of the maxim, that necesbeen put ashore here on purpose sity is the mother of invention, sioce for a breed by Juan Feroando, a Spa- he found means to supply his wants. niard who had settled there with some in a very natural manner, so as to families for a time, till the continent maintain his life ; though not so conof Chili began to submit to the Span- veniently, yet as effectually, as we iards ; which, being more profitable, are able to do with the help of all tempted them to quit this island, our arts and society. that is capable of maintaining a good It may likewise instruct us, how number of people, and of being made much a plain and temperate way. so strong that they could not be ea- living conduces to the health of the sily dislodged.

body and the vigour of the mind, both


[ocr errors][ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

which we are apt to destroy by ex- a mile from the shore : their fur is
cess and plenty, especially of strong the finest that ever I saw of the kind,
liquor, and the variety, as well as the and exceeds thai of our otters.
nature of our meat and drink; for this Another strange creature here is
inan, when he came to our ordinary the sea lion; the governor tells me
method of diet and life, though he he has seen of thein above twenty
was sober enough, lost much of his feet long and more in compass, w

which strength and agility.

could not weigh less than two tons

weight. I saw several of these vast An Account of the Island of JUAN tioned size ; several of them were up

creatures, but none of the above-menFERNANDEZ

wards of sixteen feet long, and more

in bulk, so that they could not weigh The island of Juan Fernandez is less than a ton weight. The shape of nearest of a triangular form, about their body differs little from the seawelve leagues round, and has a'small dogs, or seals, but they have another island, near a mile long, lying near sort of skin, a head much bigger in it, with several rocks close under it, proportion, and very large mouths, near which there are very good fish monstrous big eyes, and a face like of several sorts. It abounds with that of a lion, with very large whiscabbage trees, which grow for three kers, the hair of which is stiff enough miles together, and extraordinary to make tooth.pickers. These creagood, also turnips, which grow wild tures come ashore to engender, the here. The soil is a loose black latter end of June, and stay till the earth, and there are often great drifts end of Sepiember ; during which of snow and ice in July; but in time they lie on the land, and are the spring, which is in September, never observed to go to the water, October, and November, it is very but lie in the same place above a pleasant.

musquet shot from the water side, Mr Selkirk says, that in Novem- and have no manner of sustenance ber the seals come a-shore to whelp all that time that he could observe. and engender, when the shore is so I took notice of some that lay a full of them that it is impossible to week without once offering to move pass through them : and they are so out of the place, whilst I was there, surly, that they will not move out till disturbed by us; but we saw few, in of the way, but, like an angry dog, comparison of what he informed us run at a man, 'though he have a he did, and that the shore was all good stick to beat them ; so that at crowded full of them, a musquet this and their whelping seasons, it is shot into the land. I admire how these dangerous to come near them; but at monsters come to yield such a quallother times, they will make way for tity of oil; their hair is short and man ; and, if they did not, it evould coarse, and their skin thicker than be impossible to get from the water- the thickest ox-hide I ever saw. We side : they lined the shore very thick, found no land bird on the island, but for above half a mile of ground, all a sort of blackbird with a red breast, round the bay,

not unlike our English blackbird, When we came in they kept a con. and the humming bird of various tinual noise day and night ; some colours, and no bigger than a large bleating like lambs, some howling humble bee. Here is a small tide, like dogs or wolves, others making which flows uncertain, and the spring hideous noises of various sorts ; so tide flows about seven feet, that we heard them aboard, though This is the account given by kim

[ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors]

Self to the captain of the ship, as will their mountains and fastnesses bare be attested by several merchants and rassed him in such a manner by amcaptains upon the Exchange, who buscades and skirmishes, that uphave conversed with him ; in which wards of fifty thousand of his men relation, the divine Providence of perished. The Emperor, however, God may be visibly seen, first in still persevered ; and at length got throwing him upon the desolate them to purchase peace by a surrenisland, and next in supporting him der of part of their territory; but unders uch an amiction, whilst the no sooner was his back turned, than ship which he left soon after perish they again returned, and overran ir. ed in the sea, and few of the com- Severus then sent his eldest son with pany escaped; all which singular acts orders to inflict a signal vengeance ; of providence, that conspired in his but dying soon after, the son found preservation, he wholly and piously it of more importance for him to seascribes to the infinite goodness and cure his own inheritance than to pro. mercy of God; to whom all hon. secute schemes of conquest. The our and glory be given, now and dominion of the Caledonians dow evermore.

comprehended, not Scotland merely, but also some part of the border counties of Cumberland and Nor.

thumberland. Account of the Origin and Progress of

Britain was soon after possessed SCOTTISH Commerce.

by the celebrated usurper Carausius, (Continued from p. 96.) who raised her arts and agriculture

to a very flourishing condition, and THE 'HE subjection of the Caledoni. at the same time vigorously repel.

ans, which had been effected by led the incursions of the northern Lollius Urbicus, was but of very tribes. Consiantius, 'the Roman short duration. Commotions soon Emperor, again annexed Britain to broke out; and from the profound the Empire, and made an expedie silence observed by the Roman wri- tion against the Caledonians, which țers on the subject, there is rea. does not appear to have been follow, son to suspect that the issue was by ed by any lasting consequences. no means flattering to their vanity. The Roman emperors, being now But in the reign of Commodus overwhelmed by the inundation of they made a most formidable incur. barbarous nations which poured in sion, attacked and slew the Roman upon them from the North of Eu. General, cut his army in pieces, and rope and Asia, were forced to leave completely expelled the Romans Britain in a great degree defenceless. from Vespasiana, supposed to be the The flower of her youth was even first province from which they were drawn away to defend the central ever driven out by the native inhabi- provinces of the empire. Her neightants. Marcellus, the next comman. bours (whom we now find mentionder, gained some advantages over ed by the names of the Picts and ihem, but was unable to make any im- Scots) soon discovered this weakness, pression on the country. Septimius Ser and having now only the wall to resyerus, a vigorous and warlike empe- train them, soon burst that impotent ror, resolved to attempt repairiog barrier, and spread desolation over these losses ; and accordingly led a the whole country. Theodosius, on great army into North Britain landing in Britain, found them joBut the Caledonians, retiring into ying every where at large, dri


« ZurückWeiter »