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tains now thrown into pasture were 20 or 25 years. Now, let us apply formerly covered only with deer, this to the relative condition of Gicat roes, and wild goats; and the only Britain and America. Suppose that bardship which the Highlander suf. of the ten millions which the former fers is, being no longer able to spend country contains, one should emir his time in pursuing these animals. grate. There is no likelihood of the But if so, whence the constant com. number being nearly so great; but plaints, which we have heard, of ara. whatever holds in regard to this ble land converted into pasture, and greater, must hold still more unquesfarmers turned out to make room tionably as to any smaller nu ber. for this new system.
However ill Now, it is evident, that in the course founded the principle of these com- of 20 years, the remaining nine mil. plaints may be, they could hardly lions would not only repair, but have arisen without some foundation would much more tban repair this in fact: Accordingly the author of loss. They might multiply, in that "Remarks” clearly admits the de- period, to eighteen millions, a much populating tendency of pasturage, greater population than Great Britain but thinks it is now carrying to such would probably, by that time, be an extent as will lower the price of able to subsist. In the mean time, mutton, and oblige the Highland this diminution of numbers would landlords again to recur to the sys- render more comfortable the situatem of agriculture.
However com. tion of those that remained. It would fortable a prospect this may open for produce a mitigation of all those the supply of our low country tables, evils which arise from the difficulty we are afraid it will not be soon veri. of subsistence. The
manufacfied to any great extent, nor, even turers and capitalists might doubtless supposing it certain, does it appear experience some inconvenience from what the expelled labourers are to do the increase of wages, but the condiin the mean time. The author of the tion of the great body of the people letters agrees entirely with Lord Sel. would be improved by it. kırk as to the depopulating tendency Let us now follow our colony over of the new system.
to America, to those immense deThe next question is, whether serts, through which Rochefaucault those who have been thus disposses- describes himself as travelling for sed of their farms may not be advan. days without seeing the vestige of a tageously employed in their native human habitation.
Here the great country. Before proceeding to the want, if we may use the expression, details of this subject, it may be pro- is that of a capital stock of popula. per to enquire into the general prin- tion, with which to begin ; for a ciple, whether emigration, considered geometrical progression does not enin itself, and when not attended with crease rapidly, unless the first term individual hardship, he not really a be of some magnitude. Canada is national benefit. This position, how- not supposed by Volney to contain ever paradoxical it may be thought, above 200,000 inhabitants ; not ncarappears to
us to rest on the mostly the hundredth part of what it ascertained principles of political e- night be able to maintain. The conomy.
emigrating million, therefore, finding Most of our readers are probably full scope for multiplying itself, may, aware of the fact, that wherever in the course of a century, amount to there is no obstruction from the diffi. 30 millions, which, but for this ori. culty of procuring food, a nation is ginal emigration, would never have found to double its numbers every existed, The emigration from Bri
The first year
tain to America seems therefore, in author of " Letters” has in fact as. itself, to have a decided tendency to serted, that 3 or 4000 recruits have increase the total amount of human been lately obtained, But we do not existence and enjoyment. This argu- see much occasion for government ment is rendered stronger, if we admit bestirring itself in order to furnish with Lord Selkirk, that a considera- pacific employment to those who ble number of men are turned out would otherwise emigrate. from their old employments, without In these pamphlets we meet with capacity or inclination for any new a good deal of information on the ones which this country may offer. state of the Highlands, which, tho' The author of “ Remarks" indeed from its partial and local nałure, it asserts, that when children are put does not seem very materially to af. very young into a cotton manufacto- fect the general question, is yet of ry, they become as good workmen as considerable interest in itself. any others; but this makes no provi. A practice, called crofting, is said sion for such as are grown up:
to be becoming general. When an We are aware that, admitting the extent of country is thrown into correctness of these general princi- sheep farms, that part of it which ples, the present period does not appears best fitted for arable is die seem quite the most favourable for vided into lots of ten, twelve, or their application. The high wages more acres, upon each of which one given in every branch of labour, family is set down. seem to shew, that Britain does not the tenant pays, perhaps, a rent of labour under any superabundance of Śs. per acre : the second 75. 68.: inhabitants. But the most impor- and so on, until the rent may amount tant circumstance by far, is the pre- to 208. or 30s. per acre. sent political situation of the empire, and the necessity of keeping up a
It is a curious fact, that scarcely an in.
stance has occurred, where a crofter, large military establishment.
i. e, a person who holds a distinct lot of emigration, though it may be an eco. land, has shewn the smallest disposition nomical improvement, certainly tends to emigrate. This clearly shews this to diminish the national military re- mode of occupancy to be suitable to the
The more comfortable is genius and circumstances of the people; the condition of a citizen, and the
and were it universally adopted, in all higher his wages, the less compara
proper situations, it might become an
abundant source of population. tively eligible will be the profession
It is to be observed, in regard to of a soldier, and the more difficult those tracts in the North-west High. will recruiting become ; 'not to men. lands and Isles, held by tacksm«n, tion direct tendency of diminish. though not stocked with sheep,, nor ed numbers to produce fewer re. calculated for that stock, that most of cruits. And, notwithstanding the them are approaching rapidly to a difchange which may have taken place districts, the tacksmen's farms are fal.
ferent system of management. In many in the Highland character, still, cer.
ling fast into the hands of small ten. tainly, the troops, which stormed
ants, who, instead of being cottars, or the batteries of Aboukir, and subdu.
subtenants, as formerly, now hold dia ed the invincibles on the plains of rectly of the proprietor. The proprie. Alexandria, must form a most valua- tors of most of the estates on the Lang ble portion of the British army. Let Island, and other islands, have greatly recruiting serjeants then be sent thro' ameliorated the situation of their people, the Highlands ; every man, whom by this mode of management, while, at
the same time, they have much increa. they can detain from going to Ameri... sed their incomes. ca, is gained to his country. The Lord Selkirk seems to lay particular
stress on the statistical account given change has enabled Clanranald, not only
The estates of Boisdale, Barra, and the A few years ago, Mr Hume of Har- still more extensive estate of North ris, on his return from India, visited bis Uist, belonging to Lord Macdonald, estate for the first time after his ac- are mostly rented by small tenants, and cession to it. The estate was then, with by the judicious management of these the exception of twenty. three small ten- proprietors, yield very great revenues, ants, wholly held in lease by tacksmen. considering their extent. The Island The whole income amounted only to of Lewis, Lord Seaforth’s property, with L.895 per annum ; and so little prospect the exception of some hill-pastuie let to had he of augmenting his rent-roll, that shepherds, is mostly occupied by small he resolved on a sale of the whole pro- tenants. The system of rafting liaving perty at a very moderate price. been already adopted with success on
On farther consideration, it occurred, small tenant farms, is likely to be purthat his estate might be of greater va. sued in these districts, wil each ten. lue than he was, at first, inclined to be- ant shall have a separate division to lieve. He saw a numerous body of himself.
Strictures p. 44. tacksmen, who occupied only small shares of their farms, living in af: fluence and splendour, and amassing
A similar account is given by the considerable wealth, on the labours of
author of Remarks, p. 134-7. This the subtenants and coitars. It occurred practice, however, seems hitherto to to him, thát by letting the farms to the have been confined to the islands, and subtenants and cottars themselves, he some of the most uncultivated parts might relieve his people from many of the Highlands; and we do not vexatious burdens, and pocket the pro- see any likelihood of a complete pro. fits, formerly intercepted by the tacks. vision being made by it for the whole
This resolution was no sooner formed than executed. He let all his population. The author of Remarks, arable farms to small tenants, at speci. in
in describing the conversion of a fied money rents, and abolished all kinds large estate into pasture, only asof services or duties.
serts that, out of humanity, some of The first year he received about one the former inhabitants were accomhundred and eighty new tenants upon modated with pieces of ground.
In his list, and raised the rent to L.3500. The next year, some new openings oc
fact, though the practice may per. curring, he received about fifty addition haps be suited to the present state of al tenants, some of them from other certain parts of the Highlands, it estates, and was thereby enabled to raise does not seem very favourable to the the rent to upwards of L.4000 per annum. most improved and profitable system A considerable part of his estate is yet of agriculture, under lease; and it is likely, as the lea
The fact, that none of these crof. ses expire, that the remainder is desti.
ters have been prevailed 'upon to ned to undergo a similar change, and that his income will be very much in
emigrate, clearly confutes the sup. creased by the change.
position of the Highlanders having On Clanranald's estate of Uist and
any natural disposition to go abroad, Benbecula, a similar change has been when they can be comfortably aclately effected; and most of the lands
commodated at home. are held by small tenants directly from Much stress is laid upon the innthe proprietor. These pay a specified money-rent, and are subjected to no
provement of the fisheries ; yet, even services, or burdens of any description, by their own statements, it appears except the making of kelp; for which
to us that the improvement of these they receive a high rate per ton. This can only be gradual. The following
observations seem deserving of atten. enterprise of its two first seitlers, it has tion.
risen into eminence with a success un
paralleled in any other village in simiThe absolute necessity of an exemp- lar circumstances. It now contains a. tion from duty for all salt used in the bove 2000 inhabitants. The commerce fishery, in order to encourage this ri which it carries on, enables the neighsing and most lucrative manufacture, bourhood to exchange the commodities has induced the legislature to allow the it can spare, for those it stands in need fisheries to enjoy this privilege. But of; the wealth acquired for this barter in order to obtain this exemption, it is has given an additional value to the necessary to go through so many trou
ground for some miles round, and addie blesome and expensive forms, that a tional cultivation to it; and the people poor fisherman is often disappointed it has collected together have relieved when he least expects ii. Besides, he the adjoining district of any excess in must go so far to the custom house, its population. Remarks, p. 184. (often forty or fifty miles) to perform all the requisites for obtaining the ex- One of these modes was simply to emption, that before he can return, the collect the people into fishing villages, fish may have left the ground where leaving them, in a great measure, to their appearance made him prepare him, their own exertions for future success. self for the adventure. If he should It was adopted by Lord Seaforth on fail in the minutest tittle of the multifa- the estates of Kintail and Lochalsh. rious Custom House regulations, he Upon the latter, a village was establishforfeits his claim, which very often is ed at the opening of Loch Duich, in a attended with his ruin. This most ef- situation extremely favourable for the fectually deters him and those of the fishery of the Minch, at a place called neighbourhood who hear of his misfor. Plock, with the view of providing for rune (the justice of which they have the tenantry of the estate a new source perhaps the misfortune to be dull e.
of emulative industry, which might nough not to apprehend) from again serve to draw off from an unskilful and embarking in so perilous an undertak. too subdivided agriculture, the super. ing.
Remarks, p. 174. fluity of persons employed as farmers
on their own account. The same author instances else.
The village of
Plock was planned in 1793 ; and so rawhere.
pid has been its success, that it now The inhabitants of Kenmore profit contains many settlers possessing deckmost amply of the advantage of their ed vessels engaged in the fishery, who situation : curing the whole fishing sea. are in the way of accumulating consideson, their attention is exclusively be- rable wealth, and thereby holding cut a stowed upon that lucrative employe proof, that the possession of a farm is ment; from which, and from the pro- not the sole source of a comfortable duce of their looms, they have acquired maintenance. Another similar institua considerable capital. They have im. tion has been formed at Dornie, on the proved also a great deal of excellent estate of Kintail, upon the shore of the ground which formerly produced no- same Loch ; but as is less favourably thing but heath. The town of Loch- situated (being more remote from the Gilphead, in the same district of coun. Minch) this village is less advanced in try, which at present affords very pro- its progress than Plock, . There exists, mising prospects of becoming a place however, no doubt of its ultimate and of great importance, might also liave complete success. Remarks, p. 188. satisfied him, that where attempts are properly made they will not fail As we never could doubt of the of success. But of all the omissions benevolent and patriotic intentions of which are met with, the total silence the Highland Society, so we have with regard to Oban, can least of all be accounted for. Begun about 40
the satisfaction to find, that their years ago, evithout any very pecu- regulations for the accommodation liar advantages except the possession of of passengers are by no a custom house, and the abilities and unreasonable as we had been led to
suppose. The space required for the rate of 6l. for each passenger. In each individual is stated to be not the year 1801, the rate of freight to Ame. much greater than that which is fix- rica was iol. per passenger; and it is ed by act of Parliainent for the supposed the traders had a profit of at
least sl. on each. But in 1802, from a African negroes : and though it be competition among the traders, the somewhat more than is generally al. freights were reduced so low, as to be, lowed for the military, yet, when we at an average, from 5l. to 6). ; and the coinpare the slovenly and dirty ha- rate was similar in 1803. The traders, bits of the Highlanders (increased however, by crowding immense numas they must be by their new situa. melancholy effects of which are but too
bers of passengers in small ships, the tion,) with that cleanliness which
well ascertained, still continued to draw forms an indispepsible part of the
a profit, varying from 20s. to 5os. 2 soldiers duty, we shall see clearly the head. Since the passing of the act, the necessity of making some distinction rate has been, for 1804 and 1805, at gl. between them. As to the large al. per passenger. lowance of animal food, this is a less But Rabbi, the modern Moses, is to bulky article, and it is one to which deliver the Highlande:s out of the house
of bondage, and carry them to the wil. the Highlanders are said to be much
derness of Prince Edward's, without the accustomed at home,
beneåt of manna, or any other superna. If the statements in these pamph- tural assistance, for 61. a-head. If he lets be correct, it appears to us more is equally prudent with the rest of his clearly than before, that there is no brethren, it is presumed, notwithstandnecessity for such an interference on ing the regulations of the act, his carrythe part of govern:nent as Lord' ing of emigrants will not prove a losing Selkirk recommends. In our num.
speculation. On the contrary, he will
have a profit of 1os. 1-head on the pasber for April last, we introduced a table of Mir Browo's, from which it Strong and Company of Leith and some
sengers ; as I know that Messrs James appears, that by far the greatest other merchants, have chartered their number of emigrants now
direct ships to him at 5l. 105. per passenger, thieir course
to the British setile allowing at the rate of two tons regiments. The stocking a transatlan- ster for each passenger, with the other tic estate with emigrants is said to
Strictures, p. 99. have now become a lucrative concern, in which individuals engage
By this means, the business of with a view to their private emolu, emigration seems to be placed on a ment.
much more satisfactory footing than Several vessels sailed from the north formerly. The persons who used to of Scotland last season with emigrants, take the lead on these occasions and some are preparing to leave it in were the captains of vessels, who the course of the ensuing summer. А had no other object than the profit Mr Rabbi of London, broker and agent which was to be made on the pas. for James Hodges, Esq. of the house
The worse, therefore, that of Bouchea, Hodges, and Co. Cheapstow, Monmouthshire, has engaged se
the passengers fared, and the more
that died by the way, the greater veral cargoes of emigrants in Mull, Skye, and other districts, for Prince was their profit. Arrived in Ameri. Edward's Isle, to whom he has sold ca, they found no one to take any many thousand acres, in thirty. three interest in them, or afford them the and other lots, in that island, at a rate of least assistance. The only resource 500 per cent. above the London whole- often proved to be that of selling sale prices. From a copy of his contract of agreement, in my possession, I themselves as slaves at least for å
years ; find that he is to give the passage, fur certain period of
gave aish provisions and every requisite, at rise to what is called the white slave