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fants 240*.

"A crum 'tripe, ham, dish o'pcase," pendent of those supported by the

(The season fitten,) voluntary provisions of the dead and “ An egg, or, cauler frae the seas, the living, amounted, in the year

“ A fluck or whitten; “ A nice beef-steak or ye may get

1803, to 1,039,716, i. e. to more A gide buff'd herring, reisted skate,

than one eighth of the whole popula" An' ingans, an' (tho' past its date)

tion of that part of Great Britain. “ A cut o' veal;

In Edinburgh, Canongate, and St. “ Ha, ha, its no that unco late,

Cuthberts, the whole number of a. “ I'll do it weel.”

dults supported at the present time O G****y R********, dreigh loun,

by parish funds in the workhouses An' antiquarian P**** suen', Wi'mony ithers i' the town,

and out of them, is 641, and of inWhat wad come o'er ye, Gif Johnnie Dowie shou'd stap down)

• If the population in these places To th' grave before ve? amount to 72,000 or thereabouts, Ye sure wad break your hearts wi' grief, constituting about twenty-two parts An' in Strong Ale find nae relief, of the population of Scotland, jud. War ye to lose your Dowie--chief

ged to be 1,600,000, it must be imO' bottie keepers ;

possible to account for the difference Three years at least, now to be brief,

between the sum total of the Poor Ye'd gang wi' weepers. But gude forbid ! for your sakes a',

in the one country and in the other, That sic an usefu' man should fa'; (i. e. not so much as one to ten,) For, frien's o’mine, between us twa, without supposing that many here Right i' your lug,

lie hid in indigence and obscurity, You'd lose a houff baith warm an’ braw, trusting to casual alms, or supported An' unco snug.

by spontaneous bounty, or that not Then pray for's health this mony a year, Fresh three-'n-a 'ha’periny, bescobeer,

a few perish from want." That can (tho'dull) you brawly cheer,

Workhouses are necessary, for such Recant you weel up ;

as are wholly unable to labour, and An' gar you a' forget your


have no friends with whom they can Yous sorrow's seal up. reside ; but for all such as are not

“ Another Bottle, John." not yet, reduced to that extremity, “ Gentlemen, 'tis past twelve, and time the present institution promises to to go home.”

be much more eligible. It is better calculated for distinguishing between

real and pretended objects of charity; Particulars respecting the BENEFI- it affords relief at less expence, and


in a more agreeable manner to such, CENT SOCIETY of Edinburgh. as would look with horror at being

å THIS name has been given to the cooped up within the walls of a Society, of whicb, in our Maga. workhouse. It ought also to put a

, zine for January last, we laid the plan stop to the pernicious practice of

begbefore our readers. This plan, then only in embryo, has since been carri- * In the Canongate there are, in the ed into effect; and, by means of a Workhouse, 48 adults, 23 infants, 20 subsequent publication of the society, out-pensioners. we are enabled to give some farther In St Cuthberts, 143 adults, 81 inaccount of the manner in which it is fants. to be conducted, and the objects it

In Edinburgh, about 300 adults, and is intended to embrace.

86 infants, in the Work house. 130 a* The number of paupers relieved in their own abodes, so infants are at

dults, having families, have some supply by parish charity in England, inde


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begging on the streets, by taking try doomed to the uncontrouled and
away all ground or pretence for ask- accelerating increase of this burden,
ing or giving charity in that form. what gloomy prospects must we in-
There is another view also in which dulge!
it may be eminently conducive to • It may be thought unnecessary
the public interest, as well as that of to turn the attention of the inhabi.
the objects relieved. It seems to be tants of this end of the island, to
the best means of checking that rui- evils which they have not hitherio
nous increase of poor-rates which felt, and which, from difference of
has gone to such a height in Eng. laws, customs, and manners, it is not
land, and even in this country has likely that they shall feel. It is pro-
made considerable progress.

per, however, that all should know, “ From papers now lying on the ihat, in a good many more than ico table of the House of Commons, it is parishes of Scotland, i. e. in between proved, that the rates raised by the an eighth and ninth part of it, the poor laws were, in 1803, not less than provision for the Poor is raised by L.5,348,000. Ofthis sum L.190,000 fixed assessments; that in some of was spent on suits occasioned by these, it is not a late practice, that the

poor laws, and the expences of the number of such parishes is every parish overseers, L.1,034,000 were year increasing, and that assessments laid outon church rates, highways, the have been resorted to in other parishmilitia, &c.; but the nett sum spent es, although not statedly, yet upon exclusively on the poor, amounts to very many occasions, when, through L.4,267,000. The progression of scarcity and dearness of provisions, or this tax is one of its most alarming from other causes, the funds for

supcircumstances. With every increase porting the poor have proved insufof the rates, the poor have increased ficient. in numbers. The average sup of - In the county of Berwick, the poor rates in 1783, 1784, 1785, was Poor increased one fourth in number, far less than one half of these at pre- with a very slender inerease of popusent; and in 1776 it was greatly lation upon the whole, during che less than one third of it. Little

Little ten years preceding 1794, and the more than a century ago there were espence of maintaining them increased not much above L.500,000 annual- about one half of the average suun ly, less, i. c. than a tenth of their required in the preceding ten years, present exorbitant increase. The i.e. preceding 1784." oppression of particular districts The City has been divided into cannot be known by looking at the 40 districts, according to the extent general sum. There are counties, and the number of poor likely to be as Sussex, where nearly every fourth found in each. Two or three gen

fth person is supported by the tlemen have undertaken the weekly parish ; and there are towns in Eug- visitation of every district, and give land where manufactures once flour in their report to the weekly meeting Fishing have decayed, in which they of ordinary directors, with whom it amount to 206. or 25s. in the pound rests to fix the sum which shall be Sterling. Taking the rental of pro- allotted to each district, and distribu. perty on which the poor's rates are ted as the visitors may judge most eraised at L.38,000,000, there is not ligible. A quarterly General meet. less paid all over England on this ac- ing is held on the first Monday of count than 28. od. in the pound Ster- February, May, August, and No. ling. Were we to look forward to vember, at II o'clock, in Merchant's future times, and to judge the coun- hall.

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The The following is a list of the Di- CELESTIAL PHENOMENA for May rectors and office-bearers of the so

1856. ciety. Ordinary Directors.

Thursday, May 1st. The Right Hon. The Lord Provost, THE longitude of the planet Juno President.

18 at present', and Willian. Coulter, Esq. Vice President. her latitude, 20..19' North. Being Mr Robert Anderson, Merchant,

near the Sun, she will not beseen till

after conjunction. West Bow. Mr. W. Braidwood jun. Merchant

Friday, May 2d. Hunter Square.

About a quarter before two o'clock Mr G. Brunion, Merch. Royal Ex- in the morning all the satellites of change.

Jupiter are situated on the right Mr John Brown, Coach-maker, Ab. hand of the planet forming a rhom. bcy Hill.

boid. The first and third form the Mr Alex. Cruickshank, Hosier, Ni. side of the figure nearest Jupiter, and colson Street.

the first and second the uppermost side Mr William Finlay, Baker, Leiths of the rhomboid. Street.

Saturday, May 3d. Mr W. Fraser, Taylor, Cross.

At 55 minutes and 18 seconds af. Mr J. F. Gordon, W. S. St An. ter 1 o'clock in the morning the sedrew Square.

cond satellite of Jupiter will immerge Mr James M.Naughton, Merch. Sil. into his shadow. ver Mills.

Sunday, May 4th. Mr George Miller, Manufacturer, The second and fourth satellites of Mr James Ogilvy, Merchant, Leith Jupiter will be in conjunction on the Walk.

eastern side of his disc. The third MJ.Waugh, Manufacturer, Sciennes. is situated on the same side at a Extraordinary Directors.

greater distance, and the first on the

other side of the planet. His Excellency, The Earl of Moira.

Tuesday, May 6th. Sir William Forbes, Bart.

The right ascension of CERES is Adam Rolland, Esq. Advocate. George Baird, D. D. Principal of tion 290..19' North. The first sa

at present 1150..6', and her declina. the Univerity of Edinburgh.

tellite of Jupiter will immerge into The Rev. John Campbell, one of the his shadow at 12 minutes and 7 seMinisters of Edinburgh.

conds after one o'clock in the more The Rev. Archibald Alison.

ning. The Rev. John Jamieson, D. D.

Wednesday, May 7th. The Rev. James Hall.

OCCULTATION OF JUPITER. The Rev. James Struthers.

Just as the Moon and Jupiter are John Tait, Esq. Judge of Police.

descending below the western horiJames Ferguson, Esq. Advocate. Ninian Lewis, Esq.

zon, the latter will immerge behind

the enlightened limb of the former. John Campbell, Esq. W. S.

This immersion will happen at 15 Professor Dugald Stewart.

minutes after 7 o'clock in the morRobert Scott Moncrieff, Esq. of ning, at which time Jupiter will be Halls.

8 minutes north of the Moon's cenCharles Stuart, M. D. Secretary.

This phenomenon will scarceMr F. Alexander, Leith Terrace, ly be visible in Scotland. To all Treasurer,

places whose latitude is less than 52° Mr Gilbert M.Donald, Clerk. North, it may be seen, but with




great difficulty to those in the will not be seen till after her conjunc.
South of England, on account of the tion.
proximity of the planets to the hori. The planet VENUS will arrive at

her greatest elongation from the Sun. Monday, May 12th.

She is at present the morning star, The planet MERCURY will be sta- and will be seen in the form of a half tionary in longitude 1..3.. 26'. moon in the Eastern part of the hoTuesday, May 13th.

rizon before sun rise. The first satellite of Jupiter will

Sunday, May 25th. immerge into his shadow at 15 mi. The long. of SATURN is at prenutes and 49 seconds after 3 o'clock sent 6'..229.31', and his latitude 20.. in the morning

43' North : his declination is 6o.. The planet Mars is at present si- 15' South, and he comes to the metuated in longitude 19..10..54', and ridian at 9"..15' in the evening. latitude 34 minutes south. His de

Tuesday, May 27th. clination is 110..37' North, and he The planet MERCURY will arrive will come to the meridian at 104..34. at his greatest elongation, and may Friday, May 16th.

be seen in the morning before sun

About a quarter before 2 o'clock
in the morning all the satellites of Thursday, May 29tb.
Jupiter will be situated on the west-

The first satellite of Jupiter will imern side of his disc, in the same or.


into his shadow at 20 minutes

and der as they lie in the system; the first 4

seconds afrer I o'clock in the being nearest, and the fourth being

farthest from the planet.

Friday, May 30th.
Monday, May 19th.

All the satellites of Jupiter will be
The longitude of Jupiter is at

situated on the right hand of his disc, present 9.70.23', and his latitude about 2 o'clock in the morning, ia

, 13 minutes north : his declination is the same order as they lie in the sys23°..2' south, and the time of his tem. southing, 2.41' in the morning.

Saturday, May 31st.

At 46 minutes and 3 seconds after Wednesday, May 21st.

1 o'clock in the morning the third The Sun will enter the sigo Ge- satellite of Jupiter will immerge into mini, at 43 minutes after 7 o'clock in his shadow.

D. B. the evening, and his longitude will be exactly 2 signs.

The longitude of the GEORGIUM Memoirs of the Progress of MANUȘidus is at present 69..220.11', and

FACTURES, CHEMISTRY, SCIENCE, its latitude 37 minutes north : Its

and the FINE ARTS. declination is 80..12' South, and the time of its southing 10"..2' in the New galvanic apparatus bas evening


been invented by M. STRUVE. Friday, May 23d.

It is called the Galvanic Chain, and The third satellite of Jupiter will is composed of several double cones; emerge from behind his shadow at 45

one of copper, and the other of zinc, minutes and 58 seconds after 12

and so on alternately, soldered togeo'clock in the evening.

ther at their bases. These double Thursday, May 2416.

are fixed to one another by The planet Ceres will be situated hooks fastened in their vertices. Li. in right ascension 122°..27', and nen or cotton is placed between the north declination 290..56'. Ceres double cones, in such a manner, that þeing now very near the Sun, she the extremities are in contact with

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each of the extremities of zinc and sel, in the following manner, and copper. When the chain is thus con- pour it into the lintseed oil. structed, and saturated with muriate der to melt the amber, take about 2 of soda, it is fit for use. According ounces of the lint seed oil, and add it to M. Struve, it is less oxidable to the amber, and facilitate its melt. than the common apparatus ; its e. ing by a strong fire ; when melted, nergy is thrice as great ; for a chain mix it with the rest of the lint seed of 15 or 20 of these cones is as oil, and boil the whole two minutes : powerful as a pile of go or 60 discs. then remove it and strain it through

M. MARECHAUX has improved the a fine linen cloth; and when it is pile of Voita. He formed one of cold, put it into a bottle, and stop it vine discs, composed of zinc and well, in order to prevent it from drycopper, separated by rounds of dry ing up. Before the varnish is applied, blotting paper. Silken cords supply the article must be dried in a stove, the place of the glass tubes in the and completely polished. When this ordinary apparatus, and keep it sus. is done, take lamp black, and a little pended to a hook. M. Marechaux essenee of turpentine ; mix them with thought he observed, by means of the varnish, and, with a pencil, lay a this apparatus, that the electrical ten- coating upon the piece to be varnishsion of the pile encreases and decrea. ed; when that coat is dry, lay on o. ses in proportion to the electrical thers, to the number of four. When state of the air, and that its action is these are dry also, place the article in stronger the more the air is charged a stove, and, when it is completely with moisture.

dried, polish it with powdered pumice A simple and accurate method of stone and Tripoli. . When the var, constructing gasometers, for purpo. nish is wanted of a red colour, a little ses, where uniform pressure is essen- minium, or cinnabar is to be added. tial, by the application of the hy. Messrs. NAUCHE, GRAPERON, and drostatic regulator, has been invent. BAGET, have found, that the galva. ed by JOSEPH STEEVENS, Esq. See nic action is increased when the pile Phil. Mag. No. 94. p. 163.

is exposed to a high temperature, The following excellent varnish and when it is plunged into flame, or for wood has been published by M. into oxygen gas, or carbonic acid PARMENTIER in the Annales de Chy- gas. They found also, that the efmie, tom. 56. Take of lineseed oil fects of the pile are not transmissible

pound, ainber i pound, pulverised in vacuo, and that they are scarcely fitharge 5 ounces, pulverised mini- perceptible, even by means of a conum (red icad) 5 ounces, pulverised denser. Several of these facts were white lead s ounces.

Boil the list. ascertained at an earlier period by seed oil in an unglazed vessel; put Mr W. H. Pepys, who, however, the minium, litharge, and white lead instead of finding that the effects into a bag of linen, and suspend it were not transmissible in a vacuum, with its contents in the vessel, with. found that the metals may be deflaout reaching the bottom.

Continue grated in vacuo. the ebullition till the oil begin to According to the experiments of become brown; then take out the M. BRUGNATELLI, the diamond, bag, with its ingredients, and conti- which has been regarded as pure nue to boil the oil, adding a clove of carbon, is a non-conductor of Galclean garlic ; and when this is dried vanism , altho' it has been found, by up, put in another, and so on, to the M. Curres, of Brussels, that the fiumber of 6 or 7. Then melt the oxide of carbon is one of the best amber, in an unglazed earthen ves. conductors of Galvanism.

D. B. Memoirs


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