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Scots Magazine,




Description of the PLATE,
A Work, in the highest degree cu- " At first, says Mr Grieve, one is

rious and important, is now in led, in this investigation, to Queens-
"contemplation for the improvement feriy, where, according to the latest
of this part of the united kingdom. chart of the Firth, published by Law.
This is no less than a Tunnel, or rie and Whitele, 12th May 1794, the
subterraneous communication, under breadth is only one mile. But we
the Frith of Forth, to be formed at are obliged soon to , abandon this
a little distance from Queensferry. place ; for the metals there are whin-
The want of a land communication stone for more than half way over,
between the metropolis and the nor- which could not be mined through
thern districts is one of the greatest but at an enormous expeoce. 'Be-
inconveniencies to which Scotland is sides, the depth of the tide between
at present exposed. Travellers are the ferries is, according to the said
often subjected to great delay in cros- chart, no less than 36 fathoms ; and
ing ; few post chaises cross, and no a Tunnel here, to make an equally
stage coach except the mail. Great easy road through it, would be longer
quantities of cattle, which are driven than at other places of lese depth of
South, must either go round by Stir- water.
ling, or cross with considerable risk The west side of this whinstone
and inconvenieoce, and always with ground reaches to within half a mile
delay. For all these purposes, the of Rosyth castle on the north shore;
projected improvement would be and to Springfield, 'Mr. Morison's
found of the greatest advantage. It house, on the east bank of the Linn.
would open too an agricultural in. mill burn on the south shore, and in a
tercourse between Fife and the Lo- line between these points is the rock
thians, and would facilitate the pas. in the sea called Beamer, which is al-
sage of the military. The number so whin rock.
of persons who, in these different Immediately to the westward of
ways, would find it their interest to Rosyth castle comes in the lime-
make use of this communication, rock, which is also to be traced as
could not fail to produce a rent am- cross the Firth. . This time-stone
ply sufficient, not only to reimburse is worked at Duddingstone, on the
the expence of the undertaking, but south side of the Firth, and at the
also to afford a handsome profit.

Mains of Rosyth on the north side.


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The rock in the sea called the Dove a cover proper for procçeding to sea craig, is in the line between these with. points, and this rock is also limestone.

These covers will not need to be Miners choose to avoid limestone al. very thick, for there is a sleech upon most as much as whinstone. But there each shore which of itself supports is an additional reason for ayoiding water, while the metals below the this limestone ; it happens to be only sleech are of the same kind with the

; good in parts, and what is bad or metals at Whitehaven, which support bastard of it is as hard to work as water without having any sleech upwhin, and equally good for nothing on them. The distance between Ro. when it is wrought. To go to the syth and the opposite shore is, both westward of this lime-rock would be by Mr. Ainslie's map of Fife, and carrying the road out of its course, by the chart above mentioned, called or farther from Edinburgh ; besides, 2 miles, but call it 1800 fathoms. the Firth widens very much to the The greatest depth of water in the westward for 10 or 12 miles, and the middle of the Frith there, is stated expence of tunnelling under it any- in the chart to'be 11 fathoms bewhere there would be greater. neath high water.mark, and 9

fa... The distance between the whin. thoms more will probably be found rock on the cast hand and the lime. to be cover enough for the Tunnel

, rock on the west hand is little more Suppose the Tuonel 15 feet wide, than half a mile. The metals, in and 15 feet high arched, with a foot this distance, consist of free-stone, path on each side of three feet broad, and what the miners call passable to keep carriages in the middle metals ; these are the desirable me. breadth of 9 feet. tals for cutting the Tunnel in. The Suppose the parallel entries to present quarry at Rosyth, which sup- the shores to be each 250 fathoms plies free-stone to the wet docks at long, and to descend 1 in 25, so as Leith, is in the middle of this dis- the Tunnel may have a cover of 10 tance. Rosyth castle, to which the fathoms above its sole, or 7 fathoms northern roads come easier than to above its top, before it proceeds to any other point, is about 400 yards Then its descent to the middle to the westward of the quarry, and of the Frith, or for goo

fathoms or about 50 yards to the northward of each side, will only be 1 in 72. the castle; there is an old free-stone Even supposing the depth from high quarry, where the Tunnel may enter water to the sole of the Tunnel in the ground, and be carried eastward the middle of the fair way to be 30 parallel to the shore with such a de. fathoms, the descent would only be clivity, that by the time it enters the 1 in 45. By the chart, the tide wet dock quarry, it may have cover seems to 'ebb half a mile from each enough over it for proceeding to sea shore, and the fair way at low water with.

is a’mile broad. If a moated pit was This necessary cover will be ascer- sunk at low water on each side, and tained by the borings to be previous- the Tunnel carried on from north to ly made at that point, and all along south, as well as from south to north, the intended line of the Tunnel. it could be finished in 4 1 years ;

플 for Io like manner, on the south side the fair way or longest part of it, of the Frith, the Tunnel may enter being 900 fathoms, two fathoms of the ground immediately on the west each end of this could be done weekside of the Linn-mill burn, and pro- ly. The expence of making the ceed westwards parallel to the shores Tunnel would probably be about till, by its declivity, it has taken on 160,000l. or 170,000l., viz.




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pumps and


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Previous soundings and

“Of the practicability, says Messre borings,

L. 1000

Taylor and Vazie, of the execution For the sake of expedi

of such a work, we have no doubt tion, a fire engine

whatever. This is confirmed by the would have to be pla

report of five other eminent minera.. ced on each side of the

logists; and they all agree, that the Frith, though when

place pointed out by Mr Grieve, optheir levels were com

posite to the Castle of Rosyth, is the municated, only one of

most eligible for the undertaking, these engines would be

i Upon the whole, they conclude that used for draining the

the capital required will be about Tunnel ; two smallen

150,000l. and that the work will re. gines at 12001. each,

quire about four years to execute.” L. 2400 O Q

In Messrs Taylor and Vazie's reAs much for

port there is a letter from R. Bure

don, Esq. proprietor of the noted for erecting

iron bridge at Sunderland, stating

that in 1793, when this bridge begaa 4800 00

to be built, the toll of the ferry over Two moated engine pits

the river Wear was 410l. a year ; at low-water mark 30'

that from the certainty which the fathoms deep, 60 fa

bridge has given of a speedy and safe thomat 30l. a fa

passage at all times, the intercourse thom,


has so much increased since the Two pits at high wa

bridge was finished, in 1795, that the ter-mark, each 10 fa

toll of the ferry now (1806), lets for

6601. thoms deep, 20 fa

a.year, exclusive of 2c3ol. 2thoms at 201. includ.

year, the toll which the bridge lets ing horse gins, to be

for ; this a seven-fold iocrease, and

there can be no doubt that the intera put on these,

400 fathoms' of entry

· course at Queensferry, will, by means 500 Tunnel,

of the proposed Tunnel, increase in 1800 fathoms of ditto

the same ratio,

From an Advertisement appended across the Frith. 2300 fathoms at 301. a

to a printed publication of these re. fathom,

69,000 0 0

ports, we are happy to see that this

undertaking is in a state of 900 fathoms of engine

great for. level, 7 feet high, 4

wardness, and that a number of no7 feet wide, at 2ol. 18,000

blemes and gentlemen, of the first respectability, and scientific charac

ter, have organized themselves into a £.95,000

regular body for the purpose of car. But to make the pas

rying it into effect.
sage complete, there
should be two Tun.
pels, one for comers,

the other for goers.
The other Tunnel
would cost

69,000 OO

AN account shewing, what has

been re of the National

Debt, the Land, Tax, and Imperial 6.164,000 o 0. Loan, to the ist August 1806:






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Redeemed by annual mil.

futed ? Upon this system a single lion, &c. i. ...L. 60,597,325 author, of strong body, and dauntless Ditto by L. I per cent.

courage, might strike terror into per annum on Loans, 50,142,462 whole phalanxes of reviewers. Few Ditto by Land Tax, : .22,628,569 of these gentlemen would choose to Ditto by L. I per cent.

attack a work, knowing that a champer annum on Imperial

pion was ready to defend it, sword Loan 688,389 in hand; and however thick may

be the covering of many of their braips, Total L. 134,056,745 few, it is to be feared, would be in

pervious to a pistol-shot. lo short, The Sum to be expended in the ensu. Sir, though there ought no doubt ing Quarter is L.1,956,490 7 4 to be some check upon the licence

of critics, this check ought certainly to be the fear of censure, not bodily


Though not fully prepared to form

a judgement on the subject, I certain. To the Editor.

ly feel disposed to espouse the cause SIR,

of our countryman, whose eloquence, T appears to me to be a most im.

and keen satirical powers, seem dever portant province of your miscel. to have been better employed. The lany, to watch over the prevailing appeal to arms too on the part of his manners and conduct of the


and adversary, seems to imply his convicwhen any vicious practice begins to tion of the inefficacy, in this case, of rear its head, to endeavour if possible other weapons. Yet I must comto give it a timely check. It is the plain that, by accepting the challenge, consideration of this that moves me he has given a sort of sanction to the to, address you on the present oc- validity of this new kind of criticism. casion.

I would call therefore upon all the '. The late pitched battle between friends of literature, and of free intwo eminent literary characters, has quiry, to unite in puting a stop to furnished a frivolous public with a this rash and dangerous innovation in great fund of curiosity and amusement, the republic of letters, and in inducBut I confess I view the matter in a ing a recurrence to the old and estab. more serious light ; for to me it ap

system of pen, ink, and

paper, pears to be aiming a mortal blow at which, for several thousand years, has che great palladium of the British been found, by authors and critics, a constitution, the liberty of the press. most commodious vehicle for the gall,

For only consider, Sir, what would which those two hostile tribes take be the consequence, were every dis- such delight in pouring upon each pnte between an author and his critic, other.

M. like law suits of old, to be thus brought to the decision of single combat. Because a man is skilful in drawing another's blood, does it fol. CELESTIAL PHENOMENA for Seplow that his judgement must be

TEMBER 1806. sound, and his taste correct? Is there

Wednesday, September 3d. any necessary connection between muscular strength, and critical a. AB



minutes after seven cumen ; or when a reasoner is shot o'clock in the evening the third zhrough the head, is he thereby con- and fourth satellites of Jupiter will


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be in conjunction on the eastern side comes to the meridian at 20 minutes
of his disc. The first is situated on after 10 o'clock in the morning.
the same side, but nearer Jupiter, On the same day the planet VENUS
and the second on the other side of will be io conjunction with v Leonis, a
his disc.

star of the 4.5 magnitude, situated in Thursday, September 4th. longitude 49..24° 38'.. 38", and latiThe planet MERCURY will arrive tude 2'..22" north. The latitude of at his inferior conjunction with the Venus being 53' 32" north, the near.

.Sun at half an hour past 5 o'clock in est approach of their centers will the morning

be 50'..10", and the planet will pass Saturday, September 6th. to the north of the star. All the satellites of Jupiter will Monday, September 15th. be situated on the Western side of CONJUNCTION of Venus and REhis disc, in the same order as they

GULUS. lye in the system, the first being The planet VENUS will be in connearest, and the fourth farthest from

junction with Regulus, a star of the the planet. This phenomenon will first magnitude, situated in the Lion's happen about a quarter of an hour heart, in longitude 4...27o..8'..51". before 8 o'clock in the evening. The latitude of Regulus being 27'..

Sunday, September 7th. 27" north, and that of Venus 56'... The Moon will eclipse & Gemino- 20" north, the distance of their rum, a star of the 3.4 magnitude, centers at the time of conjunction situated in the knee of Pollux, in will be 28'..53 seconds, and Venus longitude 39..1 2°..17'..10", and la- will pass to the north of Regulus. titude 20..4..4" south.

The star

Friday, September 19th. will immerge behind the dark limb CONJUNCTION of the Moon and of the Moon at 59 minutes and so

JUPITER. seconds after 12 o'clock in the even- : The Moon will be ia conjunction ing, and after continuing eclipsed for with Jupiter at 44 minutes after 10 the

space of 51'.. 10", it will emerge o'clock in the evening. The longifrom behind the enlightened limb of tude of Jupiter is then 89..290..21'.. the Moon at 51 minutes after one 56", his latitude 3 minutes south. o'clock in the morning. At the His declination 23° 31' south, and" commencement of the occultation the the time of his southing 61..4' in the star is situated about 5 minutes north evening. of the moon's center, and about 41 Saturday, September 20th. minutes north of it at the time of its The planet MERCURY will arrive emersion.

at his greatest elongation, and may Monday, September 8th." be seen in the morning before sunThe first satellite of Jupiter will rise. cmerge from behind his shadow ať Sunday, September 21st. 22 minutes and 57 seconds after se. The planet VENUS will be in conven o'clock in the evening.

junction with e Leonis, a star of the 4. Saturday, September 13th. magnitude situated in the fore leg The planet MERCURY will be sta- of the Lion, in-longitude 5.3..41'.. tionary in longitude 5...5...20'.. 10", 28", and latitude 7.48" north. The and latitude 59 minutes south. latitude of Venus 20..5'..54", the

On the the same day the longi- nearest approach of their centers tude of VENUS, which is now the will be 58'..6", and the planet will morning star, is 48.-23°38'..54", and pass to the north of the star. latitude 51 minutes north. Her de- On the same day the GEORGIUM clination is 14...27' north, and she Sipus is situated in longitude 6s..

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