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cipals. Hence he infers that persons racy of his experiments was contest -breathing much bad air become con. ed. In France, however, M. Collet vulsed.

Deseotils has obtained the same re. Salt is said to have rendered bar- sults by following the same process. ren apple-trees, in an orchard belong. The rhodium and palladium obtain. ing to Mr. GILBERT, the late Duke ed by him were exhibited at a late of Bridgewater's agent, highly pro- meeting of the National Institute. ductive of fruit, by being spread on Two opposite opinions, it is well the ground round each tree at a small known, are generally entertained on distance from the trunks.

the subject of the buds and branches The syphon has lately been applied of plants. Lionæus and Hales conto the worm-tub as a refrigerator. ceived that the pith or medullæ pene-, The plan is for conveying water in trated through the wood, thus proany quantity to a worm-tub of the ducing the ramifications of plants ; largest dimensions, if perfectly air and afterwards, stretching out, formright. The feed-pipe enters the bot- ed the essential parts of vegetable bo. tom of the tub vertically, while the dies. Other naturalists have attri. hot water or waste pipe branches out buted to the bark, and to the cortifrom a side orifice near the top, and cal layers, what their predecessors is soon turned to proceed vertically considered as the product of the me. downwards, until its lower end is a- dulla alone. Hence, they imagine bout two feet below the bottom of that the increase in length and thick: the feed-pipe ; both the pipes have ness must depend on these organs. cocks near the lower ends.

When According to KOELER, who has lately the work is commenced, the cocks been engaged in investigating the must be shut, and the tub filled truth of these two opinions, it should through a hole at top; when full, the seem, that the upper part of a branch, hole at top must be stopped, and the and of a shoot, is merely formed by cocks both opened together; the wa


the pith, the medullary sheath, and ter will then commence running, and the bark. Hence he concludes, that continue as the supply holds good; the augmentation of stems or trunks, the apparatus acting entirely upon the and branches, depends altogether on principal of the syphonr.

the elongation of the vessels of the Mr WALTON has made an improves medullary sheath. The alburnum, ment in the beam-compasses, which the tubes of which proceed in a perconsists in applying a nonius, worked fectly straight direction, appears at by a micrometer screw, to the move. the upper part of a branch under the able cursor upon

the beam; by means form of separate fibres, which disapof which additional apparatus, dis. pear at the surface of the medullary tances can be accurately measured sheath. with the compasses, to every hun. dredth part of an inch, or the radii

To the Editor, of the proposed arcs adjusted to e. qually minute variations: while in Inclosed I send you a copy of an adbeam-compasses of the common con- vertisement, circulated by Sir Ro'struction, distances can only be ascer- bert Sibbald, which I doubt not tained to tenths of inches.

will be deemed a curious relique Dr Wollaston some time since an. of the labours of that eminent announced that he had extracted from

tiquary. I am, Sir, the ore of platina two distinct metals,

Your obed. servant, to which he had given the name of Cupar Fife, 7

A, Rhodium and Palladium. The accu. May, 1806. Š






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Geographical Queries circulated in 4. What roads, bays, ports for ship1682, by SIR ROBERT SIBBALD. ping, and their description ? And

what moon causeth high water? ADVERTISEMENT.

What rocks and sholes on their

coast ?
WHEREAS His Sacred Majes-
ty, by his patent, haih con.

5. What ancient monuments, inscrip. stituted Sir Robert Sibbald, one of

tions, graved and figured stones, his physicians in ordinary, his geo

forts and ancient camps? And grapher for his kingdom of Scot. what curiosities of art are, or have land, and commandeth and ordaineth been found there? him, to publish the description of 6. What great battles have been the Scotia Antiqua et Scotia Moder- there fought, or any other meno. na, and the Natural History of the

rable action or accident ? products of his ancient kingdom of 7. What peculiar customs, manners, Scotland: These are earnestly to en.

or dispositions, the inbabitants of persons, that they would be each county or town have among pleased freely to communicate their them? answers to these following queries, 8. What monasteries, cathedrals, or or any of them, directing them to other churches, have been there, the said Sir Robert Sibbald, at his and how named ? lodging at Edinburgh, or to Mr 9. What places give, or formerly James Brown, at his house, in Hart's have given the title to any nobler close, who is deputed by the said mao ? As also, what ancient seats Sir Robert Sibbald to receive and

of noble families are to be met registrate them ; or to Robert Mean,

with ? postmaster at Edinburgh, to be sent 10. What the government of the lo any of them : withal specifying, county is? Whether sheriffdom, in their letters, the place of their ha. stewartry, or baillery ? bitation, that they may be again

11. What towns of note in the counwritten to, if occasion require, and

ty, especially towns corporate ? an honourable mention shall be made The names of the towns, both an. of them in the work, according to

cient and modern ? Whether they the importance of the information. be burrows royal, of regality, or

barony ? The magistracy of towns General Queries in which Answers are corporated? When incorporated, required.

and by whom built? With the 1. What the nature of the county

return of Parliament-men? The or place is ? and what are the

trade of the town? How inbabit

ed, and their manner of buildings ? chief products thereoi ?

What public or ancient buildings? 2. What , plants, animals, metals, substances cast up by the sea, are

Their jurisdiction &c. ? peculiar to the place, and how or.

12. In what bishoprick each coun. dered?

ty or any part thereof is? Who is 3. What forests, woods, parks?

sheriff, stewart, or bailie? And What springs, rivers, lochs with

who commands the militia? What

castles, forts, forests, parks, woods, their various properties, whether medicinal? With what fish reple.

His Majesty hath there? nished, whether rapid or slow, &c.?

To the Nobility. The use of the rivers and their What sheriffdoms, bailliries, stew. emboucheurs ?

artries, regalities, baronies, and bur. June 1806.


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rows, they have under them? What foundations, and their founders ? command of the militia. Wbat spe. Their revenue, and dependencies? cial privilege, dignity, and heritable Their houses, churches, and chapels, command they have? The rise of edifices, and monuments? Their li. their family, continuance, sad their braries, curious instruments? The acbranches ? What forests, woods, count of the famous men bred there, parks, loughs, rivers, mines, and or masters there? What are the obquarries they have? What fishing, servations of the masters or students &c. ? What harbours they have? that may be for the embellishment of What their titles are ? What memo: this work? rable actions raised or aggrandised their family.

The answers to these preceding To the Clergy.

queries are to be registrated and in

serted in their proper places. What their privileges and digni

The answers to the queries is earties are? Their erection ? The bounds nestly desired, that no person may of their diocese? Their chapier? complain if what concerns them be The number of their parishes in their

not insert; for ihe author is resoldiocese? Their jurisdiction, their ved to insert all that he is assured of foundations for public and pious the truth and certainty of, as inforuses, their revenues ? What lands hold med. of them? Their houses, &c.?

Imprimatur, Jo. EDINBURGEN, To the Gentry.

Edinburgh: Printed by John REID, What the rise of their family, at his Printing-house in Bell's Wynd, their privilege and dignity? What Anno 168 2. baronies, and burrows under them? What harbours? What forests, woods, parks? Their houses, the de. View of the Situation, Trade, &c. of scription and names of them? The

DUNDEE. chief of the name and the branches ? The memorable exploits done by THIS opulent and thriving towa them, and the eminent men of the is situated upon the Tay, about 'name? Their heritable command and three miles from its junction with the jurisdiction ?

German ocean. To that river, and To the Royal Burgos.

to the fine country through which it

runs, Dundee is chiefly indebted for Of what standing ? The constitu. her present prosperity. The town tion of their government? Their pri- itself, it must be owned, is not much vileges, jurisdiction, and its extent ? calculated to inspire the stranger Their public houses, churches, forts, with ideas of elegance. The houses monuments, universities, colleges, are of an immoderate height, and schools, hospitals, manufactures, har.. built too close to each other; no rebours ? What their latitude and lon- gular plan is observed, nor are there gitude is &c. ?

any gardens or open places for exer

cise and amusement. To the Universities and Colleges.

These defects,

however, are common to Dundee, What standing they are of? Their with all cities of great antiquity, in privileges, jurisdictions, and its ex the construction of which, the obtent? Their constitution ? The num ject seems rather to have been to ber of their Professors, their names ? crowd the greatest possible number What they teach? Their salaries, into a given space, than to make any


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provision for their health, or com. med, and enlarged, by a number of fort. The buildings lately added, how. succeeding monarchs. It was third ever, are in a more modern and ele- in rank of the four boroughs, which, gant style; and the barracks erected from their importance, were accusat the west end of the town are par- tomed to give security for the obserticularly handsome.

vance of national treaties; these were The situation of Dundee is fine. Edinburgh, Perth, Dundee, and A. Immediately to the south berdeen. the Tay, which is here two or As a fortified place, too, it was three miles broad, with a shore, bold, anciently regarded as of high imporrocky, and in some places perpendi tance. Edward I. having taken it, cular. A little behind the town ex. placed a strong garrison there, with tends a ridge of hills, not of any un- the view of keeping in awe the common height, but whose forms are neighbouring country. It was wresvery elegant

and pleasing. The Law ted from him, however, by Sir Wilof Dundee is 525 feet high. The liam Wallace ; but after the death of slope which descends from these that hero, fell again into the hands of heights towards the sea, is particu. the English. Robert Bruce having, larly beautiful, watered by several under the weaker reign of Edward II. streams, and affording a fine situa. found means to reassert the indepention for the villas of Blackness, Bal. dence of his native country, recover. gay, Dudhope, and several others. ed this city along with the rest of Dundee has a very fine appearance the kingdom, and demolished the from the opposite side of the water; castle, that it might never again be a with its singular and lofty spire; its means of holding Scotland in subjecstreets scattered irregularly on the tion. Dundee, however, continued winding shores of the Tay, and co- still a place of strength, and was nical hills rising behind.

successively taken in the reigos Dundee appears to be a city of of Richard II. and Edward Ví.; great antiquity, as there are no re- and in 1645 by the marquis of Moncords or traditions relative to its first trose. On all these occasions, it foundation. The following account seems to have had a full share of the is given of the manner in which it calamities which, in those barbarous received its name. David, Earl of times, were uniformly reserved for Huntingdon, returning about the cities taken by storm. But the most middle of the twelfth century from destructive siege, by far, which it e. the holy wars, encountered a dread. ver sustained, was that in 1651, ful storm, from which he with diffi. from the army under general Monk. culty escaped. To express his gra. The pillage and slaughter continued titude for this deliverance, he built for three successive days, during the present parish church, and gave which, a sixth part of the inhabito the place the name of Deidonum, tants are supposed to have perished. or the gift of God; which, expressed So great was the booty, that every in English, by Dondei, ar Dondé, common soldier was calculated, on an was gradually changed into Dundee. average, to have received 6ol. for his Its privileges as a royal burgh are share. Sixty ships which were lyvery ancient. A charter has been ing in the harbour, (an evidence of found which it received from Robert the then flourishing commercial state Bruce, who recognizes its being pos- . of Dundee,) were seized by the vica sessed of the same in the time of his tors, but were all lost in crossing the predecessor William, who began his bar of the river, which was, no doubt, reign in 1165; and they were confirm regarded by the inhabitants as a just


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Punishment of their cruelty and ra- and made it the principal one itt Pacity.

Dundee. Sack-cloth, bagging, and The first well-authenticated ac. other coarse fabrics, to a considerable count which we have of the popula. amount. Coloured thread is also tion of Dundee, is immediately pre manufactured to the extent of above

. vious to the last · mentioned siege, 30,000l. ; but the spinners live at a when it appears to have contained distance, in the cheaper parts of the somewhat more than eight thousand country. Tanped leather, soap, and inhabitants. Notwithstanding the glass, are also considerable articles. loss it then suffered, the numerous The total number of looms in Dune garrison placed in it by Monk, kept dee, employed in all different branup for some time the population to ches, is calculated by Dr Small at that number. On its removal, a

1800 or 1900. great decrease became immediately It is now a considerable time, visible, and continued during the since the brilliant example of Glasreign of Charles II. Under his suc- gow, Paisley, and other towns on the cessor it amounted to 1420. Nor west coast, led to an attempt at had the union apparently any effect establishing the cotton manufacture in reviving it. For a certain period, at Dundee. Dr Small, in 1792, indeed, this event seems to have been speaks of it as in a promising state. rather injurious to the Scottish com- In 1793-4 there were seven spinning mercial towns, which depended great mills, the carding machinery of which ly on their intercourse with France. was driven by horses, and the hand

Even in 1746, the population does jennies were wrought by men or woa not appear to have exceeded 5302. The yarn produced was value At that time, the town was built al. ed at about 20,000l. But this branch most wholly of wood; the highest of business, which had brought such shop rent was 3l. : and two churches, wealth to the western counties of and a small independent meeting Renfrew and Lanark, was found were found more than sufficient. Å here to be not only unprofitable, but most rapid increase seems to have ruinous. All those, who had no onow taken place; for in 1755, the ther dependence, became bankrupt ; number returned to Dr Webster was while the rest, after losing part of 12,477 ; this, however, includes the tbeir money, were happy to save the parish, which might contain about a rest by dropping all concero in-the thousand. In 1766, 12,426 ; in 1781, business. The easy communication 15,700; in 1788, 19,329 ; and in with the West Indies, which fur1792, 22,000. Since that time it nishes both the materials, and the has risen to above 26,000, the a- best market for this manufacture, mount in 1801.

seems to be the circumstance which Linen, the old staple of Scotland, gives Glasgow so striking a superiohas been always the chief manufac-, rity. ture of Dundee. That of Osna. Dundee, however, has found amburghs, and other coarse linens, in ple compensation for the loss of her 1792 amounted to 3,181,990 yards, cotton manufacture, in the great ex. valued at 80,00ol. Sail-cloth was tension of that of linen, particularly naturally encouraged by its maritime Osnaburghs, cotton bagging, and situation, and at the abovemention.

Instead of cotton, lint spincd periods wax rated at 704,000 ning mills are every where rearing yards, value 32,00ol ; but the de. their heads, not only in Dundee, but hand occasioned by the war has throughout all Angushire; and in greatly increased this manufacture, erecting these, a much greater capi,

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