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Previous soundings and

“Of the practicability, says Messrs borings,

L, 1000

Taylor and Vazie, of the execution For the sake of expedi

of such a work, we have no doubt tion, a fire engine

whatever. This is confirmed by the would have to be pla

report of five other eminent minera. .ced on each side of the

logists; and they all agree, that the Frith, though when

place pointed out by Mr Grieve, op. their levels were com

posite to the Castle of Rosyth, is the municated, only one of

most eligible for the undertaking. these engines would be

; Upon the whole, they conclude that used for draining the

the capital required will be about Tunnel ; two smallen

150,000l. and that the work will re. gines at 1200l. each,

quire about four years to execute.” L. 2400 O Q

In Messrs Taylor and Vazie's reAs much for

port there is a letter from R. Bur.

don, Esq. proprietor of the noted for erecting

iron bridge at Sunderland, stating them,

that in 1793, when this bridge began 48000

to be built, the toll of the ferry over Two moated engine pits

the river Wear was 410l. a-year ; at low-water mark 30

that from the certainty which the fathoms deep, 60 fa

bridge has given of a speedy and safe thomat 30l. a fa

passage at all times, the intercourse thom,

has so much increased since the

1800 Two pits at high wa

bridge was finished, in 1795, that the ter-mark, each 10 fa

toll of the ferry now (1806), lets for thoms deep,' 20 fa

660l. a.year, exclusive of 2c30l. athoms at 20l. includ.

year, the toll wbich the bridge lets ing horse gins, to be

for ; this a seven-fold iocrease, and

there can be no doubt that the intera put on these,

400

course at Queensferry, will, by means Tunnel,

of the proposed Tunnel, increase in 1800 fathoms of ditto

the same ratio,

From an Advertisement appended across the Frith. 2300 fathoms at 301. a

to a printed publication of these refathom,

69,000

ports, we are happy to see that this 900 fathoms of engine

undertaking is in a state of for.

great level, 7 feet high, 4

wardness, and that a number of nofeet wide, at pol. 18,000 o

blemes and gentlemen, of the first respectability, and scientific charac

ter, have organized themselves into a £6.95,000

regular body for the purpose of car. But to make the pas

rying it into effect.
sage complete, there
should be two Tun.
pels, one for comers,

NATIONAL DEBT.
the other for goers.
The other Tunnel
would cost

69,00000

AN account shewing, what has

been redeemed of the National

Debt, the Land Tax, and Imperial 6.164,000.00 Loan, to the 1st August 1896:

Re.

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500 fathoms of entry

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I

Redeemed by annual mil.

futed ? Upon this system a single lion, &c. , . L. 60,597,325 author, of strong body, and dauntless Ditto by L. I per cent.

courage, might strike terror into per annum on Loans, 50,142,462 whole phalanxes of reviewers. Few Ditto by Land Tax, . . 22,628,569 of these gentlemen would choose to Ditto by L. I per cent.

attack a work, knowing that a champer annum on Imperial

pion was ready to defend it, sword Loan

688,389 in hand; and however thick may be

the covering of many of their braips, Total L. 134,056,745 few, it is to be feared, would be in

pervious to a pistol-shot. In short, The Sum to be expended in the ensu

Sir, though there ought no doubt ing Quarter is L.1,956,490 7 4 to be some check upon the licence

of critics, this check ought certainly to be the fear of censure, not bodily

fear. On LITERARY DUELLING.

Though not fully prepared to form

a judgement on the subject, I certainTo the Editor.

ly feel disposed to espouse the cause SIR,

of our countryman, whose eloquence, T appears to me to be a most im- and keen satirical powers, seem oever

portant province of your miscel. to have been better employed. The lany, to watch over the prevailing appeal to arms too on the part of his manners and conduct of the age, and adversary, seems to imply his convicwhen any vicious practice begins to tion of the inefficacy, in this case, of rear its head, to endeavour if possible other weapons. Yet I must comto give it a timely check. It is the plain that, by accepting the challenge, consideration of this that moves me he has given a sort of sanction to the to address you on the present oc- validity of this new kind of criticism. casion.

I would call therefore upon all the The late pitched battle between friends of literature, and of free intwo eminent literary characters, has quiry, to unite in puting a stop to furnished a frivolous public with a this rash and dangerous innovation in great fund of curiosity and amusement, the republic of letters, and in induc. But I confess [ view the matter in a ing a recurrence to the old and estab. more serious light ; for to me it ap

lished

pen, ink, and paper, pears to be aiming a mortal blow at which, for several thousand years,

has che great palladium of the British been found, by, authors and critics, a constitution, the liberty of the press. most commodious vehicle for the gall,

For only consider, Sir, what would which those two hostile tribes take be the consequence, were every dis- such delight in pouring upon each pate between an author and his critic, other.

M. like law suits of old, to be thus brought to the decision of single combat. Because a man is skilful in drawing another's blood, does it fol. CÆLESTIAL PHENOMENA for SEPlow that his judgement must be

TEMBER 1806. sound, and his taste correct? Is there

Wednesday, September 3d. any necessary connection between muscular strength, and critical a.

45

minutes after seven cumen ; or when a reasoner is shot o'clock in the evening the third zhrough the head, is he thereby con- and fourth satellites of Jupiter will

be

system of

ABOUT

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GULUS.

be in conjunction on the eastern side comes to the meridian at 20 minutes
of his disc. . The first is situated on after 10 o'clock in the morning.
the same side, but nearer Jupiter, On the same day the planet VENUS
and the second on the other side of will be in conjunction with Leonis, a
his disc.

star of the 4.5 magnitude, situated in Thursday, September 4th. longitude 4...24°38'..38", and latiThe planet. MERCURY will arrive tude 2'..22" north. The latitude of at his inferior conjunction with the Venus being 53':-32" north, the neare Sun at half an hour past 5 o'clock in est approach of their centers will the morning

be go'..10", and the planet will pass Saturday, September 6th. to the north of the star. All the satellites of Jupiter will Monday, September 15th. be situated on the Western side of CONJUNCTION of VENUS and REhis disc, in the same order as they lye in the system, the first being The planet VENUS will be in connearest, and the fourth farthest from junction with Regulus, a star of the the planet. This phenomenon will first magnitude, situated in the Lion's bappen about a quarter of an hour heart, in longitude 4..270.8...51". before 8 o'clock in the evening. The latitude of Regulus being 27'..

Sunday, September 7th. 27" north, and that of Venus 56'... The Moon will eclipse & Gemino- 20" north, the distance of their rum, a ștar of the 3.4 magnitude, centers at the time of conjunction situated in the knee of Pollux, in will be 28'..53 seconds, and Venus longitude 39.. 12°..17'..10", and la- will pass to the north of Regulus. titude 2°..4'..4" south.

The star

Friday, September 19th. will immerge behind the dark limb CONJUNCTION of the Moon and of the Moon at 59 minutes and 50

JUPITER. seconds after 12 o'clock in the even- The Moon will be in conjunction ing, and after continuing eclipsed for with Jupiter at 44 minutes after 10 the space of 5 1..10", it will emerge o'clock in the evening. The longifrom behind the enlightened limb of tude of Jupiter is then 89..29o..21'.. the Moon at 51 minutes after one 56", his latitude 3 minutes south. o'clock in the morning. At the His declination 23°31' south, and commencement of the occultation the the time of his southing 6..4' in the star is situated about 5 minutes north evening. of the moon's center, and about 45 Saturday, September 20tb. minutes north of it at the time of its The planet MERCURY will arrive emersion.

at his greatest elongation, and may Monday, September 8th. be seen in the morning before sunThe first satellite of Jupiter will rise. emerge from behind his shadow at Sunday, September 21st. 22 minutes and 57 seconds after se. The planet VENUS will be in conven o'clock in the evening.

junction with Leonis, a star of the 4. Saturday, September 13th. magnitude situated in the fore leg The planet MERCURY will be sta. of the Lion, in longitude 5...30..41'.. tionary in longitude 5...5°.. 20'..10", 28", and latitude 7.48" north. The and latitude 59 minutes south. latitude of Venus 10..5'..54", the

On the the same day the longi- nearest approach of their centers tude of VENUS, which is now the will be 58'..6", and the planet will morning star, is 4*..230.38'..54", and pass to the north of the star. latitude 50 minutes north. Her de- On the same day the GEORGIUM clination is 14...27' north, and she Sidus is sitụated in longitude 6%..

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240.17", and latitude 32 minutes It appears from the experiments north, His declination is 89:: 55' of G. S. GIBBES, M. D. that iron is south, and he comes to the meridian deposited in three different states by at 35 minutes after one o'clock in the Bath waters. Ist, It tinges the the afternoon.

glasses which are used for drinking Tuesday, September 23d.

the water at the pumps, of a yellow The Sun will enter the sign Libra golden colour, which can be scraped at 1 minute after 6 o'clock in the off. This portion seems to have

been united with carbonic acid, and evening. He then enters the autumAal equinox, and the days and nights the sides and bottom of the baths in

is deposited in the glasses, and on are equal over the whole world.

the state of ochre. 2d, It forms Thursday, September 25th. The planet Satury will be situ. Pyritical incrustations about the re

The planet SATURN will be situ- servoir and channels of the baths, inated in longitude 65.270..45'49", which the iron is in its metallic state and latitude 20..16' north. His de. clination is 89.. 35' south, and he will tations may be vitriolised. by expos

united with sulphur, as these incrus: south at ih..36' in the afternoon.

ing them to the air and moisture. Saturday, September 27th.

3d, It is deposited in the sand of the The planet VENUS will be in con. bath in black particles, which are atjunction with % leonis, a star of the tracted by the magnet. Some of 4.5 magnitude, situated in the belly, these particles are of a christalline of the Lion, in longitude 5.11'.. form, but their figure cannot be easily so'..6", and latitude 1°..20'.-21" determined. porth. The latitude of Venus being An improved geometrical plotting 1°..17..12" north. The nearest ap. quadrant, level and calculator, for the proach of their centers will be 3... purpose of navigation and land-sur9", and the planet will pass to the veying, has been invented by Mr south of the star.

: ROBERT SALMON of Woburn, who Monday, September 29th. received from the society of arts their About 10 minutes before eight silver medal and ten guineas. See o'clock in the evening, the first and their transactions for 1806. fourth satellites of Jupiter will be in A stratum of coal was lately disconjunction on the western side of covered at Salisbury in Virginia, of his disc. The second is on the other the uncommon thickness of-42 feet, side, and the third behind his sha. and so near the surface, that the dow.

earth is merely taken off, and the MOUNT ANNAN, ?

coal dug out without undermining.

D. B. Aug. 25. 1806. $

On the rith of Julyjlast, about 10 o'clock in the evening, the third and

fourth satellites of Jupiter, were seen Memoins of the Progress of MANU. by the naked eye by Mr John Smart,

FACTURES, CHEMISTRY, SCIENCE, optician, Londoo. These satellites and the FINE ARTS.

were said to have been formerly seen

by professor Beauchamp. A

N Electro micrometer has been A paper on the figure of the planet

invented by M. VEAU DE LANY. Saturn, by Dr Herchel, was read in It shews the smallest perceptible the Royal Society on June 26th. He quantities of electricity and galva. now considers the diameter of that nism, and may be applied to many planet to be much greater at the equauseful researches in atmospherology. tor than formerly, but still allows See Journal de Physique for July that it is much flattened at the polers 1804.

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A Short Sketch of the Improved State joined with previous skill, has given

of AISLEY, including the ABBEY them an unequivocal superiority over PARISH, for the year 1805. the Glasgow manufacturers in fancy

work.
(Concluded from p. 499.)

It must be further observed, that
THE
THE Muslin manufacture is now in all kinds of new work the oper-
the principal branch carried on at

ators share in the advantage resultPaisley. The cotton trade is the ing from it. A high rate of price most valuable hitherto introduced into is cheerfully given by the employer Scotland, and has been a source of to such as are equal to the work. wealth to the western parts of that This stimulates the weaver to conportion of Great Britain. At Glas- trive new things for his own emolu. gow it is prosecuted with ardour, ment, and it is not a little remarkand to a great extent.

It is how. able, that most of the improvements ever worthy of notice, that notwith- and varieties of grounds and patteras standing Glasgow is only distant have taken their rise from this class from Paisley about seven miles, the of men. manufacturers in the former place It hath been frequently remarked have never been able to rival those that the young men among the weaof the latter in the article of fancyvers, and the tambouring girls, dis. muslins, in which Paisley still main play some degree of taste in their tains a decided superiority. This dress, as well as in their work. Their may be accounted for from the long is no set of people whatever, emperiod fancy-work has been establish- ployed in the operative part of maed in the place.

nufactures within the kingdom, From the establishment of the that are more distinguished in this silk gauze branch about the year particular than they are ; and if it be 1761, a fabric which required con

necessary

that all their income should stant exertions of skill to vary the be' expended within the year, it is figures and grounds, the operators certainly more commendable to lay received a stimulus" which brought it out in clothing than in the public into view a degree of taste and in. house ; yet there are a few among vention seldom equalled, and perhaps them who reserve a part of their innever surpassed in any other branch come for a time of trouble or bad of manufacture. The muslin having trade, and there are others who by succeeded the silk, the Paisley wea. savings have built comfortable houses vers turned their attention to similar for their families, and shops for them. improvements in this new manufac- selves to work in. During a time of ture, which they rightly judged good trade, a superior tradesman can could not fail to attract the notice earn three guineas per week, and of our fair countrywomen. In this some of the tambouring girls fifteen they have succeeded surprisingly.-- shillings in the same period. There Convinced that a constant succession is another very prominent trait in of new patterns and new grounds the characters of our Paisley weawas absolutely necessary to supply vers; and that is a pretty general the constant demands of fashion, knowledge acquired from books. every exertion has been made to please If you enter into conversation' with the public taste, and these exertions many of those who are of middle age, have been most productive sources you will find them well informed on of emolument to the manufacturers; many subjects, particularly general while their constant improvements, history, natural history, and politics, August 1806.

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