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imitation of it, was introduced a- they are still, if I may say so, their mong us; and as novelty recommend- native hills and plains the scenery ed it to fashion, it soon obtained the in which they sprung; and in which sanction of general usage, which it the mind therefore contemplates them has now possessed so long, that connected and associated with numit will probably soon lose it by berless interesting circumstances, the influence of the

both local and historical,- both phyless power which first introduced sical and moral, upon which it de

At least it has no other prin- lights to dwell. In our parks and ciple to rest upon ;, and this is, in gardens, on the contrary, they stand its nature, a changeable one. It wholly unconnected with all that surmay serve indeed to distinguish the rounds them-mere unmeaning exgreat man's place from the adjoining crescences ; or, what is worse, mani. country; and a large space of ground, fesly meant for ornament, and thereenclosed by a belt, and dotted with fore having no accessory character, clumps, may shew his wealth and but that of ostentatious vanity; so magnificence, and the sacrifices which that instead of exciting any interhe makes to his taste: but these sa- est, they vitiate and destroy that, crifices afford no gratification but which the naturalized objects of the to vanity ; since, by the very act country connected with them would of sacrificing it, that is of throwing otherwise excite. Even if the landit open, all the charms of intricacy scape scenery should be rendered reand variety are demolished, and no o. ally beautiful by such ornaments, its ther substituted in their place. beauty will be that of a vain and af.

Since the introduction of another fected coquette ; which, though it style of ornamental gardening, called may allure the sense, offends the unat first oriental, and afterwards land- derstanding ; and, on the whole, exscape gardening, (probably from its cites more disgust than pleasure. In efficacy in destroying all picturesque all matters of this kind, the imaginacomposition) Grecian temples have tion must be conciliated before the been employed as decorations by al. eye can be delighted. most all persons, who could afford to indulge their taste in objects so cost

Military Character of the Native ly: but though executed, in many

Armies in INDOSTAN. instances, on a scale, and in a

From ORME's Historical Fragments manner suitable to the design, disappointment has, I believe, been in

of the MOGUL Empire. variably the result. Nevertheless

, THE rudeness of the military art in

, Indostan can scarcely be imagibeing exactly copied from those mo- ned, but by those who have seen it. dels, which have stood the criticism The infantry consists in a multitude of many successive ages, and been assembled without regard to rank constantly beheld with delight and and file : some with swords and tara admiration. In the rich lawns and gets, who can never stand the shock shrubberies of England, however, of a body of horse : some bearing they lose all that power to please matchlocks, which, in the best of orwhich they so eminently possessed der, can produce but a very unceron the barren hills of Agrigentum tain fire : some armed with laoces and Segesta, or the naked plains of too long or too weak to be of any Paestum and Athens. But barren service, even if ranged with the utand baked as these hills and plains are, most regularity of discipline.


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in the army:

Little reliance is therefore placed nections do but indifferently supply in this force. To keep night watch the defects of a real love to their es, and to plunder defenceless people, country, or a real attachment to their is their greatest service, except it con- prince; principles which are very raresists in their being a perquisite to ly found to influence the people of their commanders, who receive a Indoitan. fixed price for every man, and hire The victory is commonly decided every man

at a different and less by the fall of the principal men price.

These begin the onAs the Moors are the lords of the set, and are followed by the hardiest country, they are of consequence the of their partizans ; who no sooner warriors of it. These derive from see their chief destroyed than they their originals, the Tartars, the affec- take to flight. Numbers of such tion which that people are famous skirmishes compose what is called a for bearing towards their horses; battle in Indostan.

The greatest and the love of ease in an inclement slaughter falls around the commandclimate, has fixed this preference. er in chief, as the victory is confirm. The strain of all the war rests upon ed in the instant of his death. the number or goodness of the horse Armies more encumbered with the which are found in an army.

conveniences of life, than with the Every man brings his own horse, preparations for war, form loose, and offers himself to be inlisted.--. straggling, and disorderly camps, and The horse, and not the man, is care- make irregular dilatory marches.fully examined ; and, according to the mutual inactivity becomes the the size and value of the beast, the general security; for as it is a custom soldier receives his pay. A good of the east to make the great meal horse will bring thirty or forty ru- at night, and of consequence to fall pees a-month. Sometimes an officer into deep sleep immediately after it, contracts for a whole troop which a handful of resolute men might eahe has enlisted.

sily beat up a camp of many thouA horse in Indostan is of four sands. times greater value than in Europe. The courage of the people de If the horse is killed, the man is pends on the climate.

In the northruined. Strange that such a regula. ern parts of the kingdom, firmer fition should be established, as makes bres produce a proportionable degree it the interest of the soldiers to fight of resolution: in the southern, all as little as possible.

is sensibility ; and fear must be preThe privileges of free booty and dominant in such as are infinitely plunder, together with sudden and susceptible of the minutest impressanguinary excursions, in some mea. sions. sure, check this consequence. The Persons of high rank and distince officer who commands a troop which tion are as seldom wanting in an inhe has raised himself, is responsible trepidity, as little sensible to the apfor the behaviour of his men: he prehensions of danger, as the pusiltherefore brings them of his own fa- lanimity of the lower and meaner peomily, or at least such as he can de- ple is incapable of resisting such impend on. These interests and con- pulses.

April 1806.

Forces 266




Force possessed by SCINDEAN and subordination, undisciplined, nor HOLKAR, in 1802.

can they make use of their arms in

action. From the Asiatic Annual Register. The Rohillas in Holkar's service

are a faithless rabble, who will stand TOTAL force of Scindealı,

true only as long as they find it in cavalry

31,150 their interest; they are always Total force in infantry · 38,050 ready to leave, or ruin him, if not

regularly paid, or when expected Grand total infantry to move against an enemy of supeand cavalry in 1802 69,200 rior force; or, if by any means

they should have accumulated moGrand total artillery

ney. ditto pieces

Deiailed Statement of the collected

Force of KASHI Rao HOLKAR, Remarks by M. THOMAS.

and JESSIVUNT RAO HOLKAR. It is proper to observe, that Mr Cavalry

30,000 Perron and Ambajee are now le

Pirdarees, or Looties, vying troops, which may cause

mounted on small horses 10,CCO material error in this statement a few months hence. Ambajee and

Total Cavalry

40,000 Perron are possessed of artillery exclusive of the abovementioned ;

Infantry. and Scindeah, by the artillery taken

Eight battalions, at 400 from Holkar, is able to add consi

men each

3,200 derably to his own part.

Artillery men, &c.

Rohillas In the present state of Scindean's

10,000 artillery ; they are the worst in India; are not commanded by offi

Total infantry . . 13,800 cers of experience, nor well armed, nor cordially attached to the service Artillery pieces

60 of their master; they are in arrears of pay, and would be defeated by a

Grand total small force of regular disciplined troops, with a few pieces of well-ser. ved artillery.

Mr Perron's infantry are, in ap. Address by Sir JAMES MACKINTOSH, pearance, the best troops belonging

to the Grond Jury of BOMBAY, 2 157 to Scindeah; they are under better su

July 1804. bordination to their officers, and are more regularly paid, armed, clothed,

From the same. and disciplined. Holkar’s cavalry are superior to O

ON my arrival here, I conceived those of Scindeah, being better offi- it to be my first duty to collect cered, and more correspondent with some information about the characthe real Mahratta custom of preda. ter and morality of the people, the

degree and kind of vice prevalent in The infantry (observes M. Tho. the little community entrusted to inas) are very bad. They are ill

And just as a physician paid, badly officered, and without would first examine the books of



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tory warfare.

my care.

an We

* hospital, so I first looked into ference from our criminal records.-the records of this court, which, Here they are not so exact a critethough narrow and liable to some rion of the prevailing moral disa exceptions that I shall afterwards

2.750s, as they would be in most couno mention, have at least the advan- tries. tage of being, as far as they go, The difference of manners and la:authentic.

guage, and perhaps the hostile.prejuSince the institution of this dices of many of the natives, render court in the year 1798, I observe difficult the detection of crimes, and thac 64 persons have been tried for increase the chances of total convarious felonies; of whom 33 have cealineni, in a proportion which been convicted, 31 acquitted, and cannot exactly calculate, but

have suffered capital punishment. which we know to be very great. If I were to estimate the morality Much of what passes among the of this community from our records lowest natives must be involved in alone, I should not form a very una a darkness inipenetrable to the eyes favourable opinion of it. For, in of the most vigilant police ; after that part of the British dominions the existence of a crime is ascer. in Europe where capital punishment tained, the same obstacles stand in is much the least frequent, I mean the way of identifying the criminal, in Scotland, we know, from the au- and even after he is perfectly known, thority of Mr Hume, professor of law our local situation, which is that of at Edinburgh, chat on an average of a large town in a small territory, is thirty years, six had annually suffer that which an experienced offender ed death out of a population which would select for the opportunity of is probably not far from eighteen concealment and the facility of esbrundred thousand. If this state of cape; and such is the unfortunate things be compared with the situa. prevalence of the crime of perjury, tion of Bombay, where there have that the hope of impunity is not exbeen three capital punishments every tinguished by the apprehension of the two years, out of a population of delinquent. If to this you add the 150,000, the result is, no doubt, con- supine acquiescence of many Engsiderably against this island. But lish inhabitants in the peculations the comparison between a large sea. of their domestic servants, which, port town, as this island may be cal. from an opinion of the rooted depraled, and an extensive country, is not vity of the natives, we seem to look fair. A more equitable comparison upon as if their vices were immutable furnishes a more favourable result. and inflexible, like the laws of naThe same author (Mr Hume) tells ture ; and if you add also those sumus, that the city of Edinburgh, mary chastisements, which are, in my which, with its ports and suburbs, opinion, almost always useless, as cannot contain a population much a. exain ples, you will not wonder that bove 100,000, has, on an average I do not consider the records of the of twelve years, furnished three criminal court as measure of the executions every two years. I be- guilt of the community. Indeed lieve I may venture to say, without the universal testimony of Euro. any fear of contradiction, that it is peans, however much I may susfortunate and honourable for a pect occasional and partial exagpeople to find its morality nearly geration, is an authority too stron approaching to that of the inhabi- for me to struggle with, and I sants of Edinburgh. But I fear observe that the accommplished and we cannot make so favourable an iq. justly celebrated person (Sir W.




Jones) who carried with him to when we are speaking of the moral this country a prejudice in favour of diseases of great nations the reason, the natives, which he naturaļly im- able questions always are-How have bibed in the course of his studies, they been produced ? and how are and which in him, though not per- to be cured? feptly rational, was neither

With these feelings I have not suf. miable nor ungraceful, I observe fered the short time which has elapthat even he, after long judicial ex- sed since I came to this country, to perience, reluctantly confesses their pass without some meditation on the general depravity. The prevalence causes and cure of the moral malaof perjury, which he strongly states, dies of which I have spoken. My ani which I have myself already ob. speculations are at present so crude, served, is perhaps a more certain and my information so imperfect, that sign of the general dissolution of moral it would be absurd to communicate principle than other more daring and my thoughts to any one ; when they ferocious crimes much more horrible are more matured, I may have the to the imagination, and of which the honour of laying some of them beimmediate consequences are more des- fore the government, and for such as tructive to society.

will be best carried into effect by For perjury indicates the absence the voluntary exertions of private in, of all the common restraints which dividuals, I shall have the honour of withhold men from crimes. Per- imparting them to you, jury supposes the absence of all fear I have this morning, gentlemen, of human justice, and bids defiance to examined the prison, and I am hapall human laws; it supposes also py to say, that, considering it either either a contempt for public opi- as a place of detention, for the accu. nion, or (what is worse) a state of sed, or for the debtor, or as a place society in which public opinion has of punishment for those who are conceased to brand, with disgrace, ac- victed of crimes, it is so constructed tions that ought to be infamous.- as to prevent the loss of liberty from It is an attack upon religion and being aggravated by any unnecessary law, in the very point of their union severities. The sheriff has, however, for the protection of human society. some reason to complain of its in. It is that crime which tends to se- security ; and I cannot but lament cure the impunity of all other crimes, that it is not better adapted for a and it is the only crime which weak- house of correction, especially as I ens the foundation of every right, have the strongest repugnance to caby rendering the administration of pital punishments, and as I have no justice, on which they all depend, high opinion of the efficacy of trans. difficult, and, in many cases, im. portation, either for reformation or possible.

example. But, gentlemen, though it be rea- The deficiencies of a prison, as sonable to examine the character of an instrument of public policy, are those over whom we have autho. matters to be discussed with coolrity, and to calculate the mischie. If I had found any deficienvous consequences of crimes; and ces on the score of humanity tothough it be useful to spread an wards the prisoners, I should have abhorrence of these crimes, by just spoken to you in a very different representations of their nature and

I am persuaded that your tendency, it is very useless, and very feelings would have entirely ac. unreasonable, to indulge ourselves in corded with mine ; convinced that childish anger and childish invecctive; both as jurors and as private gen




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