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The pieces of this lava cracked, as better, if, to the mendicity which cor. they could, and were covered with a rupts only the beggar, we substitute substance, sometimes white, some slavery, which corrupts at once the times yellow, which was nothing else slave and his master. Besides, menthan sulphur and nitrous ammoniac dicity is an evil rather afflicting for salts.

society, than for himn who has adopOn the 31st, the currents made ted this shameful resource. The great progress; when they met a condition of the beggar, so deplorawall, a house, a rock, they surroun ble in appearance, is not at all what ded and went over it, or made their it seems to be. The beggar is a way laterally, according to the mag- sort of low comic performer, who nitude of the obstacle and the decli- lives by the emotions which he is vity of the ground.

able to excite, and who laughs in (To be continued.)

his sleeve at the pity which he inSpires. This trade requires him on

ly to make one effort, that of surOn MENDICITY, and its 'Remedies; mounting shame. This step once

with Strictures on the different got over, the life of the beggar has Modes of providing for the poor. so many charms, that he would find

it impossible to quit it for any other. From the French of Garnier.

He is a stranger to all the burdens, A Hideous, devouring, and almost and to all the restraints of society.

incurable wound of the political He enjoys the liberty and the inde. body, in modern societies, is mendici- pendence of savage life, amid all the ty. A writer of our days, who has conveniences and comforts of civilizadistinguished himself by the boldness tion ; pay without labour, and enjoy. and singularity of his ideas, has ima- ment without fatigue. We need gined be sees a remedy for this pot hope then that a man, who has shameful malady in an ancient insti once descended to this condition, tution, justly abhorred, and he has will ever be recalled to the habits of sought in mendicity motives for justi. a life of labour and subordination. fying and for regretting slavery. Yet, on the other hand, to confine a True it is, that if one of the ten man because he has begged, to dethousand slaves who were maintained prive him of his liberty for a fixed in the palaces of Lucullus, shonld period, because he has exposed his return among us, and find himself in misery and implored aid, has al. our public streets near one of these ways appeared too severe a regularepulsive creatures, covered with rags tion, the execution of which bas freand ulcers, assuming the plaintive

. quently given occasion to a number accent of grief, or the rending cry of of arbitrary vexations. famine, to draw from the pity of the What measure then shall we e'mpassenger a piece of the smallest ploy against the evil of mendicity? coin, he would turn his eye away

This disorder, it would appear, is with disgust, and struck with aver one of those which we must seek to sion for a country so shamefully de- prevent, rather than to suppress. graded, he would be far from think. . Much may be done to prevent mening on the weight of his chains. But dicity, by opening the most easy acit is not on this superficial view that cess to labour in all the different the question can be decided. To branches of industry; by allowing it prevent this humilation of man, by to circulate from one place, and one making him an article of merchan. employment, to another, with the

is not the means of exalting hu. most perfect freedom'; and by not

"ture, nor will we render it seeking, through encouragements or

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On Mendicity.

333 artificial advantages, to draw it into manity can make from the justice of a direction which it would not take government ; and as this unfortunate of itself. In such a state of things, class of men is necessarily confined it is impossible that a man in health within a circle drawn by nature, we should want employment,

unless
pre-

shall not have to fear that such aids vented by bad conduct or idle in- should ever tend to augment the clinations. Although even society number of idle hands to whom they should find itself in the situation shall be offered. Leaving to indivi. most unfavourable to the poorer clas- dual beneficence every means of coli ses, that in which the number of la. lecting and bestowing with discerna bourers exceeds the demand for them; ment the aids which it destines for even in this case the wages would be those, whom inevitable accidents reduced as low as possible, but this have plunged suddenly into wretchreduction of wages would affect the edness, the police ought severely to whole of the class of labourers; and prohibit all almsgiving in the streets, one individual would not be more and public places, as bestowed withexposed than another to a total want out sufficient information. Whoeof employment. He would have no ver gives alms without examination title, more than another, to demand and without precaution, encourages from society a gratuitous assistance ; one of the disorders most hurtful to and every extraordinary assistance industry and moralş : he becomes an which he would obtain would be, a accomplice of mendicity, and of all preference obtained, without any rea the evils which follow in its train sonable motive, over all other indivi. he is guilty of a real offence against duals of his class, whose lot is the social order. I am surprized to find, same, and who have the same diffi. in an age of ignorance and supersticulties to struggle with.

tion, a law of Edward III. King of This wise police then being once England, " which forbids every one, established, all that remains to be under pain of imprisonment, to give done will be to suppress whatever can any thing, under the title of a work tend, in one way or another, to en. of piety or charity, to those who are courage idleness and want of fore. able to work, in order not to encousight; the two high roads which rage idleness and sloth among the lead to beggary.

workmen. It is true, that in those Prejudices which took their rise in times the excessive donations bestowages of poverty and idleness, have ed upon the poor, had multiplied and perverted the natural disposition of emboldened beggars and idlers to the people to foresight; they have such a degree, as to alarm governdestroyed that salutary anxiety, the ment; and to this cause we must best spur to labour and to private ascribe the bloody laws which were economy ; they have disposed men to passed against them at this period. indolence, by holding out to view a The suppression of monasteries, the secure asylum for their old age ; and reformation, and other political cirby thus relieving them from all care cumstances, made all these measures of the future. These institutions, be revoked, and caused the Eoglish created by a false humanity, and by government to run into a quite ope a blind piety, must be abolished gra. posite extreme, by establishing that dually, and with due precautions, fatal poors-rate, which, very far from By preserving retreats for those une curing or stopping the evil for whicla fortunate beings, whom natural infir it has been created, is, on the contramitie's condemn to inaction, we shall 'ry, compelled to follow the fearful have satisfied every demand that hu, progress which it causes it to mak.

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If it was believed necessary to em. servation; government there being ploy some punishment for repressing hardly any thing more than the ma. mendicity, it would be doubtless nagement of a family ; and posses. more easy and more effectual to di. sing such a proximity to all the citi. rect it against him wbo gives the zens, as may enable it to descend inalms, than against bim who receives to particular details respecting every them.

one of them. Yet we must not hope, even under But work-houses, conducted on the such a system, that there would es vast dimensions which a great state ist no longer other poor, than those would require, however regularly adwho should have become so by bad ministered, would be necessarily conduct or want of foresight. Many hurtful, at least if they were not will still deserve that an helping hand perfectly useless. The produce of be held out to them, and will require this forced labour coming to market only a little aid to make them again in competition with the produce of become useful members of society. voluntary labour, would infallibly A family more numerous than com lower somewhat the wages of the mon, a long illness, fire, and a thou. latter. If they lowered them below sand other accidents, against which the rate necessary for the subsistence. all human prudence must fail, will of the workman and his family, then still drag into an abyss of misery ma the institution would be highly per. ny innocent victims. But for the nicions, since, in the view of procu. care of seeking out these "honest ring a better subsistence to the vi. poor, and of recognizing them amid. cious and idle, it would have driven the crowd of those who are attracted from employment some portion of by offered succour, government must

the honest and laborious class. If rest upon the active and watchful this increase of produce did not rebeneficence of individuals. If the duce wages below what would furhigh civilization of society multiplies nish simple necessaries, then, altho’ the sources of unhappiness, it tends the institution tended always, to a also to render more acute the sensibi- certain point, to discourage active lity of those who are in easy circum- industry in favour of vice and idlestances, and to inspire a more anxious ness, it would deserve less to be bladesire of relieving the sorrows of med as hurtful, but at least it should others. Measures taken by govern- be abolished as completely useless. ment to relieve these private misfor. This, in fact, would be the clearest tunes, would fall almost always where proof that society was in a capacity they ought not, and would extend of absorbing much more free labour: the evil which they were designed to that it was not supplied with as maremedy.

ny paid workmen as the demands of In some states of small extent, the market admitted of; that, of congovernment has attempted with suc

sequence, all these pensioners, whom cess establishments for receiving the government had undertaken to set at indigent, and for subjecting them to work, would naturally have found regular labour ; but in these states, employment for themselves, had they there is less danger of being deceived been disposed to seek it. Governin the distribution of aids. The po. ment would thus have been at pains lice of such small countries may easi to accommodate their indolence and ly procure information concerning inactivity, not to supply any real each individual, it can search into want of labpur. Thus, such an inand follow his conduct, and keep him „stitution, in all cases, tends to blunt, continually within the reach of ob more or less, that stimulus so power

ful

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föl and so energetic, that principle halt is obliged to find you straw of life and growth in the social body, chatiess, and wood for nothing, all which keeps the industry of the of which are charged to the circar!! ; lower orders continually awake. milk, sheep, fowls, &e. at a price

Notes i la traduction de la Richesse fixed by government. des Nations,

Pallywood.-The Monigar * of this village (a Bramin) by his incivi. lity, and much against our inclina

tions, again forced us to make use Journal of a Tour over Land from of arms, in order to bring him to a INDIA in 1785*.

proper sense of duty. This fellow, Ly Ensign Thongs Currie. Never bei upon our arrival, made most of the fore published.

inhabitants shut themselves up in

tlieir Pagodas, and refused to provide Anecdotes - Travancore - Portuguese

us with any thing, altho' all requi. Priest-Anjengó-Coilong--Cochin red of him was ovly a few eggs --llinerary across the Peninsula. and a little milk.--In order to teach

him discretion hereafter, and to pu

nish him for his unprovoked insoREACHED Ulundcarpettala at u

A. M. At this village we found lence, we obliged him to take one of the inhabitants remarkably averse to

our trunks upon his head, and carry providing us with different articles ; it as a common cooly ; this we made after repeatedly having sent into the him do to the gate of Travancore village (having halted a few hundred (27 miles) where we discharged him yards from it) to procure what we

without any reward whatever, but wanted, and been constantly refused, first explaining fully the cause of we at last sent in a part of our guard,

such treatment. with their arms, to take the cutsalt

This was not only an outrageous prisoner, which they very soon effec. insult to his holy order, but would ted, and brought him to us, where require a length of time, by washhe was kept prisoner, until we were ing and praying, before he could be provided with every article we were properly purified, so as to be again in need of. To punish him, in some

admitted to the Sanctum Sanctorum ; degree, for his insolence, we obliged. The Bramins are so very superstihim to run after us for several miles, tipus, that if they even rub a Eurotaking care to bring up his rear pean in passing, they will instantly with fixed bayooets.

it is neces wash, supposing by their touch they sary to observe, that in travelling are polluted. through any part of his highness the

In our passing through the gate, Nabob of Arcott's country, the Ha. the guard was turned out, who salia mildar of every village where you

ted us as we passed. On our entering, we were met by all the princi

pal people of the village, who con * As this journal is of considerable ducted us to the choultry, at the length, and not equally interesting farthest end of it. Here we had a throughout, we have contented ourselves misunderstanding with the with extracting such parts as seemed likely to afford either information or amusement to our readers.

Earthen pots. || Revenue. † Next person in power to the Ha. * A monigar is a person appointed mildar (who is a kind of governor of to the charge of a village the smallness the village) and obliged to see all his of which does not require a Hamildar. orders put in execution.

A place of worship.

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on the

mandant, who wished we should gain, and soon reached the beach, a.
pay him the first salam (a matter of longst which we continued our route
much consequence amongst these till we arrived at the village of Po.
people;) but this we did not choose, lum, where we were allowed to lodge
which was told him in presence of in the church: on this coast (Malabar)
his attendants, and by them was there are no buildings purposely for
deemed a very great affront. The the benefit of travellers, as
Colonel, as he stiled himself, took coast of Coromandel; therefore they
his leave very abruptly, much offend are permitted to lodge in their places
ed with our conduct. But upon his of worship, at one end of which there
understanding we had letters for is a small space appropriated to their
his Rajalı, he sent a message, request- images, &c. which are concealed by
ing he inight have leave to speak a curtain drawn acros3.—The other
with us, which was immediately part exactly resembling a barn, nei-
granted ; the colonel soon returned, ther form nor seat in it. Their * pa-
salaming to the very groand, beg. drys are mostly + half casts, and
ging he might be forgiven, and de. generally very illiterate, appointed by
siring to know what things we want. the bishop of Goa, with a view of mak-
ed, with which we should immediately ing converts, but seldomi succeed with
be provided.

any but the refuse of the people,
This little kingdom is divided by On our march from Polum, which
a wall, mounted with guns and flank. we left the 18th, frequently observed
ed by square towers, which extends grea: variety of soils, the cause of
from the summits of two hills, com which we could not comprehend : In
posing part pf a chain of mountains, the course of every two or three hun-
which, except in two or three places, dred yards, observed the colour of the
fortified in the same manner, render soil different, sometimes black, some-
it inaccessible from the Carnatic, and `times white, and in one particular
great part of the Mysore country. place, the soil of which was in some

The Rajah of Travancore keeps parts sandy, in others clayish, and of up an army of about twelve thousand

a bright scarlet colour. men, dressed and armed in the man. After a tedious, and fatiguing her of our Sepoy battalions, and has march for our people, along a heavy a good many European officers of all sandy beach, we arrived as the vilnations in his service ; but as their lage of Colachie ; where we found pay is small, and they are subject to all kinds of provisions waiting us, great' inconvenience from the preju- by order of the Rajah, whose particu. dices of the inhabitants, there are few lar directions were, that we should (if any) of ability in their profes. neither pay for fowls, firewood, nor sion,

eggs. It is but justice to the inhabiOn the 17th marched from Tra- tants of this little kingdom, vancore. After marching about ten knowledge, that we found them parmilcs, through a beautiful and fertile ticularly assidous to oblige, and afcountry, in the highest cultivation, ford is their assistance. Some of we halted to breakfast imder a large our coolies having deserted at Polum, Banyan tree, on the bank of a large we were under the necessity of aptank, where we had some, (but un- plying to that village for others ; the filccessful) shooting at Teel.-After good people no sooner heard of our refreshing the Palanquin boys and

dis. coolies about an hour, marched a.

* Priests,

† Children by a native and Euro. Salute.

pean.

ac.

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