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sre, to whom, as to the servant and as pictured by the Grecian historepresentative of Great Britain, with rians ? A man who overcame every much formality and ceremony, he disadvantage of slight resources and. had made a conveyance of the sove- powerful rivals, and extended the reignty of Owhyhee, in the hopes of narrow sovereignty of Macedon unbeing thus more strongly confirmed to a universal monarchy, of Greece in his authority, and supplied with and the known world. the means of resisting his enemies. 6 Some convicts from Botany

* His dominion seems now to be Bay havisig effected their escape completely established.

He is not the Sandwich Islands, rendered themonly a great warrior and politician, seļves at first serviceable to Tamahabut a very acute trader, and a match ma, and in recompence were put in for any European for driving a bar. possession of small portions of land gain, and is ever ready to take the fur cultivation. On these they had advantage of the necessities of those raised some sugar-canes, and at last who apply to him or his people for contrived to distil a sort of spirit, supplies

with which they entertained each “ His subjects have already made other by turns, keeping birth-days considerable progress in civilization, and other holidays, until Tamahabut are held in the most abject sub. ma, tinding that such festivities greatmission, as Tamahama is inflexible ly retarded his work, made some genin punishing all offences which seem tle representations on the subject. to counteract his supreme command. " This lenity, however, produced

“ It was only in 1792 that Capi. no good cfiect'; but the drinking, Vancouvre laid down the keel of Ta- idleness, and quarrels among the new mahama's first vessel, or rather craft; settlers, seeming rather to become but so assiduously has he applied more frequent than before, and their himself to effect his favourite ob. insolence being carried so far as ro ject, the establishment of a naval force, insult and maltreat many of the nathat at the period of our arrival he tives, Tamahama gave

the strane had upwards of twenty, vessels of gers to understand, that in their next different sizes, from 25 to 50 tons ; fighting party he would make one of some of them were even copper bot- the company, and see who could best tomed.

acquit himself on the occasion. “ He was, however, at this time This hint produced the desired effect; much in want of naval stores, and to the Botany Bay settlers were have his navy quickly placed on a brought into complete submission; respectable footing, would pay well and a due sense of their situation. for them. He has also a certain « These particulars were collecnumber of body guards to attend him, ted from Mr Young-a man of strict independently of the number who veracity,who, having been long in the are required to accompany him on country, had the best opportunity to his journeys and expeditions. know the truth. He has been long

« In viewing this man my imagi- in the confidence of Tamahama, nation suggested to me that I beheld, whose fortunes he has constantly fol. in its first progress, one of those ex- lowed from the beginning, and who traordinary natures which, under o. gives him daily proofs of the sincether circumstances of fortune and si- rity of his attachinent. He add. d, tuation, would have ripened into the that for several years Tamahama had future hero, and caused the world adopted it as a rule, to request from to resound with his feats of glory.- all Europeans who touched within What other was Philip of Macedon his dominions, a certificate or testi. March 1806.

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monial of his good conduct towards blue great coat, with yellow facings. them ; but that now, considering his “With other things which Tama. character for honesty and civility to hama has learned by intercourse with be established, he no longer deems Europeans, he has acquired a relish such certificates of any important for our spirits, so that some navigause.

tors have exchanged their rum with “ Tamahama's ardent desire to him to very good account. Someobtain a ship from Captain Vancou- times when his stock of liquor is exvre, was in all probability first exci. hausted, he employs the Europeans ted by the suggestions of Young and settled in his dominions to extract nis countryman Davies ; but such spirits from the sugar-canes, which was the effect of this undertaking, grow there of an excellent quality. that Tamahama became immediately " When Tamahama means to remore sparing of his visits on board lax from his serious occupations, he the Discovery ; his time being now invites his own wives, and those of chiefly employed in attending to the his chiefs, to share his regale of spi'carpenters at work on his new man rits, which in its operation seldom of war, which, when finished, was na- fails to create disputes, and even med the Britannia. This was the quarrels, among the ladies, to the beginning of Tamahama's navy ; and great entertainment of the master of from his own observations, with the the feast, and the other male guests." assistance of Messrs. Young, Davies, &c. he has laboured inflexibly in improving his marine force, until he Present State of the Colony in New has brought it to its present perfec

SOUTH WALES, tion, securing to him not only a decided superiority over the frail canoes

From the same. of his neighbours, but the means of transporting bis warriors to distant THE town of Sidney, the capita? parts.

of the colony, and the seat of the “ Some of his vessels are employ- government, is divided into two parts ed as transports, in carrying provi. by a river which empties itself in sions from one island to another, to to a cove named after the town. supply his warriors ; whilst the lar- Sidney cove has thus a double advan. gest are used as men of war, and are tage, that of being well and plentifuloccasionally mounted with a few ly provided with excellent water, and light guns.

at the same time possessing an har“ No one better understands his bour, which might contain with ease interest than this ambitious Chief all the royal navy of Great Britain, no one better knows how to improve These two-fold advantages rendered an original idea. The favours of it much more eligible than Botany Vancouvre would have been thrown Bay, the original destination, away on any other savage ; but Ta. The peculiar ciréumstances which mahama possesses a genius above belonged to the first settlement of his situation.

this colony, rendered it necessary to • The body guards, who may be have storehouses erected for the reconsidered in some respects as regu- ception of provisions, houses for the larly disciplined troops, go on duty convicts, and barracks for the milita. and relieve each other as in Europe, ry, upon the arrival of the first setcalling out “ All is well" at every tlers. These buildings, in different half hour, as on board ship. Their parts of the country most fit for cul. uniform at this time was simply a tivation, formed the outlines of the

pre

of

merce.

present towns, of which the chief ble impediment against more sub are Sidney, Paramatta, and Hawkes. stantial architecture. bury. The adjacent country being Sydney, however,is in every respect parcelled out among such of the set well situated to become, in progress ilers as preferred this means of live- of years, a port very

active comlihood; others, of a more mechanical

It already comprehends upand sedentary propensity, collected wards of one third of the whole po. together in the villages, erecting pulation of New South Wales. The shops, establishing trades, and be effect of the climate has been rather coming factors, in the mutual ex- over-rated. It is chiefly visible in change of commodities between the children born in the country of Eupeople of the country and the towns. ropean parents, but it is not visible

From such beginnings the villages so much in any defect as in a certain have increased to towns, and Sidney, characteristic trait of countenance. according to the most accurate calcu- These children differ nothing in size lation I am enabled to make, has and stature from the common stand. now a population of two thousand ard of Europe, but are invariably six hundred inhabitants.

of one complexion, fair, and with They may be classed under the white hair. Out of Eleven hundred following denominations:

children born in New South Wales, Military and civil establishment, 450 this national, as we may call it, dis

there is scarcely a single exception to Convicts employed by the crown

tinction. Their eyes are usually black in the public works, bridges, batteries, and dock-yards,

and very brilliant, their disposition

400 Taylors, Shoemakers, Bakers,

quick and volatile, and their loquaci

ty such as might render them a proButchers, Carpenters, and Ma.

verb. sons,

250 Fishermen, .

The settlers follow, as much as People employed in boats, get

possible, the customs and manner

of life of their native country, and are ting wood for shipping, bring

therefore liable to the same maladies ing grain from the Hawkes. bury, settlers in Bass's Straits,

with their countrymen of the same chiefly employed on the water, 350 haps by the intensity and continuance

order. Intemperance, encouraged per. Petty traders, or pedlars, who gain a livelihood by trading,

of labour, so necessary in a new set:

40 Women,

600

tlement, bas many victims; and some Children, .

have fallen a premature sacrifice to 450

dysenteries, and complaints in the The space occupied by the town liver, the diseases of all new settled is about a mile from one extremity to lands. the other. With the exception of Nearly one half of the whole pothe store houses, and other public pulation, both men and women, are buildings, eight out of ten of the Irish, many of them having been houses are only one storey in height, transported hither for their seditious and whether built at the formation practices. It is too much to be of the colony, or imediately after. dreaded, that the evil of their treason wards, are for the most part compo- is only removed to another sphere : sed of wattle and plaster ; and some thus far I will assert, that tbeir transfew, but few indeed, of brick and portation has not in any degree stone. The absolure want of lime, changed their principles. or any sufficient substitute, except The police of the colony is invested that made from shells, is an invinci. in the magistrates, who are appoint,

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but was only restrained within the each principal district. Under them, bounds of propriety from the fear in every district, is a head or petty of punishment ; for no sooner were constable ; and for the better preser. they restored to their rights and pri. vation of order, a certain number of vileges as freemen, than their vicious watchmen, where the circumstances depravity shewed itself in idleness, seemed to require it.

drunkenness, and all the crimes their The celebrated George Barrington certain effects. held the office of high Constable of I caunot enumerate above eight or Paramarta for many years, and in the ten instances in the whole where faithfuland vigorous discharge of his the smallest propensity to industry duty acquitted himself much to the appeared, and of those the celebratsatisfaction of the government. At ed Barrington, whilst in the free exthis time, having absolutely lost the ercise of his faculties, stood highly use of his intellectual faculties, he conspicuous. Another of the clashad retired on a small pension allowed ses of freemen who became settlers him for former services. He was e- he soldiers (marines) who first maciated, and apparently in the last embarked on the expedition, and as stage of human life; a melancholy in- a reward for their services, were disstance of abused talents, and the charged and allowed to settle; these force of remorse and conscious sensi- men, accustomed to restless lives, bility, on a mind intended for better could not easily accustom themselves things.

to domestic habits; they disliked Sirange as it may appear, the mul. hard work, and, released from the titude of law-suits and litigations in strictness of military discipline, they this colony exceeds all proportion abandoned themselves to drunkenness to its population. There were not and other vices, already too prevalent less than three hundred capiases, in the colony, and in a very few summons, and executions, to be years their farms were sold for the bronght forward at the next sitting consideration of a few gallons of spiof the civil court; and the fees of of. rits, and themselves wretched and mifice to the provost marshall were serable, glad to enlist again into the said to amount to nearly three hun service. dred pounds. Indeed the lawyers and There are another description of publicans are the most profitable settlers, who consist of people who, trades in the colony.

with their families, have been sent In a country like this, nothing is from England by the government, so absolutely necessary as a virtuous a very heavy expence, for the and industrious peasantry. At pre- express purpose of settling in it. sent these are composed of two des- From these people much was es. criptions of people, namely the con- pected, but in respect to them, the vicis, whose terms of transportation government and the colony has been being expired, or being released from most grossly deceived. the sentence of the law by emanci. From upwards of an hundred fapation have been per:nitted to set- milies who have been sent from Eng- . ile ; and men with their families who land, there are not above eight or have come free from England. ten, between whom and the convicts

The first description of these were the smallest degree of discrimination the first settlers, men of the most could be drawn. It may perhaps be dissolute characters, whose conduct deemed presumption in me to offer during the period of their servitude an opinion, but it is of the most had the appearance of reformation, importance to be guarded against

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the improper characters who offer factured from the country fax. An
themselves as candidates to settle in individual has established a kind of
New South Wales, and do by one pottery for the coarser ware at Para-
means or other get recommended. matta. A water mill, the only one
It is a matter of the greatest conse. in the colony, is nearly completed.
quence, both to government and the
colony.

Amongst the numbers hitherto SCOTTISH REVIEW.
sent out as free settlers, have been
characters of a very suspicious na. Anecdotes of the Life of Sir JAMES
ture, who have narrowly escaped

STEUART, Bart. being sent out contrary to their inclinations ; some of them low me- (From the new edition of his works.) chanics, who had failed in business with large families; and who, had THI

THESE anecdotes, which are an. they remained in the country, would nexed to a posthumous edition have become burdensome to their of the works of this celebrated wriparishes. Others, men of dissolute, ter, are rendered interesting not on. idle habits, whose friends were glad ly by the eminence of the subjeci, to get rid of them by recommend. but by the talents of the writer, who, ing them as settlers for New South we understand, is Mr Chalmers, well Wales.

known both for his biographical diAccording to the present pros ligence, and his profound acquainpect, it may be safely said, that, with tance with the science of political some degree of forecast, and encou- economy. A short abstract of it ragement of agriculture, and particu. cannot therefore be uninteresting to larly the growth and preservation of our readers. live stock, animal food will be in

Sir James Steuart was descended from great abundance, and this, and every two families, the Steuarts, and the Dalother species of provisions, will be rymples, who have furnished this island much cheaper than in the mother with warriors, statesmen, and jurists, country ; nor will this probably be He was the only son of Sir Jas. Steuart, at any great distance of time. A Baronet, the Solicitor General of Scotfew years may be reasonably expec

land, during the reigns of Queen Anne ted to produce this change. The and George I. and the representative in writer is also of opinion, that if the He was the grandson of Sir Jas. Steuart,

parliament for the city of Edinburgh. settlement continues in that tran. who, from November 1692, was twenty quillity, which may be reasonably years Lord Advocate of Scotland, and expected from the attention and li. was regarded as one of the great civiberality of government, the growth lians of his time; and he was the great of manufactures, from the present grandson of Sir James Stewart, who was state and circumstances of the colo. Lord Provost of Edinburgh, from Octo.

ber 1649 till the Restoration. Our au. ny, will be much more rapid than it thor's mother was Anne, the eldest bas hitherto been. Government have daughter of Sir Hew Dalrymple, of already established a manufactory of North Berwick, who was Lord Presi. coarse woollen cloth from the coun- dent of the Court of Session during try wool, and though their workmen twenty years. His grandmother, the are at present but few, and the wife of the great Lord Advocate, was quantity manufactured, of course, ve

Margaret Trail, of a respectable family. ty moderate, 'it promises a very ra

His great-grandmother was Anne Hope,

the niece of Sir Thomas Hope, who pid increase. Several pieces of linen was Lord Advocate of Scotland to Chas. and canvas have been likewise manu- I. And this great politich economist

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