Abbildungen der Seite
[merged small][ocr errors]

the worthy descendants of the ancient res oration of the general tranquillity.
and honourable family of France was With this view, we have now passed o.
not long since shed by the hand of ver, with a part of our army, to pome-
violence. This shocking circumstance rania, there to unite our power with
was not only a specimen of the ideas the Russian forces; and, further, to act
which the French Government enter with energy in such a manner as cir.
tained of law and equity, but also a cumstances may require.
most disgusting picture of the system it “ In consequence of this laudable and
had adopted, and in every respect af. weighty determination, we fuliy expect
fording a signal warning to all govern. to be accompanied by the blessings and
ments. While this incroachment fur- prayers of our faithful subjects, as it is
nished the great states with such a view our purpose to contend for the future in-
as enabled them to draw the most genu. dependence, and the honour of the Swe.
ine conclusions respecting the irresistible dish name."
power of France, the smaller states were On the 30th October, a considerable
converted into provinces, by violence corps of Prussians, under the command
or intrigue ; and the danger appeared of Gen. Kalkreuth, entered the Electo.
not less general than overwhelming, as rate, who, after the arrival of the Eng-
it seemed that security against these me. lish troops, held several consultations
naces was no longer to be found in any with Gen. Don, and the Russian Gen.
distance from the scenes of action. Tolstoy. It has been reported, upon

“ The most justifiable claims, made some authority, that the King of Swe-
by us upon the French Government, den, who took the command of his own
were fruitless in obtaining indemnities army, was not a party to these confe.
for the demands made by several of our rences; and it was generally surmised
subjects, respecting unlawful captures, that his Majesty's landing in Pomera-
arbitrary freightage, and an illegal em- nia, was viewed with an eye of jealousy
bargon-as the lawless proceedings of the by his Prussian Majesty. It is certain,
French Government were carried on that when the subsidiary treaty between
to such a pitch, as to lay the Swedish England and Sweden was in agitation
commerce under considerable embar- in the spring of 1805, the King of
rassment in the French ports. Such Prussia issued a declaration, addressed to
proceedings could only increase the ap- the King of Sweden, purporting that he
prehensions entertained of this danger- would consider the landing of any mili-
ous conduct, and excite a wish fo: the tary force in Pomerania, as a hostile
organization of an adequate counter- movement against the Prussian domi.
poise against a power which had so mons.
rashly committed itself in its endea. The Emperor of Russia having en.
vours to obtain a superiority, and avail. gaged in the grand alliance against
ed itself of every unjust means to ob- France, seems to have been desirous of
taip the end proposed.

a personal interview with the King of “ But as no state was powerful e. Prussia; a power, as we have already nough to escape the effects of these said, of which it was of the last import. practices, we hoped that the general ex- ance to obtain the co-operation. The perience of these outrages would finale intended meeting, it was at first supposly unite and concur, in their efforts to ed, would have taken place at a town on remove this common nuisance, and ef- the confines of Polish Prussia, while his fectually to resist that power, the object Imperial Majesty was on his journey of which was, by degrees, to subjugate from Petersburgh, to join his army desall others.

tined for the support of the Emperor “ This period has at length arrived, of Germany in the approaching camand the greatest powers in Europe paign. But the Prussian monarch, as have taken the field, to support their we are told, had been for some time own dignity and independence. We threatened with an attack of the gout, have united ourselves with them in e. which made it inexpedient for him to very worthy and friendly connection, travel. And in consequence of an inand for the purpose of sharing in all un. vitation from his Majes:y, the Emperor dertakings, have drawn closer the ties set out for Berlin. The King's broof amity; and we hope with the assist thers, Prince William and Prince Henance of Providence, to contribute to the ry, met his Imperial Majesty at the


[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

country palace of the Princess of Hol- Lord Harrington. Several conferences
steio - Beck, Dear Fredericksfield, and were held between them and the Prus-
complimented him in the name of sian Minister, all supposed to relate to
his Prussian Majesty. The Emperor the same important object. The Prus.
joined the two princes in their carri. sian Minister Count Haugwitz was 2-
age, and arrived at Berlin on the 25th bout this time dispatched on a secret
October, amidst the acclamations of the mission to the French Emperor. On
inhabitants, and under a discharge of ar- the 17th December Lord Cathcart ar--
tillery. From the Long-bridge to the rived at Bremen from England, and
portico of the Palace, three battalions took the command of the British army,
of grenadiers stood under arms, toge- which at that time was quartered at
ther with the regiment of Mollendorf, Bremen, Delmenhorst, Oldenburgh, and
while the body-guards and the gens. Hanover,
d'armes paraded in the garden. The
Emperor was received at the colonade

of the grand portico by the King, ac- TRIAL OF SIR ROBERT- CALDER.
companied by the Crown Prince, and The Court Martial to inquire into
Prince Frederick of Prussia, and con- the conduct and proceedings of Vice-
ducted to the apartments of King Frede. Admiral Sir Robert Calder, with his
rick William II. which had been pre. Majesty's squadron under his command,
pared for his reception, where the on the 23d day of July last; and also
Emperor found the whole Royal Fa- his subsequent conduct and proceedings,
mily and the Court assembled.

until he finally lost sight of the eneThe Queen met the Emperor at the my's ships, and for not having done his door of the apartment, and when all the utmost to renew the engagement, and persons present had been presented to to take and destroy every ship of the him, his Imperial Majesty, accompani. enemy, which it was his duty to en. ed by the King, and the Royal Prin- gage, assembled on Monday, Dec. 22. ces, walked again to the grand colo. on board the Prince of Wales, at Portsnade, and saw the troops march off, mouth. It was composed of the followat which they expressed their satis. ing officers ;-faction. The Emperor then returned Vice-Admirals Montagu (President), to the Royal apartments to breakfast. Holloway, and Rowley; Rear-Admirals,

In the suite of his Imperial Majesty Thornborough, Sutton, and Coffin were the Chief Marshal Count Tolstoi, Captains R. D. Oliver, Jas. Atholwood; Prince Czartorinski, Prince Dolgoruc- T. B. Capel, Jas. Bisset, John Irving, ky, Count Liewen, the Emperor's own John Seater, and John Larmour. physician and Counsellor of State Ville, Mr Bicknell conducted the prosecu. and Counsellor of State d'Oubril. tion for the Lords of the Admiralty.

His Imperial Majesty continued for After the usual preliminary proceedings, several days at Berlin, domesticated he proceeded to call his witnesses. The with their Prussian Majesties. During first witness was Rear-Admiral

Sir this period, it would appear that seve. Charles Stirling, whose evidence was to Tal conferences were held with the Prus. the following effect :sian ministers on the important busi- On the 23d of July his flag was on ness of the alliance, and it has been po- board the Glory ; the British feet consitively said that his Prussian Majesty, sisted of 15 sail of the line, 2 frigates, a on the 3d of November, actually signed lugger, and a cutter. At day-light on some contingent agreement in favour the 23d, part of the van was far advanof the allies. It may however be in- ced to the enemy, the body of the fleet ferred, from the events which have lying to. The Malta, the Thunderer, since occurred, that this agreement the two frigates, and the two prizes chiefly regarded the preservation of the taken the day before, were not in sight. tranquility of the north, particularly The enemy's force appeared to be 18 Hanover.

sail of the line, and 7 or 8 others. In the beginning of November Lord “ When the day advanced," the AdHarrow by embarked at Yarmouth for miral proceeded, the British van bore Germany. He arrived at Cuxhaven on up to join the Admiral, and soon after the sth, and at Berlin on the 16th, and the fleet wore, and ran to leeward, till was followed some days afterwards by we joined the Malta and Thunderer,

[ocr errors][ocr errors]


[ocr errors]

'with the prizes, when we hauled our Had the British fleet kept their wind,
wind with the main topsail to the mast; they could have afforded no protection
the enemy had come down towards us, to the captured ships. When the ene.
and the British fleet had lowered their my vauntingly bore up, (they could have
colours, but about the time of our haul. brought our fleet to action when they
ing our wind, they hauled theirs. We chose during the 23d), the Vice Admi-
were not in any order of sailing or of ral occasionally hauled his wind, and
vattie, and therefore we sometimes had then edged down to near the prizes. He
our main topsail full, or kept it aback, could not say, whether the British could
to keep such distance from the Admi- have brought the enemy's fleet to action
ral as I thought he would approve. A on the 33d ; they did not lay their heads
look-out frigate from the enemy having towards them. As the wind was, and
come down to reconnoitre, in the course as the enemy bore, they could not have
of the forenoon, the Triumph was sent been fetched on the 23d, if they chose
to chace her, and afterwards lay to be. to avoid it by going on a contrary tack.
tween the two fleets. The Dragon At no time during the 23d or 24th, did
was sent to take the Windsor Castle in the Vice-Admiral make any signal in-
tow. About noon, the enemy, I think, dicative of a disposition to renew the
bore for north-west by north to west, attack; it appeared to be his object to
and by north; the wind was northwest keep company with the crippled ships.
and by north. The crippled ships stood The fleet continued steering from the
on the larboard tack, and it appeared to enemy. He knew nothing to prevent it
me that the Admiral's object was to from following the enemy on the 24th,
keep company with them. The enemy had the Admiral thought proper. No
sometimes during the day, besides the ship appeared to be disabled but the
time I before mentioned, bore up in Windsor Castle.
line of battle, and then again hauled In reply to some questions from Ad.
their wind, not approaching us, I be- miral Calder, the witness said, that on
lieve, nearer than four leagues, or far. the morning of the 24th there was a
ther than six from us, keeping near in considerable swell, and little wind in
the same line of bearing. About mid- the early part of the day ; that when he
night, firing was heard in the direction left Rochefort on the 12th, the enemy's
where the enemy was, when the wind force there consisted of one three-deck-
shifted to the northward, or rather came er, two 80 gun ships, three 74's, and se-
to the eastward of north, and, at day. veral smaller vessels, ready to take the
light in the morning, they were seen first opportunity of pushing out; that
steering away about south-east. I do the British feet was always placed be-
not remember seeing them from the tween the enemy's squadron and the
deck any part of the day, therefore can captured ships, and also so placed, as
only speak of their bearings from the long as they were in sight, as to prevent
report of such officers as I sent up to them from fetching Ferrol
look after them, who told me they kept The other witnesses examined were,
receding from us, till about six o'clock, Mr Craddock, master of the Glory,
when I understood they could be no Admiral Martin, and Captains Durham
longer seen from the Glory. About and Inman. They all agreed in stating
cight, the British fleet wore with their that no ship appeared to be disabled, but
head to the north-west ; the wind, as the Windsor Castle, and that the Admi-
the day advanced, had come more round ral made no signal on the 23d or 24th,
to the eastward."

indicative of a disposition to renew the
Questioned by the Court.-Admiral action. This latter fact was admitted
S. stated, that on the morning of the by Admiral Calder, who said he should
13d, the Vice Admiral made a signal, to afterwards state his reasons for it; and
ask what ships had occasion to lie by to this admission of course greatly shorten-
refit? The answer from the Glory was ed the evidence for the prosecution,
in the negative. The British ficet, by which was all to the same effect as that
going to leeward, would have increased of Admiral Stirling.
their distance from the enemy, had the The Court adjourned to Tuesday,
latter lain to, but, as they bore up, they and from that (Sir R. Calder not being
neared our feet as the day advanced. prepared with his defence) to Wednes-

[ocr errors]


[ocr errors][ocr errors]


[ocr errors][ocr errors][merged small]

day, when they met at ten o'clock, and lon and Cadiz ieets joined, and the permission was given to Mr Gasalee, Brest fleet was on the move, when Sir Sir Robert's Counsel, to read his de- Robert's situation become so dangerfence.—It began with adverting to the ous, that Lord Gardner directed him, in singular situation in which he appeared the event of its being ascertained that before the Court. "Having,", said the enemy had directed their course Sir Robert,“ served my King and northwards, to join the squadron off Country not only without reproach, but Brest, or elsewhere. The combined I may add, with some degree of reputa. squadrons however went to the West tion, for 46 years, during which I have Indies, and as it was expected that they been more than once honoured with would return, and attempt a junction marks of approbation from my Sove- with the fleet at Ferrol, he was cautionreign ; having for the last ten months ed to be on his guard in case of that ebeen employed on a most severe and In the mean time, the preparacritical service, without once being in tions at Ferrol continued. On the 5th port, and having in the course of it, with of July, Sir Robert received informaa very inferior fleet, forced a superior tion, that 13 sail of the line, besides fri. one of the enemy, who had the advan. gates and corvettes, were to leave Fertage of wind and situation, into action, rol, and be at Corunna by the middle and obtained a decisive victory over of the month, and that three other line them; I felt myself impelled to solicit of battle ships were getting ready. The the present inquiry, for the purpose of enemy had erected signal posts from vindicating my honour and my charac- Cape Finisterre and Cape Ortegal to Ferter from a variety of injurious and un- rol, so that the combined squadron, on founded aspersions which have been their return from the West Indies, cast upon me, in consequence of not ha- might have easily communicated by ving renewed the engagement during land, their approach to the squadrons at the two days the enemy afterwards rea Ferrol and Corunna, and directed them mained in sight.”

to be ready to push out, upon the sig. After a variety of observations to the nal posts announcing their being off the same effect, he proceeded to say that his coast. was not the only instance of a British On the 15th, Sir Robert was joined fieet lying in sight of the enemy, with. by Admiral Stirling, but the same wind out attempting to renew an engage

which enabled him to leave Rochefort, ment. Such was the conduct of Åd. enabled the fleet which he had been miral Keppel in 1778, and of Lords blockading to escape to Corunna, which Howe and St Vincent, after the bril- they did on the 18th, from whence they liant victories of the ist of June 1794, could get out at any time, and, had and 14th February 1797. In his case, they availed themselves of two days fathe exercise of that discretion which vourable wind which ensued, they might must, in every case, be vested in the have joined the enemy. At this time Commander of a squadron, was more

a letter was received from Lord Nelpar icularly necessary. They had no son, recommending a careful watch to force to contend with but that which be kept on Ferrol, as a port which the they had already engaged: it behoved combined fleets might be supposed to him to be on his guard against the fer- attempt to enter. Accordingly, on the rol and Rochefort squadrons, eonsisting 21st, they came in sight, much more of 21 sail of the line, both which be- numerous, however, than had been sup. had reason to believe were at sea. posed; not consisting of 16 sail of the

In February, Sir Robert was detach. line, as Admiral Cornwallis's accounts ed with only seven sail of the line to led to expect, but of 20 sail of the line, blockade Ferrol and Corunna, in which seven frigates and two brigs, and a lugwere ten ships of the line and seven ger; while to oppose them were only frigates nearly ready for sea, and three 15 sail of the line, two frigates, and two Spanish line of battle ships getting rea. cutters. Notwithstanding this superidy. With this small force he kept his ority, and every disadvantage of wind station, and from time to time reported and weather, he effected his object of to the Commander in Chief the state of forcing the enemy to battle ; and by the the enemy's fleet. In April the Tou, valour of his second in command, and


[ocr errors][ocr errors]

the bravery of his fleet in general, he tury been unpolluted, and on which, till had been enabled to atchieve, what he the present moment, not the least sha. presumed to think was, in such circum- dow of suspicion could attach. sta' ces, a great and important victory. Sir Robert Calder, having concluded

Sir Robert then proceeded to detail his defence, called a number of witnesthe operations which he was of necessi- ses in support of the averments containty compelled to adopt, in compliance ed in it. The principal facts which with the instructions received from the their evidence went to prove were, that Admiralty Board. Finding the block- several of Sir Robert's ships were conade of Ferrol was raised, and the enemy siderably damaged, that the enemy did put to sea, he judged it expedient not not appear to have sustained much dato renew the engagement, being sur- mage ; that on he 2 3d Sir Robert could rounded on all sides by the different squa. not have brought them to action, if they drons, and especially from the disabled chose to avoid it, nor could be have state of many of his own squadron. He compelled them to it on the 24th, withcomplained that his dispatches in the out approaching so near the shore as to London Gazette, although professing to enable them to communicate by sigbe copies of his letters, were not pub. nals with Ferrol. lished whole and entire; if they had, The evidence for the defence being he would not have been accused of tri- closed, the Court adjourned to Thursfling with the feelings of the public.- day, when it met at ten o'clock, and He read a paragraph which had been continued in deliberation for six hours, suppressed in his letter to the Comman- when the doors were opened, a d Sir der in Chief. In giving an account of Robert Calder being called in, the Judge the action of the 22d, he says—“ At Advocate read the sentence, which, after the same time it will behove me to be recapitulating the charge, &c. in the on my guard, on account of the squa- usual form, states, “ That the Court is dron at Ferrol and the two captured of opinion, THAT THE CHARGE ships. I have sent them and the Wind- HAS BEEN PROVED, and that the sor Castle away." If this had been conduct of Vice Admiral Sir Robert stated, the public could not have" ex- Calder has been HIGHLY REPRE. pected so much. He also pointedly al- HENSIBLE ; but they are of opini. luded to the réport circulated on the on, THAT HIS CONDUCT authority of Lieut. Nicholson, that he FROM ERROR IN JUDGMENT, and not had authorised him to assure the Com- from cowardice or dissaffection; and mander in Chief, that he had it in his therefore this Court doth order and power, and was determined to force the adjudge, that the said Vice Admiral Sir combined fleets to renew the action. ROBERT CALDER be seVERELY REPRIHe solemnly declared that he never MANDED, and he is hereby REPRIMANDsent any such message. It was never ED SEVERELY." his intention to renew the action, until Sir Robert, during the whole of the he had placed the Windsor Castle in a trial, manifested an uncommon degree place of safety. He could not have re. of firmness. In the examination of the newed it on the 23d, and on the 24th, witnesses he discovered a considerable although the wind was favourable, he degree of acuteness. He wore an uncould not renew it without separating dress uniform. When the sentence of the squadron, and even then it was the Court was delivered, it seemed to doubtful with what success. The ques- make a very deep impression upon him; tion for the Court to decide was, whe and he retired evidently very much afther the discretionary power vested in fected. He was accompanied by a him, had not been used for the benefit great number of friends, and on deseend, of the country.

ing from the deck of the Prince of He called upon the Court to consi. Wales into his barge, scarcely lifted up der, what would be the situation of eve- his head, which was apparently bowed ry officer in the British fleet, if he were down by the weight of the sentence. not allowed to use his own discretion. The Court was uncommonly crowdHe looked to its decision to restore to ed; and a general feeling pervaded the him, udpolluted, that character and that auditory, who sympathized with the Borour which had for nearly half a cen. Admiral, on the result of the trial.




« ZurückWeiter »