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the decomposition of water in volca- tube of glass if it had not been drawn nic eruptions.

back very quickly. The author colFrom the gth to the 14th the cur- lected some specimens of the lavas of rent scontinued their progress; the ash- this eruption; the following are the es fell even in the bay of Naples, and most remarkable. the p:llar of smoke, pushed by the 1. Lava, hard, basaltic, of a black winds, reached as high as the isle of colour, containing olivines and mica Capri.

in lircle lainina of an emerald green The 14th was one of the most aw. This is what flowed during the erup. ful days of this eruption. Vesuvius tion. seemed in a general conflagration ;

2. Lava, sinilar to the preceding, all the rivers of lava, swollen by new

detached from the current, shining streams, put themselves in motion, and girssy within, scoriform in its overflowed, and covered all the space surface. between them with a thick and red. 3. Spongy lava, black within, reddish smoke. The progress of the dish without, containing a quantity currents was rapid. Did they meet of olivines, of mica, of sulphur, and trees on their passage; they went of iron. This lava has been thrown round them, and continued their out by the volcano, and then carmarch. If these trees were dry, ried along by the currents. they were soon seen kindling and 4. Lava, light, fibrous, almost re. burning with a bright flame; if they duced to the state of pounce, a little

green, the leaves begin by yellowish, interspersed with eightgrowing yellow, the trunks bent ; sided crystals of iron. then they were partly consumed, and 5. Lava, spongy, black, covered remained like coal. As for those with sulphur, and with a greenish which were found only exposed to substance, having the appearance of the heat of the lavas, a white and sa- an oxyde of copper. This specimen line dust was collected upoi their was collected.upon the hillocks forshrunk and discoloured leaves. med in the interior of the crater. Sometimes these lavas covered only 6. Spongy lava, with pure sulphur trunks of trees which had been cut on its surface. before it had reached them: then 7. Lava with earthen grains, greythere rose from the point of immer- ish, containing in its cavities muriate sion a flame bright and transient, or of soda, sparkling and coloured, which might 8. Lava, containing sulphur and arise from the burning of some part of muriat,crystalized in six-sided shelves the wood in putrefaction; or there terminated by three-sided pyramids. is no doubt, adds the aut lor, that 9. Lava, black, decomposed, with phosphorus exists in putrid vegeta- a grape fixed io its surface.

The ble, as well as animal substances. specimen is curious only on account

On the 15th a new mouth opened of this peculiarity. The grains of to the south - west of the crater, the grape have been rounded and which poured forth fire and burning hardened upon the lava, whilst the

The author wished to try juice which issued from it has form. the heat of a current of lava which ed, by boiling, a sort of hard and solid had stopt in the territory of Camul foam. dules : he plunged the thermometer 10. A specimen similar to the into a crevice : in two minutes two preceding: Instead of a grape, this seconds, the mercury rose from 24° bears a still green, which has dried, to the rate of boiling water. Its im- hardened, and preserved its natural petuosity would have broken the colour.


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On the 26th the currents stopt.- On the Contrariety between an Author's The trial of the thermometer renew.

Life and Writings. ed upon the lava of the Camuldules indicated still the degree of boiling

« -All mankind in contradiccion strong." water, but the mercury rose with

YOUNG. somewhat less rapidity. It may be

SIR, Temarked that the electrometer never gave any sign of electricity near the THAT many contend for the excurrents of lava, whether they were cellence of morality, who display in motion, or at rest.

no personal zeal for the performance On the 17th the author went a- of its duties, is a melancholy, but innew upon Vesuvius ; the whole cra- contestible fact : seclusion from the ter was full of alkaline and sulphu- bustle of public life, in many instanric vapours ; its area was filled up ces, has allowed this inconsistency of with sand, with stones, with smoking character to pass undetected. But lavas,on the surface of which were for when admiration of genius has tempmed crusts of sulphur, marine, and ted some to a nearer view of the ammoniac salts. He heard horrible private deportment of those whose zoarings under ground, three mouths performances excited it, they have vomited flames; two others threw up repeated their curiosity, and recoiled ashes and smoke; the hillocks were with indignation from the bare reci. raised, the electrometer gave signs of tal of their failings. The lives theyihigh electricity ; in short, nothing an- magired were enlightened by principle nounced the termination of this erup- and purified by virtue, have been sultion.

lied with imperfection, and degraded On the 18th a quantity of ashes by vice. From this cause, the talents was collected on the platforms of the exerted in diffusing knowledge a. houses at Naples. The author mea- mongst mankind have lost their cele. sured the distance which the lavas brity and reverence, when they had run over from the crater to the have proved ineffective to regulate point at which they had arrived this the conduct of those who possesed day, under Mount St. Angels. He them ; who seemed to have the clearfound that it was 22,600 palms. est ideas of their duty, but were un

The Duke della Torre, terminates able to discharge it; who encouraged here his journal by an affecting pic. others in the arduous paths of virtue, ture of the calamities already expe. but have wanted fortitude to direct rienced by the inhabitants of Vesu. their own steps ; who endeavoured to vius. He estimates the damage cau

overturnthe influence of vice but, have sed to the cultivated lands at 60,000 secretly bowed at its inhallowed altar. ducats, without reckoning the loss The emotions excited by a review of the approaching harvests. of fruits of such facts, extend their pernicious

He proposes to continue effects to the practice of the feeble his journal till the end of the erup- and irresolute; and, if they do not tion, and to publish at greater length extinguish the latent flame of princi. every thing remarkable that he has ple,at leastsmother its vigour, and re. observed. This second part of his tard its progress. work will be accompanied by a plan From this frequent incongruity of of Vesuvius and the neighbouring principle and practice, some indivifields, which will present the march duals (especially D'Israeli) have been of the currents of lava, and, by many induced to establish as an aphorism plates, which will give iuteresting in literature, that the natural disposi. views.

tions of authors are diametrically op

and grapes.


Can we

posed to those displayed in their ness, and animated amidst the perworks. But the principles of human plexities of life. But when they are conduct seldom admii of being redu- traced into the thronged walks of life, ced into general rules. For they are they are seen openly violating the 60 much modified by prejudice, cus. principles which it has been the com, and original peculiarities of business of their lives to impress umind, that they vary in different per- pon others. Their deviations from dusons, and in the same person under ty, and degeneracy of manners, con. different impressions. The inference vey an explicit disavowal of the influindeed is deduced from part al views, ence and tendency of all their docand superficial enquiry. It is oppo. trines. Thus the imaginary phantom sed by the laws of reason and the dissipates at a nearer approach, and dicrates of common sense.

leaves the mind enveloped in vncerconceive that men willingly devote tainty and doubt. their chief attention to objects in When we meet with such authors, which they are not interested ? or, if we would profit by their labours, we that they passively sacrifice the ener- must overlook their inconsistencies, gies of their minds to whim or ea. and recollect that virtue posseses such price? The conduct of hundreds ,dignity as to awe her inveterate foes must carry conviction to every candid into reverepce, and constrain them to mind, that the supposition originates become her strenuous defeoders, in from a fallacy of observation. The spite of the inherent corruption which characters to which it refers, may upfits them for obeying her laws. rather be deemed exceptions from a It must be acknowledged, that ma. more universal rule. li is true, that ny who have long felt, and acted they who investigate subjects connec- from convictions of principle, have ted with human life, must obey the un. sacrificed their integrity to sudden or biassed results of judgment in instruc- violent temptation. Thus a palpable ting others, and that in proportion contrariety has arisen between their as they fear to teach what is right, characters and writings. Their

peror try to defend what the general severance has relaxed ; and they have sense of mankind condemns, their secretly languished under the corrocharacters sink in the public esteem. ding dominion of vice, which they Self interest must, therefore, be the endeavoured to conceal from the motive of those, who are careless world, on account of the character whether they shall enlighten or injure they formerly supported by their society, and labour merely that they works, and by their example. Tho' may catch the voice of popular ap. they have written from nobler and more plause. They must often be led to disinterested motives than the aurecommend the virtues they never thors of whom I formerly took nopractise, and to deliver sentiments, tice, still it must be confessed, their the force of which they never feel conduct has been injurious to the They must also be compelled to re- cause in which they were embarked. probare vices, to the perpetration of In this case, the inconsistency of which they are peculiarly inclined, character seems chiefly to arise from and, by consequence, to condemn the the peculiar temptations to which conduct they daily pursue. These con sensibility of passion exposes men of stitute the lowest and most mercenary cultivated understandings. Great tribe of authors. Their labours, how- sensibility depends, in some measure, ever, may be crowned with success, on the original conformation of the and many may attest the salubrity buman mind. But as its connection of their maxin's, whom they have with delicacy oftaste is almost univers confirmed in the pursuit of happi.. sal, whether a man inherits is from

June 1806.

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nature or acquires it from habit; if their measures, and publish to the his genius lead him to consecrate his world the unbiassed maxims of spe. life to intellectual pursuits, his passions culative virtue. From abstract reauniformly become stronger in propor- sonings on the dignity of their princition as his nobler faculties are im- ples, and the cogency of the arguproved; and, though never too vio. ments on which they insist, they flatlent for the guidance of reason, they ter themselves that they are fortified do not remain stationary or inactive. against the contagion of example, “The greatest geniases,” says an ele- and fitted to conteinplate the actions gant author, “ have commonly the of others with the coolness of indifstrongest affections ; 28, on the other ference. But follow them into the hand, the weaker understandings have world, and they will sometimes be gennerally the weaker passions ; and found sacrificing their best disposiit is fit the fury of the coursers should tions, and most permanent interests not be too great for the strength of to the prejudices or solicitations of the charioteer *.

those around them. The inspiration When a man of gerius possesses of the closet is past. The still voice this delicacy of passion, and keeps it of reason is hushed by the syren ander proper controul, honour and tongue of dissimulation, or is overdignity adorn bis personal character, powered by the clamours of promis. and reflect irresistible lustre on the cuous multitudes. Conscience is lull. authority of his precepts. Impressed ed into a momentary calm, and its with the important tendency of his suggestions are dismissed without doctrines, and anxious to evince tbeir consideration. The virtues cherished possibility, be points out the way, in solitude, and strengthened by fre. and proposes the reward of faithful quent meditation, give place to the endeavours.

tumults of disordered reason. The But, on the other hand, when the action of the nobler faculties is susintellectual balance is destroyed, the pended, and liberty of thought is ob. passions become wayward and unruly, stracted by passion. They are exfrom being deprived of the support posed to the vitiated habits, and pasand countenance of reason. By in- sions, and example of others : and perceptible degrees, their delicacy are driven about by a variety of imdegenerates into an irritability of pulse, and solicited by motives which temper, and they soon usurp autho- never intruded into their retirements, rity over judgement. They foster, They feel their inability for the con. at last, the same vicious indulgencies test, and, because they have not lei. as in those who acknowledge no o- sure to examine or deliberare, they ther motives of action than their pre. choose what they have repeatedly dominant appetites suggest to them. taught others to reject. Foibles that Philosophy cannot teach men to die allure the unthinking into excess and vest themselves of humanity. Tho' intemperance in gratification, betray their feelings are refined, still they them also when they are hurried into retain their-vigour, and render them action without being prepared. Their obnoxious io all the sorrows and vex- fortitude forsakes them in the trying ations of life. Calm and deliberate hour of temptation, or of difaculty; reflection strengthens their other fa- and they forget the dignity of virtue, culties, and qualifies them to discern renounce her authority, and trample theproper means of a:taining rational on her most sacred laws. comfort and enjoyment. In the clo- Thus, they who have stood high set they form their schemes, conduct in the literary world have shewn.

themselves as vicious and unprinci. Spectator, No. 408.



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pled as them whose ignorance they pay that respect which is due to his pitied and despised; and have con- memory, and to record some memovinced mankind of a truth they do rial of his character and his name. not readily admit, that the philoso- The gaiety and amusements of pher reasons common affairs, fashionable life were congenial with where his passions are influenced, in his youth, and lively disposition. the same spirit and weakness with The uncommon fineness of his face, those who never speculate on more his stature, general prepossessing ap: elevated subjects.

R. N1. pearance and address, distinguished (To be continued.)

him fioin the crowd, and ensured him that reception, which is always gratifying and frequently dangerous

to a young man just entering upon Some Account of the late Dr Yet it did not intoxicate him,

it did not in the least throw a veil SIR,

over the natural and open qualities of his heart.

His company was court, , was was born in the neighbourhood no man. had less artifice or affectaof Mallow, in the county of Cork. tion, and he always retained that hoIn early life he lost his father; was nesty, affability, and frankness which the second son of a numerous family, characterised him. These qualities over which his mother watched with much endeared him to his friends, tenderness, and to whom, and to him rendered him esteemed by a numein particular, she looked for the hap- rous acquaintance, and generally adpiness and support of her widowhood mired in public or in private life.

He was educated under The steadiness with which he prepa. Mr Bulkley, and in the autumn of red for his examinations antecedent 2802 repaired to Edinburgh, to pro- to his degree, the examinations which secute the study of medicine, which he passed, bis repeated selection by he had chosen for his profession. In the clinical professor as his clerk, September 1805, he obtained the the manner in which he executed degree of doctor of medicine. In the that office, and in which he presided spring and winter of that year, he over the Physical Society, gave protwice officiated as clinical clerk to mise of considerable eminence in his Dr Duncan. He was elected one of profession when maturer life and en. the presidents of the Royal Physical larged experience should present mo. Society ; but during his presidency, tives for industry, and call for the and soon after he had entered on the sacrifice of pleasure on the altar of office of clinical clerk to Dr Home, duty. jun, a second attack of disease, which Thro' his protracted, painful, and baffled the skill of his medical atten- fatal illness, lie had every attention dants, cut short his existence, in the and assistance which numerous kind 22d year of his age.

friends, and the most skilful of the These few dates and particulars medical profession could supply. His comprise the principal incidents of a sufferings were acute, and he at life, thus spent, and thus early termi- length sunk under them. About an nated. Yet he died, not unknown, hour before his death, he was free unwept, nor unhonoured ; and by the from.pain, knew and spoke to the event, which has bereft his friends of friend who was attending him, and all but the remembrance of him, a about eleven at night, without a sacred duty devolves upon them to struggle or a groan, serenely breath.


and age.

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