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CELESTIAL PHENOMENA for June tude 36' North. His declination is 1806.
7'..54" Sonth, and he comes to the
meridian about 8 o'clock in the eve, Sunday, June 1st.
ning. He is placed about 2 degrees THE Moon will eclipse o Ophiuchi, to the South-east of Saturn, and, in a star of the 4:3 magnitude, si
a telescope with a large field, may be
at the same tuated in longitude 89..180..40'..51",
time with that and latitude 1..48..35" South. The planet. star will appear to come in contact
Friday, June 13th. with the Eastern and enlightened
The first satellite of JUPITER will limb of the Moon, or the occulta- immerge into his shadow at 39 mi. tion will commence at 30
nutes and 6 seconds after in o'clock after it o'clock in the evening, at
in the evening.
Monday, June 16th.
VISIBLE ECLIPSE OF THE SUN.
The Moon will make her first im-
the evening. About the middle eclipse will begin, at 28 minutes after of this occultation the Moon's hori. 4 o'clock in the afternoon, the time zontal parallax will be 55'..25", her of greatest obscuration will be at 10 horizontal semidiameter 15'..6", and
minutes after 5 o'clock. The visible she will come to the meridian about conjunction will take place at 5€...19', 31 minutes after 12 o'clock in the and the eclipse will end at 48 mievening, a few minutes after the oc
nutes after 5 o'clock. The digits ecultation ends.
clipsed on the Sun's south limb will
be 39..28', and the point of the Sun's Tuesday, June 3d.
disc, with which the Moon seems The Moon will be in conjunction first to come in contact, will be 10 with the planet JUPITER about 26 degrees from his lowest point on the minutes after 10 o'clock in the morn
Saturday, June 21st.
At 33 minutes and 33 seconds afimmerge into his shadow at 27 mi- ter one o'clock in the morning, the nutes and 42 seconds after I o'clock first satellite of JUPITER will imin the morning.
merge into his shadow. Saturday, June 7th.
On the same day, at 42 minutes
and 38 seconds after 10 o'clock in The planet SATURN is at present the evening, the fourth satellite of situated in longitude 69..22o..o'..15", JUPITER will emerge from behind and in latitude 20..40' North. His his shadow. declination is 60..7', and he souths about gh..20' in the evening. His
Sunday, June 22d. ring may be distinctly seen with a The SUN will enter the sign Ganmagnifying power of 40, and is gra- cer, at 17 minutes after 4 o'clock in dually opening
the morning Wednesday, June 11th.
Wednesday, June 25th. The GEORGIUM SIDUS is situated The planet SATURN is now station. in longitude 6..210..41', and latie ary in longitude 69..21o..45':
On the same day, the planet JUPI. should be in filings, or in brass, or re. TER will be in opposition to the Sun duced to small pieces, by pouring it, at 17 minutes past 5 o'clock in the when melted, into cold water. evening.
Mr JOHN DALTON has deduced Saturday, June 28th. from Dr HOPE's experiments on the The GEORGIUM SIDUS will be sta- the density of water is a maximum at
contraction of water by heat, hat tionary in longitude 6..210.33'. The pianet MERCURY will arrive
36° of Fahrenheit. at his superior conjunction with the the commissioners of longitude, the
Mr EARNSHAW has received from Son about a quarter before 10 o'clock reward of 3000l. for his new timein the evening.
keepers, by which the longitude can
be ascertained within the limits preSunday, June 29th.
scribed by the act. An account of The second satellite of JUPITER the experiment of his time-pieces will emerge from behind bis shadow may be seen in Nicholson's Journal, at i minute and 57 seconds after
54. p. 419. o'clock in the morning,
Although the Galvanic Society at The first satellite will emerge from Paris failed in the production of the behind the shadow of JUPITER, at 9 Muriatic Acid by the Galvanic de. minutes and 27 seconds after 12 composition of water ; yet it appears, o'clock in the evening. Jupiter hav- from subsequent trials, that the exing passed his opposition, the Emer. periments of Dr PACCHIANI of Pisa sions of his satellites will now be visi. have been perfectly correct, ble.
D. B. · It appears from some late experi
ments of Fourcroy, that ox bones
contain solid Gelatine 51.0 ;-Phos. Memoirs of the Progress of Manu- phate of lime 37.7 ;--Carbonate of FACTURES, CHEMISTRY, SCIENCE,
lime 10.0;--and Phosphate of mag. And the FINE ARTS.
A work is at present preparing by MR SMITHSON TENNANT bas disco. Drs Faust and Thenold, in which,
vered native minium in a vein of they attempt to prove, that, with the Galena in Devonshire. A small quan. exception of the lancet used in inotity of this native minium was found culation, every surgical instrument in the centre of a piece of cubic Ga. ought to be dipped in oil before prolena, accompanied with chrystals of ceeding to the operation, and should
also be heated to the temperature of spar.
Mr COLLARD of Birmingham has the blood. By these precautions they found, in opposition to the common imagine that the pain of the operatables of affinities, that copper may tion will always be diminished. be precipitated from its solution in A subscription has been opened at the sulphuric acid by tin. In order Ratisbon, for a monument to the me. that this experiment may be success. mory of the celebrated KEPLER. It ful, the solution must be nearly at
is to coosist of a Doric temple, 32 the boiling part, or actually boiling, feet high, and is to be placed in the when the tin is put into it.' The tin Şlembergian gardens.
Journal of the Eruption of Mount VE- them were formed saline-sulphuric in
SUVIUS, from the i1th August, to crustations, abounding in a variety of
very brilliant crystals.
with those of M. Breislak, made
the 2d of July 1794, the author
shews that the bottom of the crater TEN years had elapsed since Ve had risen 100 palms since that peri
suvius had interrupted the tran- od, and that its borders had gained quillity of the inhabitants of the 2900 in circumference ; changes neighbouring fields ; but this repose, which the author ascribes to the subsays the Duke, was only appareni, stances, which, in the feeble and and the volcano was preparing in its short eruption of 1799, fell back inbosom new aliments to its fury. , to the interior of the crater, and to In fact, on the uth of August, that the fall of its banks, which happened terrible eruption broke forth, which in
many places; thus the bottom continues to extend its ravages over rose, the borders sunk, and the perithese unhappy countries. Changes meter of the cone became more spain the form of this mountain, and of cious. Such was the state of Vesiiviits crater, will be the necessary con- us in November 1803. sequences of this eruption. To sa- The night of the 22d of May last tisfy the curiosity of naturalists, they experienced, at the hermitage of the author begins by describing the Salvatore, and in the neighbouring state of Vesuvius before this event. places, three shocks of an earthquake, Its medium depth, on the west side, accompanied with a hollow sound ; was then about 500 palms t, and its the last was the strongest, and the borders might be 11,500 palms hermit having at this moment turn. in circumference. Its internal form ed his eyes on the mountain, saw was that of an oval almost circular; issuing from it a thick smoke, which externally it was a cone, whose me- lasted many hours. The same day, dium height, from the base to the and about the same hour, this phesummit, taken on the west side, rose nomenon was felt in the provinces of to about 40copalms. Its greatest' Abruzzo. inclination was to the south and The month of July following, the south west ; its greatest elevation author was informed that the waters to the east and north-east, The had in part failed in the wells and bottom of the crater resembled a vast cisterns of Vesuvius ; that the level and deep plain, in the middle of of the sea was even visibly lowered which rose three hillocks, of the size near the coast situated between Torre of sc palms, which, in the month of del Greco and l'Annunziata. He went February 1799, vomited dames and thither immediately, found these facts. burning stones, visible at Naples du- correct, saw wells absolutely dried. ring two days; a proof, by the bye, up, particularly at Resina, tasted the that the volcano has not, as many pre
water of such as still retained it, and tend, remained in total inaction since found in it a very sensible smell of 1794. We saw, still exhaling, from sulphur. Having poured, upon a the mouths of these hillocks, fumes of small quantity of this water, 3 light sulphur and of ammoniac gas; about doze of tincture of turnsole, he saw its
colour change into red; a clear proof * Annales du Museum National.
that sulphur was combined in it, ra. + The Neapolitan palm is 8 inches ther in the state of acid vapour,
than in its pure state, Tu that May 1806.
time he foresaw an approaching erup
from the substances actually thrown tion of Vesuvius, and believed he up, as froin the ebullitions and ferdiscovered a symptom of ii in that mentations which must take place in sudden diminution of the waters, the heart of the volcano. A gulf of which, drawn into the bosom of the about 100 palms diameter had openvolcano, may be decomposed by ed on the south-west side ; so bright means of the bituminous, sulphuric, a fire issued from it that my eyes and pyritose substances which exist could not endure it for any length of there, and may thus give occasion time. This fire rose like a piilar, to all the volcanic phenomena, in the middle of which I distinctly
At last, on the night of the uth perceived burning stones, darted up August, they heard, at the hermitage with great. impetuosity, and which of Salvatore, and in the neighbours almost all fell back into the crater. hood, subterraneous noises, attend. Two only fell near me, and being ed with a slight earthquake.
cooled at the end of two minutes, I In the morning of the 12th, they made them be gathered by my guide. saw, issuing from the summit of Ve. They were masses of lava, petro silisuivius, a thick black smoke, which, ceous, blackish, not very weighty, descending upon the mountain, co- spongy in some places, with shining vered the whole of it.
and scoriform surfaces.
There were who went thither, perceived at the in their cavities crystals of olivine, of bottom of the crater a swelling, with mica, and other little white siliceous a mouth of the size of 15 or 20 palms, crystals, whose nature and quality I whence rose the column of smoke, had not time to determine. and a quantity of dust mixed with The noise made by the explosion small stones. He heard on the south of fire and stones was like the roarside a considerable boiling of sub. ings of the most horrible tempest, and stanees, and often felt the earth trem. the blustering of the most impetuous hling under his feet. Towards even- whirlwind : the eruptions followed jog, a very strong explosion took each other with an astonishing rapiplace, and from Naples they saw dity; at the same time a reddish darting up a pillar of fire and of burn. substance, fluid like melted glass, ing stones.
broke out from the mouth of the The Duke della Torre went thither gulf ; it was the lava, which rushing next morning before day-light. “I
“I forth, flowed south towards the walls experienced, says he, from the foot of the crater, distant about 300 of the mountain to the top, a con. palms, stopt there, returned, and gratinual shower of black ashes and dually filled the empty space of the small stones; I heard the bottom of
Around the gulf were althe crater resounding in an extraordi- ready formed a variety of hillocks, nary and dreadful degree. Arrived' which swelled more and more by the on its borders, I continued there for matter thrown up. the
of an hour, and shall state I observed the temperature of the all that I was able to observe, amid atmosphere with a thermometer, in the admiration and the fear, inspired which the distance between the free.. hy a spectatle' as majestic, as it was zing point and that of boiling water terrible and fatal.
was divided into 100 parts. At my The bottom of the crater appeared departure from Naples, it was at 26 to me much raised and more unequal or 27 degrees ; at Salvatore 24 de. than I had seen in the month of No- grees, and upon the mountain it rose vember 1803. I judged that this ri. in a quarter of an hour to 36o. I sing, these inequalities, arose as much placed the point of an electrometer
upon the border of the crater, and it to the west, had fallen back considera gave symptonis of an high degree of ably to the east, that is to say, toelectricity, which was confirmed by wards the walls of Ottajano ; that the continual flashes of lightening the lava, which flowed always to the that appeared in the east, although south, was so near the borders that the night was calm, and the sky serene. it almost overflowed them.
A thought struck my mind ; can On the 28th, a new mouth was 0it be true that water is decomposed pened, nearer the south, which threw in the heart of volcanic mountains, up fire and stones. which hinders the electric fluid from On the 29th, the eruptions were inflaming one of the constituent more considerable. Towards the eparts of this water, that is to say, the vening, an extraordinary noise was hydrogen, and in this way provokes heard, and the declivity of the mounthe eruptions ? In this case,
oxy. tain was covered with a thick smoke. gen, its other constituent part, This was the moment in which the would be there to call forth the in. lava overflowed. The writer of the ternal combustions, and to furnish journal went immediately to Torre the acidifying part to the alkaline, del Greco, and saw this lava in form of sulphuric, and metallic bases. a stream of fire, desceoding rapidly a
I inferred from these observations, long the cone. The next morning, that by reason of the intensity of the it had reached the foot, and had pasfire, and of the great collection of sed over ao extent of 3,528 palms. lectricity,this would be one of the long. There it divided itself into four branest and most terrible eruptions, that ches, which took a direction, some to the light perceived from Naples was the south, others to the south-west, only a sbining emoke, which reflected and entered the cultivated fields, carry the lustre of the internal fire, since ing every where desolation and terror. the real pillar of fire was not so high --Two of these currents, having unias the borders of the crater ; that the ted, presented a front 1500, palms lava, after having filled the empty broad, and 8 or 9 high. Taking the space, would overflow towards ihe middle rate of their progress since south, because that was the most in- their departure from the crater, we clined side of the cone."
might say that they had run over a From the 15th to the 18th, the hundred palms an hour. Yet the fire continued equal; the roarings lava was very hard ; scarcely, using were frequent ; yet no earthquake all our force, could we thrust the was felt.
point of a staff into it the length On the 19th, the fire and the of two inches; nor was it entirely lismoke redoubled. From Naples was quid; it carried on its surface stones heard a hollow sound, like that of of diverse bulk and colour, and sand. distant thunder..
When it advanced, its upper banks From the 20th to the 25th no. fell back with a noise like that of a thing new; only the showers of ashes sack full of pieces of glass, and laid and sand were more frequent.
open the inner part, which was fluid, On the 26th, for the first time,' and like tongues of fire. Its heat was ashes arrived at Torre del Greco, and intolerable at the distance of 4 or s at Resina. The fire was perceived to palms; but a little further was easily diminish a little.
supported, and seemed even to give a On the 27th, a man having ascend- tone to the fibres. It exhaled a smoke ed the mountain, informed the of sulphur and of , nmoniac salt, and Duke della Torre, that the mouth of an odour which might be compa. ihe gulf, which had at first opened red to that of a lime kiln set on fire.