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cheap a raté as possible. Recruits would, assistance in the field against the regular upon this plan, be furnished ready for force of the enemy, he would relax their the army, with the additional advantage discipline and retrench their allowances. of their being acquainted with the use He would leave their allowances infi. of fire - arms, while the whole of the nitely above what they ought to be, corocry would be covered with an arm- though much below what they were ed peasantry.

The reduction would not be This was his view of the matter, but carried into effect till there was a force the system that had been followed, went to replace the volunteers. But it was to include all volunteer exertions in vo- to be understood, that, in reducing volunteer corps.

His first' objection to lunteer corps, the men were not lost, this system was its immense expence. they remained on the spot, with the adThe volunteer system had cost Govern. vantage of all their training, capable of ment, in three years and a half, five being combined again and employed as millions ; in subscriptions from the poc. occasion might require; whereas, a rekets of individuals, it had cost as much gimene once dispersed was lost for ever. more; and though this might not be It was one of the advantages of his plan, considered on the same footing as if it that it could be easily got rid of, if it had come from Parliament, it was en- was not found as beneficial as he hoped: titled to great weight; there was, be. It was to be in force but a year—not to sides, the expence each volunteer went be renewed unless it should be found to for himself, which altogether amount- advantageous. Its object was simply ed to no less than the same sum. Thus to train the military population-volunthe Government expence, and the sub. tary training was to be encouraged as scriptions, were each in itself equal to much as possible.--He wished to tread half the property tax; both together to as much as possible on old foundations, the whole property tax; and the cost to On the principle of the levy en mane act, individuals, which should not be over- his plan gave the preference to volunlooked, was equal to either of them. If tary training ; but with a power of rewe were to pay for the volunteer sys- sorting to compulsion, if necessary; it tem at this rate, we should consider went also to assert the King's preroga. whether it was equal to what we might tive right to every man's service in case obtain for the same sum in another shape. of invasion. . It excluded the exceptionHe maintained, that when locked up in able part of that act, the training of all corps, the men were not capable of be- classes together. This objection was ing of the same use in aiding a regular one of the reasons for his preferring the army as when left loose. He did not volunteer system to the levy en masse, mean that they should be entirely with though that volunteer system soon after out combination. Even the Tyroleans took a false shape. could not be of use, unless they were The first part of the reduction he combined in some way. Having train- would propose in the volunteer expen. ed them in bodies, it was best to leave ces, would be a substitution of the June them uncombined till the time of calling allowances for the August allowances, them into action. It would be always of a training of twenty-six days to a in the power of the King, by his prero. training of twenty-eight days. The gative, to array them as it should seem total reduction that would be thus ht, in time of invasion or alarm of inva- made on the estimate of this year, which sion. The stronger men, and those of was 1,479,000 l. exclusive of cloathing, better age, may then bé formed into the cost of which was 347,000 l. would corps, and the rest left loose. Whether be 878,000 l. The allowances to yeovictorious or otherwise, in the first on. manry would be reduced from 1261. a set, there would be a loss to supply, for troop to 2 l. a man. The saving by this which we would have the whole active reduction would not be very great, but population of the country ready trained. the allowance of 120 1. a troop was far These were the ideas that governed too much : 21. a man was fully sufficient. him, and on which a wise and permanent The reduction of officers pay in the subsystem may be established gradually, stitution of the June establishment to for he was no friend to sudden change. the August establishment, was 210,000l. No longer looking to the volunteers for A reduction of the allowances and pay


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to drill serjeants, the present number of ed by detachments of militia, and of the
whom was far beyond what was neces. regiments now nominally connected
sary, would afford 54,7571. Under the with the counties, which would, by this,
head of permanent duty, a reduction of gain a real connection that would enable
no less an amount than 300,000 l. may them to recruit much better than the
be made. It was the unanimous opinion, parish officers. They would exert them-
that the Inspecting Field-Officers may selves in the training, in the hope of
be spared, and that their business would afterwards getting the men into their
be as well executed by the Lord Lieu- own regiments.
tenant, or the Civil Officers under him. The militia should now be considered
This would yield a saving of 35,000l. as part of the established army, and for
The suppression of the marching guinea home service it was certainly equal to
paid by the Receiver.General, a most any other part of our force, with the
improper allowance; this would yield single exception, that it never had seen
198,000 1. making a total reduction of service. If it should be necessary again
878,0001. These reductions he propos- to fill up the militia, it should be done
ed, not from any hostility to the volun- by means of a recruiting limited bounty,
teer system, but with a view to neces- as in Ireland, and not by the ballot,
sary improvement in the military state With respect to rank, he hoped no vo.
of the country. To such volunteers as lunteer officer would have any difficulty
would enter henceforth, Government to allow to officers of the line, the re-
would allow nothing but arms. To compence they were entitled to. To
those now on foot pay would be allow- claim rank for property or birth, to the
ed, because they had been hitherto in prejudice of men who had fought for
the habit of receiving it; but cloathing their military distinction in the remotest
would not be allowed after this year. quarters of the globe, was unjust. He

With respect to the mode of com- should propose, that no officer of the
pulsion, if compulsion should be neces- line of a higher rank than that of Cap.
sary to carry the training into effect, he tain, nor any Captain commanding a
could find no other means than to have corps, should be commanded by an offi-
recourse to that species of lot familiarly cer of volunteers. These were the
called ballot, which was the most conve. principles upon which he looked for a
nient-(a laugh.)-He hoped it would great and permanent supply to the re-
not now be attended with its former gular army. They were calculated to
terrors. The age at which service do what was recommended by the enii.
would be required was from 16 to 40. 'nent statesman we had lost, to get our
Those between these limits would be whole population gradually into that
divided into three classes--the first class trained state, of which every one would
to comprehend all from 16 to 24—the be capable of being made a complete
second all from 24 to 32~~and the third, soldier in a very short time, and with
all from 32 to 40. It would be left to very little trouble. The measure would
the Crown to apply the power of calling give one general training; it would
out which of these classes it should give it without taking the men from
please. The number of days training their homes; it would give it by pro-
was to be 26; the men to be allowed portions, free of expence, and commut.
a shilling, as a compensation for the loss able for voluntary service in a corps. It
of their half-day's work. Voluntary was but an annual measure, that the
trainings were to be accepted at the dis- opportunities of amendment may recur
cretion of the officers, and to go in di. as frequently as possible.
ininution of the ballot. There were not. Mr Windham concluded a very long
to be any particular cloaths, nor were speech with moving, that leave be given
the men to be embodied; but it was to to bring in a bill to repeal the Additional
be in the power of the Crown to collect Forcè Act.
them in 14 days in some town for the Lord Castlereagh considered this new
purpose of more speedy training : those military system, so elaborately detailed,
who absented themselves from training, as abounding in fanciful theories, difficult
on any other ground than serving in at any time to reduce to practice, but
volunteer corps, were to be subject to a extremely hazardous and impolitic to be
fine. The training was to be perform- attempted in the present situation of


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the country, deeply engaged in war.- ensure his ultimate success. We must The plan had nothing to recommend it fight every inch of ground. It is not one but its novelty, which was not of a cap- battle lost that will decide the fate of tivating description : for while it went the country, as the battle of Austerlitz to overthrow a system already matured, decided the fate of Austria. A very and now acting upon in full force, it ap- different spirit prevails in England from peared perfectly uncertain and indefi. that which is felt upon the Continent. nite when the new plan could be called From the scandalous practice of transinto action. The regular army had in ferring territories from one Sovereign the course of the last two years, receiy. to another, and other causes, the affec. ed an addition of 33,000 effective men. tion that ought to subsist between the The additional force bill was considered Sovereign and the subject is weakened, by his late Right Hon. Friend, as a and nations easily yield themselves up to great means of insuring a permanent a new master; here these changes are supply of men. It had been approved unknown, and regarded with horror; beby many general officers of tried know. sides, there is a spirit in the people, an ledge and ability; and now that it was attachment to the constitution, and the generally understood, and acted upon country, which would yield to no danger universally throughout the kingdom, the or difficulties. I approved always of the returns of the numbers it produced with levy en masse, but I approve still more of in these few weeks were an ample de. my Rt. Hon. Friend's plan, and am, permonstration of its efficiency. The new haps, more sanguine in my expectations plan, therefore, was in his opinion rather of its suecess than he is. The arming a' bold measure, containing more specu- of our population became the more an lation and calculation, than any likeli- object of importance, as except the al. hood of certain, clear and defined re. Tiance of Russia, which is certainly vasults.

luable, but the advantages of which, Generals Norton, Pulteney, and Tarleton, connected with our home defence, are likewise defended the additional force reduced to nothing by its distance, we act, and disapproved of Mr Windham's have not one power fighting, or likely to new system, as too violent a change to fight for us, in Europe ; not one! When be attempted in a period of war. this is the case, it must be wise to in

Mr Fox contended, that limited ser- crease the army to a very great extent, vice was the practice in Prussia and in perhaps, a greater than we are able to Germany ; that it was adopted in our accomplish, I have no hesitation in Indian

army, and in the foreign corps saying, that the circumstances which in our service, and therefore ought not have lately taken place in Europe, have to be considered as a mere theory, tho' weaned me from an opinion that I fornot generally and specifically practised merly entertained, that in peace we in this country. In regard to the vo- should be able to dispense with a great lunteers, Mr Fox said the lower order army. If peace cannot be obtained, consisted of tradesmen, who, by his and the war cannot be carried on with Right Hon. Friend's plan, would be success, so as to restrain the growing trained at home ; whereas, by the sys. strength of the enemy, the country tem which it would supersede, they are must come to a dreadful option. It now liable to be sent to any part of the must revert to its original state, it kingdom, and to be consolidated in re- must be completely insular, and you gular corps with a description of men must be, as the poet describes you, toto whom they considered their inferiors. orbe divisos Britannos. Our true policy, These were not to be brought out at if we are to persevere, which he thought once to act against the enemy, but they in all probability we were likely to be would be thus, placed in an improved obliged to, was not to be pānic struck, state of discipline; which would make and not to consider it as absolutely nethem, in case of invasion, excellent red cessary to be defended at every point of cruits for the regular army. I am san- coast that may be open to the eneguine that no landing will be effected; my. but if there should, it is not one advan- The motion was carried without a ditage gained by the enemy that would vision.


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British navigation; and he will look

with anxious expectation to that muMonday, April 21.

ment, when a more dignified and enRUPTURE WITA PRUSSIA. lightened policy, on the part of Prussia,

shall remove every impediment to the Lord Grenville presented the follow

renewal of peace and friendship with a ing message from his Majesty :

Power with whom his Majesty has no “ GR.

other cause of difference than that now “ His Majesty thinks it proper to ac- created by these hostile acts. quaint this House, that he has found

G. R." himself under the necessity of withdraw

OFFICIAL PAPERS. ing his Minister from the Court of Ber- The following official documents on lin, and of adopting provisionally mea- the subject were at the same time laid sures of just retaliation against the com

before Parliamenti merce and nayigation of Prussia. His No. I.--A short note from Mr JackMajesty deeply regrets this extension son, the British Minister at Berlin, inand aggravation of calamities, already so closing a notification from Baron Har. severely felt by the nations of the Con- denberg to Mr Jackson, dated the 26th tinent, whose independence and prospe- of January, stating that the Court of rity he has never ceased to consider as Berlin had concluded an arrangement intimately connected with those of his with France to save the North of Gerown' people. But measures of direct many from the horrors of war, by which hostility, deliberately adopted against Prussia was to occupy Hanover till the him, have left him no alternative, conclusion of a peace between England and

“ 'In a moment of confidential inter. France. No. II, is the proclamation of course, without even the pretence of his Prussian Majesty, on taking tempoany cause of complaint, forcible posses- rary possession of Hanover, dated at sion has been taken by Prussia of liis Berlin, 27th January, (See Mag. for Majesty's Electoral dominions. Deeply March, p. 223). as this event affected the interests of No. III.-Note from Mr Secretary Fox, to this kingdom, his Majesty chose, bever- Baron Jacobi Kloest, 17th March, 1806. theltss, to forbear, on this painful occa- "The undersigned is coatmanded by sion, ail recourse to the tried and affec- his Majesty to state to Baron Jacobi tionate attachment of his British sub. Kloest, for the information of his Court, jects. He remonstrated by amicable the great anxiety felt by his Majesty at negociation, against the injury he had the manner in which possession has sustained, and rested his claim for repa- been taken of the Electorate of Hanu. ration on the moderation of his conduct, ver. If his Prussian Majesty judged it on the justice of his representations, and expedient, in order to prevent Fiench on the common interest which Prussia troops from approaching so near that herself must ultimately feel, to resist a part of his frontier, to take to himself system destệuctive of the security of all the military occupation of the Electu. legitimate possession. But, when, in- rate, it does not appear to his Majesty, stead of receiving assuranceş confor- that it was by any means necessary that mable to this just expectation, his Ma- the civil government of that unhappy jesty was informed that the determina- country should be subverted, or that an tion had been taken of excluding, by army more numerous, and consequently force, the vessels, and the commodities more injurious to the inhabitants, than of this kingdom from ports and coun- necessity required, should be mairtaintries under the lawful dominion or for- ed there. His Majesty relies with the cible controul of Prussia, his Majesty greatest confidence on his Prussian Ma.. could no longer delay to act, without jesty's declaration, that the present oc. neglecting the first duty which he owes cupation is merely temporary; but his to bis people; the dignity of his crown, Majesty cannot but express a wish, thar and the interests of his subjects, equally the declaration on this point were more forbid his acquiescing in this open and solemnly made in the face of Europe. unprovoked aggression. He has no The honour of the Court of Berlin, as doubt of the full support of his Parlia- well as the consideration mutually due ment, in vindicating the honour of the to each other from two Princes sa nearBritish flag, and the freedom of the ly connected in blood and alliance, seem

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to call for a clear explanation on this war. But the choice of the means has important subject.

no longer been in his power, France “ His Majesty on his part desires to has considered Hanover as her conquest, be equally as explicit, and to put an end and her troops were on the point of en. to all hopes, (if such indeed have been tering it for the purpose of disposing of entertained by the Court of Berlin) that it definitively, according to the pleasure any convenience of political arrange- of the French Emperor, without the posment, much less any offer of equivalent sibility of his Britannic Majesty's preor indemnity, will ever induce his Ma- venting it. The occupation of that jesty so far to forget what is due to his

country by his Prussian Majesty, and legitimate rights, as well as to the ex- the shutting of the ports in the German emplary fidelity and attachment of his seas, and that of Lubeck, against the Hanoverian subjects, as to consent to British flag (as was the case during the the alienation of the electorate.

possession of Hanover by the French), “ His Majesty learns with concern, were the indispensible conditions of an that it is in agitation to give up An arrangement by which the country is spach, and other parts of bis Prussian secured against the entry of foreign Majesty's dominions, to Bavaria, in con- troops, and the quiet of the north of sequence of a convention with France : Germany preserved. This has not been but he does not pretend any right to in. obtained without painful sacrifices on terfere, or to give any opinion with re- his Majesty's part. · Those of the House spect to the propriety of the measures, of Hanover are in no degree to be attriwhatever they may be, which his Prus- buted to the King's measures, but are sian Majesty may deem eligible for the the inevitable consequences of a war, interest of his crown and people ; at the which his conciliating policy has in vain same time it is to be observed, that his

endeavoured to prevent.

This war Majesty, whether in his capacity of might have produced still more, serious King of Great Britain, or in that of consequences. The treaty between Elector of Hanover, was in no ways a Prussia and France at least protects the party to the convention alluded to, or northern states from farther evils; and responsible for its consequences. The could every power but duly appreciate cessions, therefore, which his Prussian how much they are indebted to the sysMajesty may make to his Majesty's ene- tem he has adopted, the King would mies, can surely never be alledged as a with justice obtain the gratitude of all." justification of taking to himself his Ma- No V. is the proclamation of Count jesty's lawful inlieritance.

Schulenberg, for excluding British com“ His Majesty therefore hopes, that merce from the north of Germany, inhis Prussian Majesty will follow the ho. serted in our last Mag. p. 302. nourable dictates of his own heart, and No. VI.-Prussian Patent for finally anwill demonstrate to the world, that nexing Hanover to Prussia. whatever sacrifices the present circum- We, Frederick William, King of stances may induce him to make with Prussia, &c. make known and declare respect to his own territories, he will as follows: not set the dreadful example of indemni. “ The wish to secure our faithful fying himself at the expence of a third subjects and the neighbouring states of party, whose sentiments and conduct the north of Germany during the war, towards his Prussian Majesty and his and to preserve and confirm the dura. subjects, have been uniformly friendly tion of peace, was at all times the intenand pacific."

tion of our indefatigable endeavours. No. IV.-Note Verbale. “ Untill the These wholesome measures were made explosion of the last continental war, known, upon some recent occasion, as Iris Prussian Majesty had no other objecť the object of our late patent, dated Jan. *in view, than to secure the tranquility 27, 1906, according to which, the elecof his Monarchy, and that of the neigh- toral states of Brunswick Lunenberg in houring states. He was then able to Germany were taken possession of by effect this upon terms which met the our troops, when the administration of entire approbation of every Court. He the same passed into our hands. But has been desirous of doing the same in consequence of the exchange of the since the breaking out of the present electorate of Hanover, in consideration


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