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a man, who takes a reasona. obstruct internal secretions. Wrapt ble degree of exercise, would be too in the speculations of this wretched much for another, who never takes game, you destroy your constitution. any

What can be expected from such Franklin.--I take-Eh! Oh! as a course of living, but a body re. much exercise - Eh!-as I can, plete with stagnant humours, ready Madam Gout. You know my se. to fall a prey to all kinds of dangerdentary state, and on that account, it ous maladies, if I, the Gout, did would seem, Madam Gout, as if you not occasionally bring you relief by a. might spare me a little, seeing it is gitating these humours, and so purifynot altogether my owo fault.

ing or dissipating them.

If it was Gout. - Not a jot : your rhetoric in some nook or alley in Paris, deand your politeness are thrown away; prived of walks, that you played ayour apology avails nothing. If your while at chess after dinner, this might situation in life is a sedentary one, be excusable, but the same taste pre. your amusements, your recreations, vails with you in Passy, Auteuil, at least, should be active. You ought Montmartre, or Sanoy, places where to walk or ride; or, if the weather there are the finest gardens and walks, prevents that, play at billiards. But a pure air, beautiful women, and most let us examine your course of life. agreeable, and instructive conversaWhile the mornings are long, and tion, all which you might enjoy by you have leisure to go abroad, what frequenting the walks! But these are do you do? Why, instead of gaining rejected for this abominable game of an appetite for breakfast, by salutary chess. Fic, then, Mr Franklin ! exercise, you amuse yourself with But amidst my instructions, I had books, pamphlets, or newspapers, almost forgot to administer my commonly not worth reading. Yet you wholesome corrections : so take that eat an inordinate breakfast, four dishes twinge-and that. of tea, with cream, and one or two Franklin.-Oh!Eh! Oh! Ohhh! buttered toasts, with slices of hung As much instruction as you please, beef, which I fancy are not things madam Gout, and as many reproachthe most easily digested. Immedia. es, but pray, madam, a truce with tely afterward you sit down to write your corrections ! at your desk, or converse with per- Gout.-No, sir, I will not a. sons who apply to you on business. bate a particle of what is so much Thus the time passes till one, with- for your good-therefore out any kind of bodily exercise. Franklin.---- Oh! Ehhh! It is But all this I could pardon, in regard, not fair to say I take no exercise, as you say, to your sedentary condi- when I do very often, going out to tion. But what is your practice af." diae, and returning in my carriage. ter dinner. Walking in the beauti

Gout. That of all imaginable exful gardens of those friends with ercise is the most slight and insignifiwhom

you have dined would be the cant, if you allude to the motion of choice of men of sense : yours is to a carriage suspended on springs. By be fixed down to chess, where you observing the degree of heat obtained are found engaged for two or three by different kinds of motion we may hours ! This is your perpetual re. form an estimate of the quantity of creation, which is the least eligible of exercise given by each. Thus, for any for a sedentary man, because, in- example, if you turn out to walk in steadof accelerating the motion of the winter with cold fett, in an hour's fiuids, che rigid attention it requires time you will be in a glow all over ; helps to retard the circulation and ride on horseback, the same effect August 1806.

will loll very


horses ;

will scarcely be perceived by four Franklin. - Your reasonings grow hours round trotting : but if you

tiresome. in a carriage, such as you have men- Gout. I stand corrected. I will tioned, you may travel all day, and be silent and continue my office : take gladly enter the last inn to that, and that. your feet by a fire. Flatter yourself Franklin.--Oh! Ohh! Talk on, then no longer, that half an hour's I

pray you ! airing in your carriage deserves the Gout.-No, no; I have a good name of exercise. Providence has number of twinges for you to-night, appointed few to roll in carriages, and you may be sure of some more while he has given to all a pair of tomorrow. legs, which are machines infinitely Franklin.-What, with such a femore commodious and serviceable. Be ver! I shall


distracted. Oh! grateful, then, and make a proper Eh! Can no one bear it for me? use of yours. Would you know Gout.-Ask that of your how they forward the circulation of they have served you faithfully. your fluids, in the very action of Franklin. How can you so cruel. transporting you from place to place? ly sport with my torments. observe when you walk, that all your Gout.--Sport? I am very serious. weight is alternately thrown from one I have here a list of


offences leg to the other; this occasions a against your own health distinctly great pressure on the vessels of the written, and can justify every stroke foot, and repels their contents.

inflicted upon you. When relieved, by the weight, being Franklin.-Read it then. thrown on the other foot, ihe vessels Gout. It is too long a detail ; of the first are allowed to replenish, but I will briefly mention sonte parand by a return of this weight this ticulars. repulsion again succeeds; thus acce. Franklin. Proceed. I am all at. lerating the circulation of the blood. tention, The heat produced in any given time Gout. Do you remember how depends on the degree of this ac. often you have promised yourself, celeration : the fluids are shaken, the the following morning, a walk in the humours attenuated, the secretions fa- grove of Boulogne, in the garden de cilitated, and all goes well; the cheeks la Muette, or in your own garden, are ruddy, and health is established and have violated your promise; al. Behold

your fair friend at Anteuil : a ledging, at one time, it was too cold, lady who received from bounteous at another too warm, too windy, nature more really useful science, than too moist, or what else you pleased; half a dozen such pretenders to phim when in truth it was too nothing, losophy, as you, have been able to but your insuperabfe love of ease ? extract froin all your books. When Franklin.--That I confess may she honours you with a visit, it is have happened occasionally, probably

She walks all hours of the ten times in a year. day, and leaves indolence and its con- Gout. Your confession is very far comitant maladies to be endured by short of the truth : the gross amount her horses. In this see at once the is one hundred and nioety.nine times. preservative of her health and per- Franklin. Is it possible? sonal charms. But you, when you Gout. So possible that it is fact; go to Auteuil, must have your car. you may rely on the accuracy of my riage, though it is no farther from statement. You know Mr Bee's Patsy to Anteuil, than from Auteuil gardens, and what fine walks they to Passy.

contain ; you know the handsome

on foot.

a man

you; noc


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Dialogue between Frankiin and the Gout. .

595 Hight of an hundred steps, which seated all the while, you cannot oblead from the terrace above to the ject the fatigue of the day, and canlawn below. You have been in the not want therefore the relief of a car. practice of visiting this amiable fa- riage. mily twice a week after dinner, and Franklin.- What then would you as it is a maxim of your own, that have me do with my carriage?


take as much exercise Gout.--Burn it, if you choose ; in walking a mile

ар and down stairs, you would at least get heat out of it asin ten on levelground," what an op- once in this way ; or if you

dislike portunity was here for you to have that proposal, here's another for you: had exercise in both these ways ? Did observe the poor peasants who work you embrace it, and how often ? in the vineyards and grounds about

Franklin.--I cannot immediately the villages of Passy, Anteuil, Chail. answer thai question.

lois, &c. ; you may


every day Gout. I will do it for

among these deserving creatures, four

or five old men and women, bent and Franklin, Not once?

perhaps crippled by weight of years, Gout.--Even During the and too long, and too great labour. summer you went there at six o'clock, After a most fatiguing day, these. You found the charming lady, with people have

people have to trudge a mile or two her lovely children and friends, eager to their smoky huts. Order your to walk with you, and entertain you coachmen to set them down. That is with their agreeable conversation : an act that will be good for your soul; and what has been your choice !-- and at the same time, after your visit Why to sit on the terrace, satisfying to the B's, if you return on foot, yourself with the fine prospect, and that will be good for your body. passing your eye over the beauties Franklin.Ah! how tiresome you of the gardens below, without taking are. one step to descend and walk about Gout.-Well then, tp my office; it in them. On the contrary, you call should vot be forgotten, that I am for tea, and the chess-board; and lo! your pbysician. There. you are occupied in your seat till mine Franklin. Ohhh ! what a devil of o'clock, and that beside two hours a physician ! play after dinner ; and then, instead Gout.-How ungrateful are you of walking home, which would have to say so! Is it not I, who, in the bestirred you a little, you step into character of your physician, have sayour carriage. How absurd to sup. ved you from the palsy, dropsy, and pose that all this carelessness can be apoplexy? one orother of which would reconcileable with health without my have done for you long ago, but for interposition !

me, Franklin.--I am convinced now Franklin.--I submit, and thank of the justness of poor Richard's re. you for the past, but intreat the dis- .. mark, that, “ Our debts and our continuance of your visits for the sins are always greater than we think future : for in my mind one had bet

ter die, than be cured so dolefully. Gout. So it is! you philosophers, Permit me just to hint, that I have alare sages in your maxims, and fools so not been unfriendly to you. I ne. in your eondust.

ver feed physician, or quack of any Franklin.-But do you charge a- kind, to enter the list against you; if mong my crimes, that I return in a then you do not leave me to repose, carriage from Mr. B's? it may be said you are ungrateful too. Gout.-Certainly : for having been Gout.-I can scarcely acknowledge




that as any objection, As to quacks, no pleasure in hearing this music. I despise them : they may kill you Many pieces of it are mere composiindeed, but cannot injure me.

And tions of tricks. I have sometimes, as to regular physicians, they are at at a concert, attended by a common last convinced, that, the gout in such audience, placed myself so as to see a subject as you are, is no disease, all their faces, and observed no signs -but a remedy ; and wherefore cure of pleasure in them during the pera remedy?--but to our business formance of a great part that was There.

admired by the performers them. Franklin---Oh! Oh!--for heav. selves; while a plain old Scotch en's sake leave me ; and I promise tune, which they disdained, and faithfully never more to play at chess, could scarcely be prevailed on but to take exercise daily, and live play, gave manifest and general de. temperately.

light. Give me leave, on this occa. Goul...I know you too well. You sion, to extend a little the sense of promise fair ; but after a few months your position, that “ melody and of good health, you will return to harmony are separately agreeable, and your old habits ; your fine promises in union delightful," and to give it will be forgotten like the forms of as my opinion, that the reason why the last year's clouds. Let us then the Scotch tunes have lived so long, Inish the account and I will go. But and will probably live for ever (if I leave you with an assurance, of vi. they escape being stifled in modern siting you again at a proper time and affected ornament) is merely this, place ; for my object is your good, that they are really compositions of and you are sensible now, that I am melody and harmony united, or ra.

ther that their melody is harmony. I mean the simple tunes sung by a single voice,

As this will appear On the HARMONY and MELODY of paradoxical, I must explain my meanthe Old Scotch Tunes.

ing. In common acceptation, indeed,

only an agreeable succesion of sounds In a Letter from Dr Franklin to Lord is called melody, and only the co-exe Kaimes,

istence of agreeable sounds, harmo. IN my passage to America I read my

But since the memory is capa. your excellent work, the Elements ble of retaining for some moments a of Criticism, in which I found great perfect idea of the pitch of a past eotertainment. I only wished you sound, so as to compare with it the had examined more fully the sub- pitch of a succeeding sound, and ject of music, and demonstrated that judge truly of their agreement or disathe pleasure artists feel in hearing greement, there may and does arise much of that composed in the mo. from thence a sense of harmony bedern taste, is not the natural plea. tween the present and past sounds, sure arising from melody or harmony equally pleasing with that between of sounds, but of the same kind with two present sounds. Now the con. the pleasure we feel on seeiog the struction of the old Scotch tunes is surprising feats of tumblers and rope. this, that almost every succeeding dancers, who execute difficult things. emphatical note is a third, a fifth, an For my part I take this to be really octave, or in short some note that is the case, and suppose it the reason in concord with the preceding note. why those who are' unpractised in Thirds'aré chiefly used, which are music, and therefore unacquainted very pleasing concords. Tusethe word with those difficulties, have little or emphatical to distinguish those notes

your real friend.

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which have a stress laid on them in panes appear dark, and the cross bars singing the tune, from the lighter of the sashes, with the window frames connecting notes, that serve merely, and walls, appear white or bright; like grammar articles in

but if


still add to the darkness speech, to tack the whole toge in the eyes by covering them with ther.

your hand, the reverse instantly takes That we have a most perfect idea place, the panes appear luminous of a sound just past, I might appeal and the cross bars dark. And by to all acquainted with music, who removing the hand they are again know how easy it is to repeat a


This I know not how to sound in the same pitch with one account for.-Vor for the following; just heard. In tuning an instrument, a that after looking long through good ear can as easily determine that green spectacles, the white paper of two strings are in unison by sound. a book will on first taking them off ing them separately, as by sounding appear to have a blush of red ; and them together; their disagreement after long looking through red glasis also as easily, I believe I may say ses, a greenish cast; this seems to more easily and better distinguished, intimate a relation between green and when sounded separately ; for when red not yet explained. Farther, sounded together, though you know when we consider by whom these anciby the heating that one is higher ent tunes were composed, and how than the other, you cannot tell which they were first performed, we shall is. I have ascribed to memory the see that such harmonical successions ability of comparing the pitch of a of sounds was natural and even ne. present toue with that of one past. cessary in their construction. They But if there should be, as possibly were composed by the minstrels of there may be, something in the ear those days to be played on the harp similar to what we find in the eye, accompanied by the voice. The harp that ability would not be entirely ow. was strung with wire, which gives a ing to memory. Possibly the vibra. sound of long continuance, and had tions given to the auditory nerves by no contrivance like that of the mo. a. particular sound may actually con. dern harpsichord, by which the tinue some time after the cause of sound of the preceding could be those vibrations is past, and the a- stopt the moment a succeeding note greement or disagreement of a sub- . began. To avoid actual discord, it sequent sound become by comparison was therefore necessary that the sucwith them more discernible. For ceeding emphatic note should be a the impression made on the visual chord with the preceding, as their nerves by a luminous object will con- sounds exist at the same time. Hence tinue for twenty or thirty seconds.- arose that beauty in those tunes that Sitting in a room, look earnestly at has so long pleased, and will please the middle of a window a little while for ever, though men scarce know when the day is bright, and then why. That they were originally shut your eyes; the figure of the win-. composed for the harp, and of the dow will still remain in the eye, and most simple kind, I mean a harp so distinct that you may count the without any half notes but these in panes. A remarkable circumstance the natural scale, and with no attending this experiment, 'is, that than two octaves of strings, from the impression of forms is better C to C, I conjecture from ano. retained than that of colours; for af. ther circumstance which is, that ter the eyes are shut, when you first not one of those tunes, really andiscern the image of the window, the cient, has a single artificial half

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