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Lal has been sunk than in the fruit. have heard of an honest citizen of less attempt to establish cotton spin. Dundee, who, before introducing his ning. Three fax spinning mills are son to the class of moral philosoalready in motion within the town of phy, insisted upon being informed Dundee, and the foundation of ano. “ what good it would do him in his ther has been laid, on a much larger business.” This town, however, now scale, and of the newest construc. experiences the good effects of that tion, which will cost 22,000l. The general diffusion of knowledge by quantity of coarse linen manufactur- which the present age is honourably ed in 1805, was 3,900,000 yards. distinguished. Its value begins to

The inhabitants of Dundee still be felt ; liberality of sentiment gains retain, in a great degree, the old ground among the opulent and midmercantile character sober, indus- dling classes ; and several institutions trious, and frugal-social without for education have been lately formprofuseness, and hospitable without ed, which it is hoped may be attendostentation. In 1792, Dundee con- ed with the best effects. tained only nine male servants, and Dundee has produced a considerof these none belonged to persons en

able number of eminent men, gaged in trade. Their attachment mong whom are, Alexander Scrym. to religion is zealous, though per- seour, a companion of Sir William haps, as in most manufacturing Wallace, and two of his descentowns, somewhat tinctured with a dants, who distinguished themselves gloomy and sectarian spirit. Sece- in the civil wars; Hector Bocce the ders, Antiburghers, and Indepen- historian, and Mar, an intimate friend dents, amount altogether to about of the great Napier ; George Yea3000. However, as the flaming zeal man, member of Parliament at the of their ancestors in ancient times is time of the Union, to whom Scotnow quite extinguished, this disposi- land is indebted for many beneficial tion

may be rather useful to the low. regulations. The families of Fleter orders, by giving them an aver. cher of Salton, the celebrated pa. sion even to those innocent amuse. triot, and of the late Lord Loughments, which might lead them into borough, were both natives of Dun. expence, and to the aeglect of their dee. Lord Duncan, though not a occupations.

native, received there the first rudi. The ingenious author of the sta. ments of his education. Two of the tistical account of Dundee com. firet Mathematicians of our time have plains that, in' 1792, there did not been clergymen of Dundee. exist, with the exception of the grammar school, a single institution for public instruction in the simplest and most necessary branches of human Journal of the Eruption of VESUVIUS. knowledge. This is a defect com.

By Duke Della Torre. mon indeed to Dundee, with most

(Concluded from p. 332.) other large towns in Scotland. Yet,

N it must be confessed, that a town On the 1st September, the Duke purely commercial does not in gene

della Torre went up on Vesural afford a soil very favourable for vius to observe the changes that had the growth of the arts and sciences. happened in its crater. 46 I found Profit is there naturally the leading it, says he, very different from what object ; and every article, which can. it was on the night of che 14th Au. not be converted into hard cash, is gust. Its area was almost entirely in danger of being little valued. We filled, both with lavas, for the mort


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part still inflamed and smoking, and On the 4th, a violent storm came with stones and sand. A number of from the east, and lasted more than bullocks bad risen at some distance two hours. The fire encreased this from each other; the highest had night and the day following ; the taken the place of the gulf that I throwing out of stones was more had seen for the first time ; they frequent, new and copious streams of were covered with scorias sprinkled lava were seen descending from the with a very fine dust of sal-ammoniac and sulphur; there issued from it On the 6th notwithstanding this infumes of a suffocating smell.

crease of matter, the currents did not Behind these hillocks, towards the advance. A more considerable noise walls of Attajano, I counted five new was heard in the mountain, and the jets of fire and stones, which darted smoke redoubled. upwards with noise and impetuosity, On the 7th the currents resumed fell back sometimes into their own their course. The duke Della Torre gulfs, and were presently repelled mounted upon the borders of the crawith whirlwinds of smoke and ashes. ter, and did not find any great chan. Notwithstanding the quantity of ca- ges, the hillocks were a little raised; loric which must be developed in so two mouths threw out fire, two 0great a conflagration, the tempera. thers ashes, and the fifth, the largest ture of the atinosphere did not ap- and that which formerly vomited pear to me to be sensibly altered, al- most flames, gave only a black smoke. Though I was at the distance of only He observed, upon blocks of cooled 1000 palms from the sources of the lava, a saline crust, composed of amlava ; the thermometer, which at moniac and of muriat of Soda. He my departure from Naples marked found large pieces of this last salt in 24o, descended here to 19o. The a lava decomposed by grains of earth. electrometer indicated a great degree His opinion is, that this lava exists of electricity, much more sensible not in a fossile state in the heart of when I placed it on the earth than the mountain, but that it is furnished when I suspended it in the air. by the waters of the sea. This time

I advanced to the very banks of in performing a circuit round the the fluid lava which flowed from the borders, he was able to advance to the crater ; it resembled crystal in a state very scource of the fluid lava. It of fusion ; it had the same colour, issued from a grotto formed of the lustre, and consistence. I threw over 'same substance hardened, and was a large stone, which made only a slight collected in a little bason, whence it impression and was carried to the flowed by a canal along the cone. surface. I threw a second, to mea- The author threw into the lava of tbe sure its motion, and with the watch bason a stone which sunk altogeth. in my

hand I saw that it run over at er : he was able without great efforts least two palms in a second. The to push in the end of a staff more thermometer, placed at the distance than a palm; after having been drawn of six palms, rose in two minutes to back, the part immersed' threw at the degree of boiling water. To my first a bright flame, and then remaingreat regret I could not ascertain ed like coal, the intensity of the caloric of this On the Sth a new storm came on. lava, for want of a pyrometer proper The author observes, that every time for such an experiment.

rain fell, the streams of lava were The ad and 3d there was nothing more abundant, and he thence draws remarkable. The currents continu. a new proof of the effect produced by ed their march.


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the decomposition of water in volca. tube of glass if it had not been drawn nic eruptions.

back very quickly. The author col. From the gth to the 14th the cur- lected some specimens of the lavas of rent scontinued their progress; the ash- this eruption ; the following are the es fell even in the bay of Naples, and most remarkable. the pillar of smoke, pushed by the 1. Lava, hard, basaltic, of a black winds, reached as high as the idle of colour, containing olivines and mica Capri.

in lircle lamina of an emerald green The 14th was one of the most aw. This is what flowed during the erup. ful days of this eruption. Vesuvius tion. seemed in a general confiagration ; 2. Lava, siinilar to the preceding, all the rivers of lava, swollen by new

detached from the current, shining streams, put themselves in motion, and glassy within, scoriform in its overflowed, and covered all the


surface. ; between them with a thick and red. 3. Spongy lava, black within, reddish smoke. The progress of the dish without, containing a quantity currents was rapid. Did they meet of olivines, of mica, of sulphur, and trees on their passage ; they went of iron. This lava has been thrown round them, and continued their out by the volcano, and then carmarch. If these trees were dry, ried along by the currents. they were soon seen kindling and 4. Lava, light, fibrous, almost reburning with a bright flame; if they duced to the state of pounce, a little were green, the leaves begin by ye lowish, interspersed with eightgrowing yellow, the trunks bent ; sided crystals of iron. then they were partly consumed, and 5. Lava, spongy, black, covered remained like coal. As for those with sulphur, and with a greenish which were found only exposed to substance, having the appearance of the heat of the lavas, a white and sa- an oxyde of copper. This specimen line dust was collected upoi their was collected upon the hillocks forshrunk and discoloured leives. med in the interior of the crater. Sometimes these lavas covered only 6. Spongy lava, with pure sulphur trunks of trees which had been cut on its surface. before it had reached them: then 7. Lava with earthen grains, greythere rose from the point of immer- ish, containing in its cavities muriate sion a flame bright and transient, or of soda, sparkling and coloured, which might 8. Lava, containing sulphur and arise from the burning of some part of muriat,crystalized in six-sided shelves the wood in putrefaction; or there terminated by three-sided pyramids. is no doubt, adds the author, that 9. Lava, black, decomposed, with phosphorus exists in putrid vegeta- a grape fixed to its surface. The ble, as well as animal substances. specimen is curious only on account

On the 15th a new mouth opened of this peculiarity. The grains of to the south - west of the crater, the grape have been rounded and which poured forth fire and burning hardened upon the lava, whilst the stones. The author wished to try juice which issued from it has form. the heat of a current of lava which ed, by boiling, a sort of hard and solid had stopt in the territory of Camul foam. dules : he plunged the thermometer 10. A specimen similar to the into a crevice: in two minutes two preceding: Instead of

this seconds, the mercury rose from 24° bears a still green, which has dried, to the rate of boiling water. Its im- hardened, and preserved its natural petuosity would have broken the colour.


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On the 26th the currents stopt.- On the Contrariety between an Author's The trial of the thermometer renew.

Life and Writings. ed upon the lava of the Camuldules indicated still the degree of boiling

" -All mankind in contradiction strong." water, but the mercury rose with

YOUNG. somewhat less rapidity. It may be

SIR, gemarked that the electrometer never gave any sign of electricity near the THAT many contend for the excurrents of lava, whether they were cellence of morality, who display in motion, or at rest.

no personal zeal for the performance On the 17th the author went a. of its duties, is a melancholy, but innew upon Vesuvius ; the whole cra. contestible fact : seclusion from the ter was full of alkaline and sulphu- bustle of public life, in many

instan. ric vapours ; its area was filled up ces, has allowed this inconsistency of with sand, with stones, with smoking character to pass undetected. But lavas,on the surface of which were for when admiration of genius has tempmed crusts of sulphur, marine, and ted some to a nearer view of the ammoniac salts. He heard horrible private deportment of those whose zoariogs under ground, three mouths performances excited it, they have vomited flames;

two others threw up repeated their curiosity, and recoiled ashes and smoke; the hillocks were with indignation from the bare reci. raised, the electrometer gave signs of tal of their failings. The lives they i. high electricity ; in short, nothing an- magned were enlightened by principle nounced the termination of this erup- and purified by virtue, have been sul. tion.

lied with imperfection, and degraded On the 18th a quantity of ashes by vice. From this cause, the talents was collected on the platforms of the exerted in diffusing knowledge a. houses at Naples. The author mea- mongst mankind have lost their cele. sured the distance which the lavas brity and reverence, when they had run over from the crater to the have proved ineffective to regulate point at which they had arrived this the conduct of those who possesed day, under Mount St. Angels. He them ; who seemed to have the clearfound that it was 22,600 palms. est ideas of their duty, but were un

The Duke della Torre, terminates able to discharge it ; who encouraged here his journal by an affecting pic. others in the arduous paths of virtue, ture of the calamities already expe. but have wanted fortitude to direct rienced by the inhabitants of Vesu- their own steps ; who endeavoured to vius. He estimates the damage cau- overturnthe influence of vice but, have sed to the cultivated lands at 60,000 secretly bowed at its inhallowed altar. ducats, without reckoning the loss The emotions

The emotions excited by a review of the approaching harvests of fruits of such facts, extend their pernicious and

proposes to continue effects to the practice of the feeble his journal till the end of the erup- and irresolute; and, if they do not tion, and to publish at greater length extinguish the latent flame of princi. every thing remarkable that he has ple,at leastsmother its vigour, and re. observed. This second part of his tard its progress. work will be accompanied by a plan From this frequent incongruity of of Vesuvius and the neighbouring principle and practice, some indivi. fields, which will present the march duals (especially D'Israeli) have been of the currents of lava, and, by many induced to establish as an aphorism plates, which will give iuteresting in literature, that the natural disposi.

tions of authors are diametrically op


grapes. He


Can we

posed to those displayed in thrir ness, and animated amidst the perworks. But the principles of human plexities of life. But when they are conduct seldom admit of being redu- traced into the thronged walks of life, ced into general rules. For they are they are seen openly violating the so much modified by prejudice, cus. principles which it has been the com, and origioal peculiarities of business of their lives to impress umind, that they vary in different per- pon others. Their deviations from dusons, and in the same person under ty, and degeneracy of manners, con. different impressions. The inference vey an explicit disavowal of the influindeed is deduced from part al views, ence and tendency of all their docand superficial enquiry. It is oppo- trines. Thus the imaginary phantom sed by the laws of reason and the dissipates at a nearer approach, and dicrates of common sense.

leaves the mind enveloped in uncerconceive that men willingly devote tainiy and doubt. their chief attention to objects in When we meet with such authors, which they are not interested ? or, if we would profit by their labours, we that they passively sacrifice the ener: must' overlook their inconsistencies, gies of their minds to whim or ea. and recollect that virtue posseses such price? The conduct of hundreds dignity as to awe her inveterate foes must carry conviction to every candid into reverence, and constrain them to mind, that the supposition criginates become her strenuous defeoders, in from a fallacy of observation. The spite of the inherent corruption which characters to which it refers, may uofits them for obeying her laws. rather be deemed exceptions from a It must be acknowledged, that ma. more universal rule. li is true, that ny who have long felt, and acted they who investigate subjects connec- from convictions of principle, have ted with human life, must obey the un. sacrificed their integrity to sudden or biassed results of judgment in instruc- violent temptation. Thus a palpable ting others, and that in proportion contrariety has arisen between their as they fear to teach what is right, characters and writings. Their

peror try to defend what the general severance has relaxed ; and they have sense of mankind condemns, their secretly languished under the corrocharacters sink in the public esteem. ding dominion of vice, which they Self interest must, therefore, be the endeavoured to conceal from the motive of those, who are careless world, on account of the character whether they shall enlighten or injure they formerly supported by their society, and labour merely that they works, and by their example. Tho' may catch the voice of popular ap. they have written from nobler and more plause. They must often be led to disinterested motives than the aurecommend the virtues they never thors of whom I formerly took nopractise, and to deliver sentiments, tice, still it must be confessed, their the force of which they never feel conduct has been injurious to the They must also be compelled to re- cause in which they were embarked. probare vices, to the perpetration of In this case, the inconsistency of which they are peculiarly inclined, character seems chiefly to arise from and, by consequence, to condemn the the peculiar temptations to which conduct they daily pursue. These con- sensibility of passion exposes men of stitute the lowest and most mercenary cultivated understandings.

Great tribe of authors. Their labours, how. sensibility depends, in some measure, ever, may be crowned with success, on the original conformation of the and many may

aftest the salubrity human mind. But as its connection of their maxias, whom they have with delicacy oftaste is almost univerconfirmed in the pursuit of happi. sal, whether a man inherits it from

June 1806.

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