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3 vols. Crown 8vo. il. 16s. Con which he wrote ; and he found that stable and Co. Edinburgh ; Long- this undertaking would afford him man and Co. London.

an opportunity of illustrating some

of the curious speculations which he can be more remark. had formed upon these subjects. To able than the revolutions of these circumstances we are indebted taste at different, and those not very for this valuable edition of our andistant periods. Perhaps not one

cient Scotish poet. in fifty of our readers has ever peru- Mr Chalmers, begins by gleaning, sed a poem of Sir David Lindsay: with his usual industry, all that has many, it is probable, till this edition been handed down by tradition conwas announced, may not have heard cerning the biography of our bard, of his name.

Yet the time has been which is not only scanty in itself, when these poems were read by eve- but darkened by ignorant and careTy man, woman, and child, through- less biographers, on whom our auout Scotland'; when they formed the thor fails pot to bestow due castigatask of the schoolboy, and the plea- tion. The following extract comsure of the man in advanced years; prises all that can be made out of his when they were read by the grave birth, parentage, and education. for edification, by the gay for a. musement. While only twelve edi.

The progenitors of Sir David Lynd.

say of the Mount were undoubtedly tions of Chaucer were printed in descended from the family of Lord 127 years, of Lindsay there were

Lyndsay of Byses, in Hadingtonshire, prinied fourteen in less than half The first cadeë was probably William that time. Works so generally re- Lyndsay, who, being the second son, ceived must needs have been well obtain.d Garin ylton), in that county,

for his appanage.

William leit a son suited to the genius of the time. They must exhibit a correct view of

David, who apptärs to have acquired

the Mount, in Fifeshire, from Pitblado what were the tastes, and what the

of that ilk; as we know from the pubmaniers of our ancestors in the days lic archives. of Sir David Lindsay. As there- David Lyndsay, the poet, was probafóre a laudable curiosity has lately bly born about the year 1490, though I arisen on these subjects, a new edi. know not by what mother. He retion of his poems became extremely ceived his earliest education, as desireable, and Mr Chalmers was

may easily suppose, at the neighbourlooked to as the person, of all o.

ing school of Coupar. After rectiving thers, who was best qualified for could then supply, our young lion was

at this seminary such instruction as it rendering such a service to the pub. sent to the university of St. Andrew's, lic. Apprehensions were however in 1505, the year of Knox's birth *. He entertained, that amid the great un

lost dertakings in which that gentleman was engaged, he might have been

* Mackenzie says, “ that our poet unwilling to employ his talents in

“had his education at the university of editing the works of another. For. “St. Andrew's." The late biographer tunately, however, in the course of of Lyndsay professes his ignorance how those important enquiries into the Mackenzie knew where the poet was Scottish language, and Scottish hise educated. But it is more easy to catory, of which the public is soon to

vil, than to enquire. Sir Robert Sibreap the benefit, Mr Chalmers had in his listory of Flie, 1912, that Sit Da

bald was, perhaps, the first, who said, been led to pay particular attention vid was one, of the learned men who to the writings of Lindsay, and to were educated at St. Andrew's. Some every thing relating to the period in years ago, I requested the late Mr pro







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lost his father in 1907 1. From the de- About the age of 30, Lyndsay fect of the registers, it cannot now be was introduced into the service of ascertained, who were the actual mas

King James V., then a minor. He ters of Lyndsay, at this university ; did not, however, occupy the dignibut, it is certain, that the reverend Da

fied situation to which his talents vid Spens, the parson of Comech, which

would seem to entitle him. The is now the parish of Kemback, was annually chosen rector of this university, care of instructing the young Mofrom the year 1504 to 1509, being the narch was entrusted Gawin whole period of Lyndsay's studies; and Douglas, learned ecclesiastic ; to him young Lyndsay made his sponza while Lydsay's duties, according to sio, or solemn promise of obedience, his own account, consisted in carryand attachment to his alma mater }. lle beft the university in 1509, probably,

ing him about

his back, or when he was nineteen. At this age,

· stridlingis” on his neck; in hapMackenzie sent the object of his admi. ping him well in the night-time ; in ration to travel over all Europe ; as it playing tunes to him on the lute, was the fashion, in his own tine, to

And ay quhen thou come from the send boys abroad, to learn the vices of

scule, every other country, before they knew

Then I behuffit to play the fule. the virtues of their own.

So that the occupations of the fu. fessor Baron to search the registers of

ture lion king seem to have borne that university, for some information.

à very close resemblance to those of about Lyndsay: and he informed me, Archy Armstrong, whom we had that, “'in 1508, it appeared David lately occasion tà introduce to the

Lyndsay is in the list of Incorporati, notice of our readers. However, he who, as stadents of three years stand

appears to have rendered himself in 6s ing, had a right to vote.” By cou- this capacity extremely agreeable to pling the tradition with the register, his royal pupil. On James's prewe obtain sufficient evidence of the truth. We thus also perceive, that

mature advancement to the throne, Lyndsay must have entered the uni- indeed, he was separated, by those versity in 1505: and, if he were eigh- who had usurped the chief authority, teen in 1508, when he voted as one of from his amusing favourite ; but he the Incorporati, he must have been born

setiled a pension upon him, and

took care that it should always be † Among the Earl of Wemyss's Ti. tle Deeds, there is a charter by Patrick regularly paid. On the King's eLord Lyndsay to David Lyndsay, the mancipation, four years after, from son and heir to umqubile (the late) Da the tyranny of the nobles, Lyndsay,

. vid Lyndsay of the Mount, of Garmyl mindful that in the court men gat ton-Alexander, dated the roth of Octo. nothing without oportune asking, prober, 1507. This was followed by an duced his Dreme, and his Complayot, instrument of sasine, dated the 6th of in which he reminds the King of his April, 1508. In this manner, did our

services and his sufferings. The la. David Lyndsay make up his title to his estate of Garmylion, after his father's

mentation was not made in vain; death, as the Scottish lawyers say.

for in the subsequent year, at the | I owe this information, from the age of forty, he was inaugurated university register, to the obliging Lion King at Arms, and incidentalsearch of the reverend Dr George Hill, ly became a knight. The origin of the principal of St. Mary's college, this office is involved in much obscuWhile Lyndsay studied at St. Andrew's, rity; the first authentic information there existed only the old college of St. which Mr C. has discovered of it, Salvadores. St. Leonard's college was founded in 1512 ; and St. Mary's col

was at the coronation of Robert II. lege was established in 1552.-Sibbald's in 1371. His employment in it led 135 him not only to regulate the ceremo.

in 1490

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nies at home, but also to accompany he was a zealous supporter. He had the most distinguished foreign em. already sown the seeds of it, by his bassies. He was first sent to Ant- perpetual invectives against the diswerp, for the purpose of renewing solute lives of friars and nuns, and the treaty of

with the Ne. against the abuses that had crept intherlands. He went afterwards to to the church. And it is remark. the Emperor, in order to demand in able, that his play, in which he marriage some of the Princesses of enlarges greatly on these subjects, his house. They were well received was acted at court with universal by that Monarch, and returned with applause : so much did amusement pictures of all his nieces, that James prevail over policy. Our poet does might make his choice between them. not appear to have ever been preBut he, either not captivated with sent at the meetings of the refor. their beauty, or preferring the alli- mers, when they began to defy the ance of France, determined upon established power; not probably going thither in person, and choosing out of fear, for he put

his his Queen. He seni Lyndsay, how. his books, even when they were most ever, some time before to conciliate obnoxious ; nor does he seem to have the French court to this proposal, ever sufered any punishment, exand that they might be making up cept that of a short banishment from an assortment of Princesses to se- court, to which he was soon after lect from. He chose Magdalene of recalled, when his services were wan. France. The ceremonies attending ted. We cannot help thinking our her marriage and first arrival in Scato author too severe in his animadverland gave full employment to the sions on this part of Lyndsay's conheraldic powers of our Lion King, duct. No doubt, it proceeds from and these were soon'afterward called his zeal for order and good govern forth on

a more melancholy occa- ment; yet even the best things may sion by the Queen's death, which be carried too far; and considering happened forty days after her land how much the church stood in need ing. James lost no time in procu- of reformation, we cannot but ho. ring another wife from France; but nour the memory of those who Sir David was not sent abroad on brought it about, at their own imthis occasion, though he acted a minent danger, notwithstanding any conspicuous part in the ceremonial partial violence into which they may of her reception. Şir David went have been hurried. also embassies to England and The greatest obscurity rests upon Denmark. He continued in favour the period of our poet's death, during the whole reign of James V., and, in October 1542, obtained an

Whether he were alive, on the 3d of increase of salary. There was set

December 1557, when the congrega.

tion took a formal shape, by the signatled on him, “

during all the days of ture of a bond of association, is uncerhis life, two chalders of oats, for tain. I believe, that he died, about horse corn, out of the King's lands that time; though there are some, who of Dynmure, in Fyfe."

say that he lived till 1567. With all James V. died in 1542, after his celebrity, our poet and reformer which, we do not find Lyndsay's died obscurely. Nor is there any traso often mentioned, nor does

dition when, or where he was buried;

though a very intelligent husbandman, he appear to have enjoyed the same favour at court. This indeed is not

of the age of eighty-three, who farmed

the Mount for forty years, says, he has to be wondered at : for the reforma- always heard, “ that Sir David was a tion began about this time, of which

great poet and preacher, a warrior

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2. The

“s and scholar: and that he was killed, tain were originally settled by the same " either at Flodden-field (1513,) or Gaulish tribes. The descendants of the “ Pinkie (1548,) or in some other hat- original colonists continued to speak “tle with the English.” Such is tradi- the Cambro-British tongue till the abtion! We know, however, that Sir

dication of the Roman government in David was alive in 1555; and that a Britain: and, in topographical lanman of his years, and character, must guage, the people of Edinburgh, unconhave died quietly in his bed. He must scious of the fact, speak the aboriginal of course have been inhumed among British to this day. The descendants his fathers, in the family vault, within of the first colonists acquired the name the church of Ceres. Yet, as I am as- of Picts, during the fourth century; sured by my active and intelligent enjoyed this name, at the epoch of friend the reverend J. Macdonald, who their conquest in 843, and have even made enquiries on the spot, “ the fami.

transmitted their name to the present “ ly vault, at Ceres, has not a single times, though their language was early

inscription, nor is there any legible merged in a cognate tongue. “ tombstone, in this churchyard, older middle of the fifth century may be as. " than 1669."

Such is the fate of sub. signed, as the epoch of the settlement lunary things! The dwelling of Sir of the Anglo-Saxon people on the David is down; and his family is ming- Tweed, and the Forth. The descenJed with the undistinguishable mass. dants of those settlers gradually over

P. 42. spread the country, which, from them, Besides the life of the author, which extended from the Tweed to the

acquired the name of Lothian; and Mr Chalmers gives also, 1. The Avon, and from the hills to the Forth, chronology of his poems, 2. An ac

while proper Scotland, lying northward count of their successive editions, of the Frith, was inhabited by the Sco. 3. An enquiry who were the licensers to-Irish conquerors of the Cambro-Briof the press, while his works were tish Picts. The Saxon language contisuccessively printed, 4. What were nued to be spoken, in Lothian, from the writings of Lyndsay, 5. Au his.

that epoch to this day, intermixed, torical view of his character as a

however, with cognate Danish, from

the mouths of the Danish people, who writer, 6. Of the epochs of the settled among the Anglo-Saxons, dudifferent people who successively ring the ninth and tenth centuries. settled in Scotland, 7. A philologi. 3. The commencement of the sixth cal view of the Teutonic language century is the epoch of the arrival of of Scotland, from the demise of the Irish settlers in Cantyre; and they Malcolm Canmore to the age of

overran Argyle, and the ample extent Lyndsay, 8. An examination of the

of Western-Scotland, from the Clyde to

Cape Wrath'; imposing every where language of Lyndsay. We would

new names on places, in their own lan. strongly recommend the perusal of guage, which was cognate with the ori. all these to the curious reader, tho' ginal Cambro-British. 4. A new colo. they abound with such a variety of ny of Irish arrived in Galloway, tofacts and discussions as makes it im- wards the end of the eighth century, possible to attempt any analysis of who overspreading the whole country them. We cannot forbear, however, impused new names on places, in their

to the Nith, and Clyde, every where to present our readers with the fol.

own descriptive speech. 5. The year lowing view of the different people 843 is the epoch of the conquest of the who have settled in Scotland ; which Picts, by the Scots, a congenial people, contains the result of twelve


who overspread the whole country, duinvestigation, and the outline of what ring the effluxion of two centuries, e. will be illustrated at greater length mine from the Gallic names, which

ven up to the Tweed, if we may deterin Mr C.'s “ Caledonia.”

may be even now traced along the 1. It is demonstrable, as a moral Tweed, and the Merse. 6. Some of certainty, that South and North Bri. the descendants of the aboriginal Bri


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P. 115

He begins

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tons remained, as a distinct people, in English writers of the South were det Strathclyde, and Peebles shire, even to parting from the Saxon form of the the twelfth century. 7. At the demise words, the English people of the North, of Malcolm Ceanmore, in 1093, the with the Scotish, retained them uricommon language of Scotland, with the changed; and most of the dialects, exception of Lothian, and a corner of both of the porth of England, and of Cathness, was Gaelic, or Scoto-Irish, Scotland, continued to use the Saxon which was spoken by the descendants words, in their original forms. P. 151. of those Irish emigrants, who settled in We shall now proceed to give Ceantyre, at the beginning of the sixth,

some account of Lyudsay's poems, and Galloway, at the end of the eighth,

are, I.

The Dreme. This was
centuries. $. The colonization of pro-
per Scotland, by the Anglo-Saxons,

the first of his productions. and other people of a Gothic race, who composed, as we had occasion to ob. mingled with them, began at the com- serve, immediately after the king, by mencement of the twelfth century, and humbling the nobles, had established has not yet been quite completed.

himself in secure possession of tbe

supreme power; and Lyndsay's ob. The following

passage throws ject seems to have been to remind light on a remarkable difference be. his Sovereign Lord of the services tween -the Scotish and English lan

he had formerly rendered him at a guages.

very early period of life.

by enumerating them,
One of the most remarkable varieties,
in the orthography of the Old English, Quhen

thou wes young, I ture the in

myne arme,
and Scotish writers, was the different
use of the o and a. This appears in

Full tenderlye, till thow begouth to very ancient writers of the vulgar

gang :

And in thy bed, oft happit tlie full tongue. Many Saxon words, in Lye's

warme, Dictionary, are indifferently written

With lute in hand, syne, softlye to the with an a, and an o, according as the

sang: manuscripus, from which they were taken, were composed, in the southern, And sumtyme, playand farsis, on the

Sumtyme, in darsing, feirelie, I flang: or in the northern dialect; as band, or

hond; hangen, or hongen; land,
lond; lang, or long. Thus, the o pre-

And sumtyme, on myne ofice takand
vailed, in the South, while tbe a was
used, in the North : and hence, the o

And sumtyme, lyke ane fiend, transis more frequent, in the writings of R.

figurate, of Glo'ster, Wiclif, and Chaucer, while And sumtyme, lyke the grislie gaist of the a is more used in R. of Brune, and Gy, Minot. Even Chaucer writes many In divers formis, ofty mes disfigurate, words with the a, in the pure Saxon

And sumtyme, disagysit full plesandlye, form, as the same form continued to be So, sen thy birth, I have continuallye, used by Lyndsay, and other Scotish Bene occupyit, and ay to thy plesour, writers of his age, and by those, who

And sumtyme, Sewar, Coppar, and wrote in the dialect of the North of

Carvour; England, even to the present day. On Thy purs maister, and secreit thesan. the other hand, Chaucer writes several rare, words with 0, where the Scotish speech, Thy ischar, ay sen thy nativitie, as well as the modern English, have And of thy chalmer chief cubiculare, retained the a, as in hong, hond, lond, Quhilk, to this hour, hes keipit me law. sond, for hang, hand, land, sand. As

tie. the English of the South gradually sub- Loving be to the blessit trinitie ! stitute 0, for a, in a great many words, That sic ane wrechit worma hes maid this formed the cbief point of difference, so habill, between the English, and Scottish lan. Till sic ane prince to be so agreabill. guages, in 'Lyndsay's age. While the

P. 186.


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