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ving herds of men and cattle be- ber, though the leather boats were fore them. His disciplined forces soon still in use, and in them they often forced them to yield, and even drove performed voyages of considerable them back as far as the wall between length, so far as from Ireland to the the Forth and Clyde ; but it was on- Orkneys, perhaps even to Iceland. ly for the moment, and immediately. They had now applied themselves on his leaving Britain, their incur. with considerable attention to the fi. sions became as frequent and formi.: shery on the western coasts, and emdable as ever. The Britons sent re- ployed nets for taking salmon and peatedly imploring the assistance other fish. This, however, was on. of Rome, and giving the most pathe- ly for their own immediate consumptic representation of their calamities; tion. Glass, in the form of drinkand a legión sent occasionally, pro- ing glasses, was in use, and was cured them a momentary relief.- doubtless a favourite article ; buc The last was in 426 ; and the Ro- whether manufactured or imported man commander then inculcated up- does not certainly appear, Their on them the necessity of learning to common drink was home - brewed defend themselves, as Rome could no ale ; wine made its appearance occalonger spare any troops for so distantsionally. As water mills were introa province,
duced into Britain by the Romans, The Britons being thus deprived they may very probably have come of all aid from this quarter, had re
down to Scotland. course to a most fatal expedient in
In the middle of the ninth century, calling in the Saxons, by whom, as it Kenneth made war against the Picts is well known, they were quickly ex- so successfully, that he became maspelled from their own country.
ter of almost all Scotland, About Most of them took refuge in Wales this time we have an account of the and the Western extremities of the first naval battle fought in Britain, island; a few, however, fed to the which took place between two hos. South of Scotland, among their an
uile tribes of Scots settled in Argyle. cient enemies, and formed a king- shire. The year 838 is marked by dom in Clydesdale. The Picts occu- the first incursion of the Norwegian pied most of the Roman provinces as
and Danish rovers. About this time far South as the Tyne. About the Scotland is said to have acquired a third century a colony of Scots had considerable fishing trade, though passed over from Ireland, and posses- Mr Macpherson is unable to discosed themselves of Argyleshire, and ver any good authority on which to some of the neighbouring lands and found this information. islands. These, in the fifth century,
The following centuries were singuwere reinforced by another colony of larly unfavourable to commerce and the same race, commanded by three civilization throughout Europe, the brothers, called Lorn, Ængus, and degree of improvement which it had Fergus; and this people, beginning attained under the Roman empire now to acquire the ascendency, Fer. being gradually extinguished by the gus is reckoned the first king of prodigious influx of barbarism. ScotScotland.
land, however, which had never eConcerning the commercial state merged from its original rudeness, of these tribes the intelligence which to have been in a more flou. has come down to us is next to no. rishing state than at any former thing. They bad now probably period. It was now united under a Karned to construct vessels of tim- king, and the frequency of petty wars
was thus diminished; while its vici. paid great attention to the improve. nity to Flanders, which had begun to ment of arts and commerce. He inrise into commercial importance, troduced into the principal towns a must have been productive of many number of English settlers, more indusadvantages. Macbeth, the celebrated trious and civilized than the natives. usurper, seems to have sought to He enacted various laws for the remake his disputed title forgotten, by gulation of commerce, and is supthe prosperity which he procured to posed to have been the author of the his people ; and Scotland, under his Burgh laws, which are to be found in reign, is said both to have enjoyed Regiam Majestatem. By these a vasabundance at home, and to have car. sal, who continued in a burgh a ried on a considerable trade with the year and day without being claimed produce of its fishery.
by his master, was declared frec.There seems no reason to think The exclusive privilege of buying thai any towns in Scotland during this and selling wool, hides, and other arperiod were of considerable magnitude. ticles, was granted to the burgesses ; Brechin is mentioned as a great city; a restriction not founded on very though there is no reason to suppose beral principles, but which shews, it to have been even larger than at even at that early period, the disposipresent, when it contains only 5oco tion of the sovereign to patronize the inhabitants.
industry of the towns. A regulation Malcolm Kenmore, having again well adapted to the circumstances of mounted the throne of his ancestors, the times was that which exempted continued to encourage commerce from seizure the property of a foreign and the importation of foreign lux- merchant while abseat on business, uries. His own residence in Eng- The Firth of Forth was now much land, and marriage with Margaret, resorted to, not only by Scottish, but daughter of Edmund Ironside, who even by English and Belgic fishermen, had spent great part of her life In short, in the reign of king David, on the continent, would naturally in- Scotland enjoyed a happy tranquil. troduce a taste for these into his lity, while the neighbouring country, court ; and if imported, there must, in consequence of the usurpation of of course, have been native common Stephen, was suffering all the miseries dities to give in exchange for them. of civil war.
This good king died In the year 1113, David founded in 1153. a cathedral church on the north side At this time, Berwick upon Tweed of the Clyde ; which is celebrated in was reckoned the first commercial commercial history by having given town in Scotland, and had many vesbirth to Glasgow, now the first com- sels belonging to it. One of its cimercial city in Scotland. About' tizens, called Knut the Opulent, is this time, the pearl fishery of Scot- said to have sailed with a fleet of 14 land was in a very flourishing state, vessels in pursuit of his wife, who and its pearls much sought after a- had been carried off by pirates. broad. Scotland must now have pos-, Leith, Stirling, Perth, Aberdeen, and sessed considerable intercourse with Duffeyras - (perhaps Banff) are also foreign countries, since, among the mentioned as places'possessed of some bequests of king Alexander to the trade ; but there is no account of church of St Andrews, we find an any commercial towns on the west Arabian horse, velvet furniture, and coast. It appears that the commerce Turkish armour.
of Scotland was at this time carried King David having received his on almost entirely by foreign education at the court of England, chants.
Richard I. of England, being ca- glen, while rustic seats are placed in ger to procure money for his crusa- every picturesque or convenient situ. ding expedition, sold to William of ation. Crossing a plain bridge below, Scotland in 1190 the castles of Rox- we returned up the left side of the burgh and Berwick, as well as the ac- glen, which is equally beautiful with knowledgement of superiority which the right, and getting again into the he had been accustomed to pay. In gig, and dismissing the porter, we return for this William paid the sum proceeded across the park. Some of 10,000 merks, which is supposed fine herds of deer, as we approached to exceed, in value, a million of our them, cantered and gambolled down money. In order to raise so large a a hill on our left, across a valley, and sum, William was forced to lay an up a fine slope beyond it, giving life imposition even on the clergy. A and animation to the scene. From few years after, he made a new coin- the most elevated situations in the age for the purpose of reforming the park there are great variety of charmoney, which had been debased, ap. ming prospects, but, with the excep. parently with a view of making it tion of the glen, it has little other go farther on this occasion. beauty to recommed it. Ic is, how. (To be continued.)
ever, from its extent, and variety of
wood and pasture, well calculated Tour thro? the South of IRELAND, for its antlered inhabitants. We by an AMERICAN GENTLEMAN,
left the park at a gate which opens
into a small demesne belonging to (Continued from p. 31.) Mr Cronen, round whose house, NEXT morning, the 18th July, a large old-fashioned one, we drove,
after an early breakfast, we set and ascending a steep little hill to out in the gig, attended by our guide the gate in front which opens to the on foot, to visit Lord Kenmare's park, Cork road, the whiffle tree of the gig and the peninsula of Mucruss. We broke, which detained us until we entered the park at a little distance sent our guide to Mr Cronen's hostwithout the eastern end of the ler for a halter, with which having town, and the porter joining us, given it a temporary repair, we pushlest he should lose his share of tax ed on towards Mucruss. The road on curiosity, we drove over an e- was remarkably fine, and led across levated open lawn about half a mile, a good bridge of several arches over when coming to the glen, we alighted, the little river Lech, or Lich, afand leaving our gig under the care ter which, passing on the right, of the guide, we descended by a fine the handsome houses and grounds of gravel walk through a thick eopse to Mr Trent, Mr Herbert, and Mrs
handsome Chinese bridge, Delany, we came to the village of which crosses the Dinagh. Wewent Mucruss, which consists of about over it, and pursued our walk by the twenty cottages and cabins, a parsonpatb, which is continued with taste,' age house, and a small church. We through the wood along the right entered the demesne on the right, bank of the river, sometimes ap- while the guide went into the village proaching, sometimes receding from for the sexton of the abbey, towards it, sometimes impending over it at a which we drove, as we saw its ruined considerable height, and sometimes turrets over the tops of the surroundclose down to the edge, which shews ing trees. The sexton was a woman every variety of torrent, cascade, and who seemed well accustomed to her placid stream, in a length of about trade. She first' led us round the half a mile through this charming ruin, turning an angle of which, we
were suddenly struck with a sight the south end of the cross, aré re. which was not very agreeable. It markably fine, particularly the latter, was a beap, formed by several cart which is beautiful. The cloisters, loads of sculls and other human bones, which are a square of 30 feet each piled up in a corner together. Our way, contain, or each side, six handfemale conduc:or told us that the some small arches of free-stone, very consecrated ground not being large well cut, and in the centre a remarkenough to contain the bodies of all ably large yew tree spreads its mewho are brought here for burial, they lancholy dark shade. We ascended are obliged to make the new graves by a ruined stone stair to the top of through the old ones, and instead of the cloisters, where we observed some re-burying the old bones, they pile gooseberry bushes growing, which the them up as described. I asked her if sexton said were the remains of a litshe had ever known the living pro- tie garden planted there about thirty prietors of any of the skulls before years ago by a Capt. Roche of the us ? she answered that she had only Navy, who, she said, had been guilty of known iwo, one a woman buried a. some unknown crime, which lay so bout five years ago, whose bones were heavy on his conscience, that he with. taken up lately, and of whom every drew from the world, and took up his thing else had mouldered into dust, habitation in a small cell which she except a ribbon, which was round her shewed us, in one of the angles over the peck, which was as perfect as when cloisters, where he slept every night she was buried : the other, she said, for 7 years, after which she under. was a Serjeant Dogherty of one of stood that he had gone to the Rock the county militia regiments; and be- of Cashell, and she had heard no cause his skull was one of the finest more of him. In her youth she had and largest here, I put it up on the seen him frequently, and she said that top of this wall, and here it is ; 80 he used to hunt, fish, and shoot with saying, she took down the skull, the neighbouring gentry, but would and handled it with as little cere- never be prevailed on to sleep out of mony, and as expertly as a bricklayer his cell. The cloisters are between would a brick.
the west end of the choir of the This is the general cemetery of the church and the refectory of the absurrounding country, and we obser. bey, to both of which they join.ved several tombs and vaults of the Nothing of the latter remains except principal Roman Catholic fami. the outer walls, and immense old-falies, and several very antient ones, shioned fire places. I don't call them particularly the tomb of the great ancient, as the abbey was founded onM.Carthy More. It is one large ly in 1140 for mendicants of the or. stone, not so much the worse for der of St Francis. In the middle of the the ravages of time as one would refectory grows a very fine ash. imagine. On it are some lines in, I The site of this abbey is peculiarly suppose, the original Irish character, beautiful, but that is not wonderful, which the woman said no one who as in those ages the church approprihad seen them had been able to decy- ated to itself every rich or beauti. pher.
ful situation, The belfrey joins to The church was a cross, the out. the church and the cloisters, and its side walls of which, though much ruined walls, towering over the surruined, are still standing; and the rounding trees, are seen at a distance stone frames of the large Gothick win. on all sides. From the abbey we dows at the cast end of the choir, and drove round part of the demesne,
going near the house, which is a tol. Kenmare's house at the south end erably good one, built apparently of the town is very old, and much sixty or seventy years ago.
The out of repair. Some individuals have gardens, which we stopped to look at, attempted to establish cotton maare simply good, and well stocked nufactories here, but without sucwith fruit and vegetables, but not Knitting seems to be the particularly beautiful. From the most principal occupation of the poor, elevated part of the peninsula, about amongst whom I observed no spinhalf a mile S. W. from the house, we ning, nor any other sign of the ma. hada fine view of Mucrusslake, with Mr nufacture of linen. Herbert's cottage on the opposite As we wished to see a little more shore, and Turk rising finely behind of the S. W. of Ireland, instead it to the left. Rain, which had of taking the shortest road to Li. threatened all morning, now began to merick, we proceeded towards Trafall, and we were obliged to hasten lee, on a very fine road, through a back to Killarney, which the unfor good grazing country. We obsertunate fracture of our gig prevented ved the ruins of no less than three our reaching until we were well old castles, within sight of, and drenched. While the gig was re- near each other, about six miles pairing, we dined, and
immediately from Killarney ; and a little further after dinner set off for Tralee. Kií.
we began to ascend the lowest part Jarney is a considerable inland town, of the mountain of Sleamish, which the principal streets laid out in the runs ten or twelve miles further to form of a T, with some small lanes the westward, affording plenty of and back streets. The houses are curf fuel to the surrounding ioba. generally superior to those in most in. bitants. A gentle northerly wiod land towns of the south of Ireland, had driven back the south western are all roofed with slate, and the walls vapours which had so annoyed us rough cast and whitewashed. As with rain in the moruing. The sky uncommon air of neatness appears was perfectly serene and clear, ex. both in the houses and inhabitants, cept to the S. W., where the tops The latter being apparently fashiona- of M.Gilly Cuddy's rocks, and the ble in dress and customs, which per- rest of the neighbouring mass of haps is owing in part to its being the mountain, had arrested the dense resort of numbers of strangers whom clouds in their retreat. The view curiosity induces to visit the lakes; in that direction was grand. and in part, to its being the resi- our elevated situation, we looked dence of several persons of small for down on the extensive, level, and tune and no business. Both these well-inhabited country between the causes occasion its being, like all pla- opposite mountains and us, as upon ces of fashionable resort, excessively a map, where every hamlet, house, dear to travellers, tho' situated in a ruin, fence, tree, or rivulet, were delivery plentiful country.
while the rays of the gun, The titular ør Roman Catholic nearly setting, piercing the humid Bishop of Aghadoc resides here. veil which partially covered the The old ruined church of Aghadoc, huge mountains in the back ground, which gives title to the diocese, threw upon them every tint of cobeing only two miles distant, on the louring, and was productive of a subdirect road to Limerick through Cas. lime effect, impossible to be described. tle-island. Here there is a nunnery, Our attention was ariested behind, and a fine large new chapel ; but until, to our regret, the top of Sleathe Protestant church near Lord mish, which we began to slescend to March 1806.