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les and Phidias, are still to be found sperse amongst their hair the various
amongst the Greek women : they are flowers of the season.
generally of a large size and noble But though the Grecian women
shape ; their

eye is full of fire, and have received from nature their share their mouths, replete with fine teeth, of beauty, and the gift of loving with seem to excite kissing. Nevertheless, ardour and sincerity; they have altheir complexions vary according to 80 the defect of being vain, avaricithe part they inhabit, though they ous, and ambitious, at least amongst always retain the unchangeable basis the higher ranks of society. Deof general beauty, The girl of prived of every kind of instruction, Sparta is fair, her shape is slepder, they are incapable of supporting a and her gait noble ; while those of conversation of the smallest interest, the mountains of Taygetus possess while their defect of education is the size and form of Pallas, as that not supplied by thai natural wit divinity is represented displaying her which gives rise to repartees, and arms and ægis in the field of battle. pleases the men more than wit . The female of Messinea is of a small which is acquired. Hence it may size, en bon point, and of regular be affirmed, ibat the Greeks are gefeatures, with large blue eyes, and nerally ignorant, while those even long black hair ; and when she treads who are born in a

more elevated on the verdant carpet of nature with sphere, are unacquainted with the ati' her naked and delicate feet, she re. of doing the offices of a household; sembles Flora in her enamelled mea. an art so familiar to the women of dows. The Arcadian woman, enve- most European countries, who know loped in costse woollen garments,

how to attract and attach to them scarcely shews the regularity of her the most serious and amiable men. shape ; her head is finely formed, To give a proof of the little educa- : and her smile is that of innocence. tion which the Greek women receive, The females of the Archipelago, ex-' not excluding those who are qualifi. cepting those of Naxos, are by no ed for princesses, I shall add, that means so interesting. I may add, at the Fanal, which is the name given that the Grecian women of the Mo- to a part of Constantinople, in which rea, and even those in the best cir- the Greek princes reside, one may cumstances, have no ideas inimical hear these ladies employ the most to modesty ; chaste when they are vulgar and injurious epithets when girls, and bashful and faithful when commanding their servants, whom they have formed the hymeneal con- they incessantly call by the appellatract, they possess a certain austerity tion of beast, bitch, &c. instead of of conduct which repels all attempts their proper names.

I shall leave it at Asiatic voluptuousness. After to the reader to decide what attracthe death of the husband of their tion an European can find in the sochoice, they very rarely make any ciety of such women. From what new engagement; on the contrary, I have said, it may, however, be after such a loss, existence seems a concluded, that no parallel exists beburden to them, and they often pass tween the eastern women and those the remainder of their life in tears. of the west. They use no valuable article to adorn In every part of the Morea there themselves, except India shawls, is an abundance of old sybils and which can be obtained only by the professed sorcerers ; the refuse of most opulent women; they wear Thessaly, which, in all times, has such cloaths as they have themselves been over-run with magicians : these spun and woven, while they inter, imposters explain dreams, interpret

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sigas, and comment on the weakness As the great variety of the sub of the imagination, insomuch that ject precludes all attempts at analysis, nothing serious is undertaken with

we shall present our readers •ith the out consulting them. Hence it is table of contents, which, like a bill easy to conceive the influence which of fære, may give him an idea of the these wretches, so generally known entertainment he is to meet with. by the name of gypsies, must have History of Edinburgh. over the ardent minds of the Grecian

Description, -Old Towp-Earthen
Mound-North Bridge-South Bridge
-Southern District-Northern Dis-

trict or New Town.
SCOTTISH REVIE W. Antiquities ----City Wall ---Netherbow

Port- -Cross of Edinburgh-John I. Picture of Edinburgh; contain: Knox's House-Roman Sculpture.

ing a History and Description of Political and Civil Establishments,-Edin. the City, with a particular Ac

burgh Castle-Palace of Holyroodhouse count of every remarkable object

-Abbey of Holyroodhouse--Roval in, or Establishment connected

Chapel-Scottish Mint-Court of Ses. with, the Scottish Metropolis.com

sion-Faculty of Advocates-Writers

to the Siguet-Court of Justiciary By J. Stark. 18mo. pp. 504. 65. Court of Exchequer-- Parliament House Constable & Co.

--Register Office-Court of Admiralty OCAL and topographical writ.

--Commissary Court-Lyon Court

Sheriff Court-Convention of Royal ings have, of late, occupied a

Boroughs-Board of Customs Excise large share of the public attention ; Office Post Office. and their attractions as well as their Municipal Establishment;--Magistracy of use are greater than might at first Edinburgh-Incorporated Tradessight be supposed. We take plea

Criminal Court---Bailie Court-Ten

Merk Court-Dean of Guild Courtsure in reading a description of places to which our eyes have been long

Toibooth-- Cannongate Tolbooth

Bride well-Weigh house-Exchange -accustomed ; we learn even new parti- Police Court of Police. culars which we had not before Banks, ---Bank of Scotland-Royal Bank known or attended to. In the same ----British Linen Company. way, deficiencies may be pointed Literary Establishments --High Schoolout, and improvements suggested,

University---Botanic Garden-Obserwhich would not otherwise have oc

vatory-University Library.--Royal curred.

College of Physicians-Royal Society

-Society of Antiquaries-- Select SoSuch being the case, nothing in: ciety-Speculative Society--Royal Scotland can certainly be more de Medical Society-Natural History Soserving than Edinburgh of the most ciety-Advocates Library— Progress copious topographical delineation.-- and Present State of Printing PeriodiThe capitals of France and England

cal Publications. Progress and Pre

sent State of the Arts. having already been described with

Religious Establishments, -St. Giles's considerable industry and minute.

Church- Trinity College Churchness, Mr Stark has now undertaken

Trone Church-Lady Yester's Church to, perform the same office for that ---New and Old Greyfriars Churches, of his native country; and he has Cannongate Church - St. Cuthbert's not fallen short of his models.' In. Church, St. Andrew's Church deed we do not remember to have Episcopal Chapel ---St. George's Cha: seen any work of this kind, which,

pel-Society for Propagating Christian

Knowledge. besides giving a view of the present Charitable Institutions, Infirmary ---Pubstate of things, includes so much his

lic Dispensary-Lying-in Hospital torical and antiquarian information. Heriot's Hospital --Watson's Hospital

----Gillespie's Hospital-Charity Work into England. These tracts are pre. house----Merchant Maiden Hospital - served in the Advocates Library, Edin. Trades Maiden Hospital--Orphanflos- burgh. There must certainly, how pital— Trinity Hospital-Asylum for ever, have been some works printed the Blind-Magdalen Asylum--The prior to this date, the press being esta' Repository--Society for the Relief of blished nearly a year before ; but as it Ministers Widows--Society for the is probable that these books might Sons of the Clergy.

consist of the lives of saints, legendary Public Amusements,-Theatre-Music- miracles, or of devotions then in esteem, Dancing--Corri's Rooms-Royal Aca. they may have been lost at the Refor.' demy of Exercises---Royal Company mation, either by being carried away of Archers--Company of Golfers. by the priests who fled beyond sea, or Progress and Present State of Manners, destroyed by the blind zeal of the reMarkets, Fuel, and Water,---Fruit-Mar- forming pariy, ket--Green-Market-Veal-Market The next work discovered as being Poultry-Market -- Butcher-Market- printed in Edinburgh is a Breviary of Fish-Marker-Fuel-Water,

the church of Aberdeen, which was is. Micellaneous Observations,

sued from the press in the following History of Leith,--Description--Gram- year. The second part of this breviary mar School-Bank.

was printed in 15!0,

Oppido Edin Trade of Edinburgh and Leith.

burgensi impressa, jussu et impensis ho. Population.

norabilis viri Walteri Chapman, ejusObjects of Natural History in the im- dem oppidi mercatoris, quarto die menmediate neighbourhood of Edinburgh sis Julii, anno Domini millessimo ccccc --Animal Kingdom--Vegetable King. decimo.” Both parts of this breviary dom--Mineral Kingdom.

are in the Advocates library, but want Description of the Romantic Scenery and the title pages and some leaves in the Reinarkable Objects in the Environs of the middle. Scottish Metropolis--Castle Hill-Cal. From this period till the year 1536 ton Hill-King's Park--St. Bernard's no books have been discovered that Well-Meadows-Hermitage of Braid were printed in Edinburgh. In that --Craiginillar Castle----Duddingston year, however, another printer made House-Dalkeith House-Newbattle his appearance. The first of his perAbbey-Roslin Chapel-Roslin Castle formances which is known is Ballan-Hawthornden-Melville Castle den's transiation of Hector Boece, Pennycuick House.

which bears to have been “imprentet The following sketch of the pro- dwelling fornent the Fryere Wynde.”

in Edenburgh be Thoinas Davidson, gress of printing is so very curious that notwithstanding its length, we typography of that period.

This book is equal to any specimen of cannot forbear extracting it.

In the year 1540 the Scottish parlia. Thirty-six years after that interesting ment passed an act, ordaining the Lord trade had been brought to Westmin- Register to publish the acts of parliaster by Caxton, a printing press was es- ment made in the reign of king James tablished in Edinburgh, Scottish liter- V, and to employ what printer he pleaature owes this establishment to the sed, provided that printer had the generous and brave monarch James IV. king's special licence for that purpose. who patronized the erection of a print: Thomas Davidson accordingly obtained ing-press in the capital so early as the the king's licence to print these acts of year 1507 The first printers were parliament, and all other printers witliWalter Chepman, a merchant in Edin- in the kingdom were discharged froin burgh, and Androw Myllar, a workman. printing the same for the space of six The oldest specimen of Scottish print years; a proof that there were at that ‘ing hitherto discovered, is a collection time different persons in Scotland who of tracts, entitled “ The Porteous of exercised that profession. These acts Nobilness," printed in 1508, about one were accordingly printed in folio, on year after the erection of the first vellum, and in the cid English or blackpress in Edinburgh, and thirty-seven letter. Davidson, in consequence of years after the introduction of the art tl e licence he had obtained, seems to

have taken the title of “ regii impresso- Watson, the author of a history of printris” or “prenter to the kingis nobylling, for his well printed Bible, was on. grace ;” and was probably the first in ly a bookseller. Scotland was soon, afScotland who enjoyed that privilege. ter supplied with printers from Eng

Robert Lekpreuik was the next prin- land. But the demands for books exfer of consequence who established ceeding their abilities to execute them, kimself in Edinburgh. To a book, en- a great part of the Scottish literature, titled " The Confutation of the Ab- at this period, was printed in Holland bote of Crosraguels Masse,” &c. print. and the Low Countries, ed in 1562, is prefixed an epistle by As printer to the university, one Fin. “ The Prenter to the Reader,” in which layson succeeded to Charteris. But at he apoligizes for his want of Greek cha- this time the privilege of printing to racters, which he was forced to have this body was perhaps not confined to supplied by manuscript, that in case of any particular artist. James Lindsay any error the author might not suffer in in 1645, was the first who styled himhis reputation.

self“ Typographus Academia.” The Printers from this period rapidly in. magistrates of Edinburgli, as patrons creased in number. In 1584 there of the seminary, probably appointseems to have been no less than six dif. ed him to this office; but what at ferent printers in the city, viz. Bassin- that time were its profits or honours diane, Ross, Charteris, Mannenby, Ar- is not now known. Their next prinbuthnot, and Vautrollier. Bassindane ter, Gideon Lithgow, in 1647, called was the first who printed a Bible in himself “ printer to the College.” A English, in 1576. li was the Genevan regular appointment was made out by franslation, and was dedicated to James the magistrates, however, on the roth VI. Mannenby, in 1578 was the first who of June 1663, in favour of Andrew used Greek types. “ The Bible, for Anderson, to be ordinar printer the use of Scotland, by the Commission- to the good town and college of the ers of the Kirk," was printed by Alex. samen, in place of Gideon Lithgow, deander Arbuthnert, the king's printer, ceased, during pleasure; he serving als in 1579, " at the Kirk in the Field.” well and als easie in the price as 0.

The university of Edinburgh having theris." been founded in 1582, it was not long The printing continued, till the bebefore it gave to the world its “ Theses ginning of the eighteenth century, withPhilosophicæ.” These were begun to out making much progress in Edinburgh. be printed in 1596, and the earliest ty. The printers were in general illiterare, pographer to the college was Henry when compared with those in other Charteris, the king's printer. The countries of Europe at that time. Not. first theses were in large octavo. They withstanding, however, that the art was assumed a quarto form in 1612; and practised by men who did not possess before the 1641, their size was raised the erudition of which it is the herald, into a large folio. A collection of literature is indebted to their exertions these may be seen in the library of the for reforming the language, and settling, university.

by silent practice, the orthography of Robert Waldegrave next established the north. himself as one of the first printers in The Revolution in 1688 paved the Edinburgh. The “lawes and actes of way for the extension and improvement "parliament, mais be king James the of this art in the Scottish capital. But first, and his successours, the kinges of it was not 'till after the union of the Scotland," collected by Skene, and pub- kingdoms in 1907 that it made any Jished in 1997, besides many other great progress. In 1711, Robert Free. works, afford specimens of the typogra- bairn, James Watson, and John Basket, phy of that period.

were appointed the royal printers in At the commencement of the seven. Scotland, and these were the first who teenth century, the printers of Edin. in Edinburgh carried the art of printburgh were generally booksellers, who, ing to any degree of correctness and ele. having acquired some wealth, could gance. İn 01715 a press was established purchase a press, and employ artificers. in the city by the celebrated Ruddiman, Andrew Hart, who is justly praised by whose learning and abilites entitle him

to

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in 1790,

21

Review.--- Picture of Edinfurgh. to a place not the least inconsiderable, Language, and a letter addressed to the among the most celebrated typographers editors, containing some general obserin any country. And in 1728, he was vations on the state of literature in the appointed, in conjunction with James different countries of Europe, will be Davidson, a bookseller, joint printer to still read with peculiar interest, when it the university of Edinburgh.

is considered that they were the first li. From this æra we may date the esta, terary essays which were published of blishment of printing on an extended the author of the “ Wealth of Na. and respectable basis in Edinburgh. tions.”

p. 250. Since that time, the number of printing- The author, in considering the presses has increased rapidly; and the' circumstances which have forwarded art has likewise been improved. The pro- the progress of literature, indignantgress of printing in Edinburgh will be be best seen from the following stately rejects the supposition, that it de

pends upon

the ment, which may be depended on as

paironage of the rich correct,

and powerful, and considers booksellers Printing houses in

as the true and only patrons of geniEdinburgh in 1763,

us. Without entering into any discus.

sion on this subject, we may join in 1800, 30 with him in congratulating Edinburgh in 1805, .. 40

on her increasing respectability in In the 40 printing-houses now in Edinburgh, are employed upwards of this particular, and on one house in 120 printing.presses. The work exe particular, which, for activity and cuted here is equal in elegance and cor

extent of business, is not perhaps rectness to any in Britain. A great surpassed by any in Britain. part of it is done on account of the The historical accounts of the booksellers of London, and other places; Theatre, and of the progress of the and considerable quantities of books are

fine arts, are particularly interesting. printed for exportation to Ireland and

The article of Markets will be found America.

Before concluding our sketch of the well deserving the atiention of the progress of printing in Edinburgh, we

house-wife. For a great part cannot avoid mentioning what it owes as well as for all the botanical and to Mr James Ballantyne, who first in- zoological department, the author troduced what may be called the splen

states himself to have been indebted did elegance of printing into the Scot.

to Mr P. Neill, whose extensive tish metropolis. By the taste and ex. ertions of this gentleman, the produc knowledge of the sciences to which tions of the Scottish press may vie [riv. they relate, has rendered these antial] in beauty, and perhaps surpass in cles particularly interesting. elegance, the typographic specimens of On the subject of population Mo any other country.

Po 236. Stark gives the following stateA curious fact is stated, that in 1755, a review was undertaken by the late Dr Adam Smith, Drs Blair and Session-clerk of Edinburgh, entitled,

From a paper in the possession of the Robertson, Sir William Pultney, and 6 A list of the haill possessors (of houses) Mr Alexander Wedderburn, after. in the different parishes," the number of wards Earl of Rosslyn.

families in the year 1678 appears to have Only two numbers of the work, which

been as follows: was to have been published every six In the N. W.or Tolbaoth parish, - 513 months, appeared; the first in January, N.or High Church ditto, 389 and the second in July 1755, after which N. E. or College ditio. it was entirely discontinued. The known S. W. or Old Greyfriars ditto, 672 abilities of the contributors to this work, S. or Old Church ditto, leave it to be regretted that it was not S. E, or Tron ditto, carried on farther; but the Review of Dr Johnson's Dictionary of the English

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3333 The

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470

- 625

664

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