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have taken the title of “regii impresso-' Watson, the author of a history of print

“prenter to the kingis nobyll ing, for his well printed Bible, was ongrace ;” and was probably the first in ly a bookseller. Scotland was soon afScotland who enjoyed that privilege. ter supplied with printers from Eng.

Robert Lekpreuik was the next prin- land. But the demands for books exter of consequence who established ceeding their abilities to execute them, limself in Edinburgh. To a book, en- a great part of the Scottish literature, titled " The Confutation of the Ab. at this period, was printed in Holland bote of Crosraguels Masse,” &c. prints and the Low Countries, ed in 1562, is prefixed an epistle by As printer to the university, one Fin. “ The Prenter to the Reader," in which layson succeeded to Charteris. But at he apoligizes for his want of Greek cha- this time the privilege of printing to racters, which he was forced to have this body was perhaps not confined to supplied by manuscript, that in case of any particular artist. James Lindsay any error the author might not suffer in in 1645, was the first who styled himhis reputation.

self" Typographus Academia.” The Printers from this period rapidly in. magistrates of Edinburgli, as patrons creased in number. In 1584 there of the seminary, probably appointseems to have been no less than six dif. ed him to this office; but what at ferent printers in the city, viz. Bassin that time were its profits or honours diane, Ross, Charteris, Mannenby, Ar- is not now known. Their next prin. buthnot, and Vautrollier. Bassindane ter, Gideon Lithgow, in 1647, called was the first who printed a Bible in himself “ printer to the College.” A English, in 1576. It was the Genevan regular appointment was made out by franslation, and was dedicated to James the magistrates, however, on the roth VI. Manenby, in 1578 was the first who of June 1663, in favour of Andrew used Greek types. “ The Bible, for Anderson, to be ordinar printer the use of Scotland, by the Commission- to the good town and college of the ers of the Kirk," was printed by Alex- samen, in place of Gideon Lithgow, de. ander Arbuthnert, the king's printer, ceased, during pleasure ; he serving als in 1579, " at the Kirk in the Field.” well and als easie in the price as 0.

The university of Edinburgh having theris." been founded in 1582, it was not long The printing continued, till the bebefore it gave to the world its “ Theses ginning of the eighteenth century, withPhilosophicæ." These were begun to out making much progress in Edinburgh. be printed in 1596, and the earliest ty. The printers were in general illiterare, pographer to the college was Henry when compared with those in other Charteris, the king's printer. The countries of Europe at that time. Note first theses were in large octavo. They withstanding, however, that the art was assumed a quarto form in 1612 ; and practised by men who did not possess before the 1641, their size was raised the erudition of which it is the herald, into a large folio. A collection of literature is indebted to their exertions these may be seen in the library of the for reforming the language, and settling, university.

by silent practice, the orthography of Robert Waldegrave next established the north, himself as one of the first printers in The Revolution in 1688 paved the Edinburg”. The “lawes and actes of way for the extension and improvement parliament, maid be king James the of this art in the Scottish capital. But first, and his successours, the kinges of it was not 'till after the union of the Scotland," collected by Skene, and pub- kingdoms in 1907 that it made any Jished in 1997, besides many other great progress. In 1711, Robert Free. works, afford specimens of the typogra- bairn, James Watson, and Joon Basket, phy of that period.

were appointed the royal printers in At the commencement of the seven. Scotland, and these were the first who teenth century, the printers of Edin. in Edinburgh carried the art of printburgh were generally booksellers, who, ing to any degree of correctness and ele. having' acquired some wealth, could

gance.

in

1715 a press was established purchase a press, and employ artificers. in the city by the celebrated Ruddiman, Andrew Hart, who is justly praised by whose learning and abilites entitle him

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in 1763, in 1790, in 1800,

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Review.---Picture of Edinfurgh. to a place not the least inconsiderable, Language, and a letter addressed to the among the most celebrated typographers editors, containing some general obserin any country. And in 1728, he was vations on the state of literature in the appointed, in conjunction with James different countries of Europe, will be Davidson, a bookseller, joint printer to still read with peculiar interest, when it the university of Edinburgh.

is considered that they were the first liFrom this æra we may date the esta- terary essays which were published of blishment of printing on an extended the author of the "s Wealth of Naand respectable basis in Edinburgh. tions.”

p. 250. Since that time, the number of printing- The author, in considering the presses has increased rapidly; and the circumstances which have forwarded art has likewise been improved. The pro- the progress of literature, indignantgress of printing in Edinburgh will be ly rejects the supposition, that it debe best seen from the following statement, which may be depended on as pends upon the patronage of the rich correct.

and powerful, and considers booksellers Printing houses in

as the true and only patrons of geniEdinburgh

us. Without entering into any discus

sion on this subject, we may join

30 with him in congratulating Edinburgh in 1805,.... 40

on her increasing respectability in In the 40 printing-houses now in Edinburgh, are employed upwards of this particular, and on one house in 1 20 printing presses. The work exe. particular, which, for activity and cuted here is equal in elegance and cor

extent of business, is not perhaps rectness to any in Britain. A great surpassed by any in Britain. part of it is done on account of the The historical accounts of the booksellers of London, and other places; Theatre, and of the progress of the and considerable quantities of books are

fine arts, are particularly interesting. printed for exportation to Ireland and

The article of Markets will be'found America.

Before concluding our sketch of the well deserving the atiention of the progress of printing in Edinburgh, we house-wife. For a great part of this, cannot avoid mentioning what it owes as well as for all the botanical and to Mr James Ballantyne, who first in- zoological department, the author troduced what may be called the spien- states himself to have been indebted did elegance of printing into the Scot.

to Mr P. Neill, whose extensive tish metropolis. By the taste and ex. ertions of this gentleman, the produc- knowledge of the sciences to which tions of the Scottish press may vie [riv- they relate, has rendered these artial] in beauty, and perhaps surpass in cles particularly interesting. elegance, the typographic specimens of On the subject of population Mo any other country.

Po 236. Stark gives the following stateA curious fact is stated, that in ment. 1755, a review was undertaken by the

From a paper in the possession of the late Dr Adam Smith, Drs Blair and

Session-clerk of Edinburgli, entitled, Robertson, Sir William Pultney, and - A list of the haill possessors (of holises) Mr Alexander Wedderburn, after in the different parishes," the number of wards Earl of Rosslyn.

families in the year 1678 appears to have

been as follows:
Only two numbers of the work, which
was to have been published every six In the N. W.or Tolbooth parish,

513 months, appeared; the first in January, N.or High Church ditto, 389 and the second in July 1755, after which N. E.or College ditio.

470 it was entirely discontinued. The known S. W. or Old Greyfriars ditto, 672 abilities of the contributors to this work, S. or Old Church ditto,

· 625 jeave it to be regretted that it was not S. E, or Tron ditto, carried on farther;' but the Review of Dr Johnson's Dictionary of the English

Total,

3333 The

664

The old part of the city at that time the families there are ; and it has been consisted only of the above six parishes, reckoned nearer the truth to take five of consequence the foregoing list con- as the average number. of a family. tained every family then living in what This, adding 1400 for the Castle, &c. was properly to be called the city of would bring the number of inhabitants Edinburgh. Supposing that there were in the city and suburbs, including Leith, at that rime six individuals in every fa. in 1775, to 70,430.

p. 458. mily, (and this has not been thought by

The enumeration in 1791 made some an average too great for Edin- the inhabitants of Edinburgh and burgh,) the total number of persons Leith amount to 84,886, That of would amount to 19,998. If the suburb of Canongate is reckoned to have con

1801 gave a diminution of 2,500 ; tained 2500 inhabitants, the parish of which is notoriously impossible, and St Cuthbert's 7000, and those of South must diminish greatly our confidence and North Leith 6oco persons, the tu- in such statements. tal number of individuals in Edinburgh For a subject like this, so great and its neighbourhood was, in the year elevation of style was required, and · 1678, 35,500.

In a paper communicated by the late that of the author is in general plain Dr Blair, and copied into the Statis. and perspicuous. There occur how. tical Account of Scotland," containing ever, occasionally, a few instances of an enumeration of families and exami. unaccountable negligence. The folnable persons in the city of Edinburgh, lowing sentence is particularly bad. apparently taken in the year 1722, the numbers, including the usual propor.

Notwithstanding of these advantages, tion of one fourth of the examinable the arts, soon after their revival in Italy

in the middle of the thirteenth century, persons for children, amounted to 25:420; and more recently in the sixteenth cen, and if 15,000 is allowed for the suburbs and the environs, the total number of tury, when many of its most celebrated inhabitants would be 40,420.

masters flourished, the art of design Maitland, in his “ History of Edin. however rude, penetrated to Scotland. burgh,” founding his computation on

p. 263. the register of burials, makes the num- There

may be errors of the

press ber of inhabitants in the city to amount here, though it seems difficult to conto at least 48,000 in 1758. But that ceive any which would produce an calculation is not much to be regarded, as, in 1755 an enumeration was made, approach to grammatical correctness. at the desire of the late Dr Webstes, In reading over the volume, we met when the numbers appeared to be as

with a few other instances of carelessfollows:

ness, though none which can be at all In the Old Town of Edinburgh, -31,122 compared to this: and indeed the In the Canongate,

- 4,500 general style is sufficiently good. In the parish of St Cuthberts, - 12,168 Upon the whole, we remember to In South Leith,

7,200 have met with few books which conIn North Leith,

2,205 tain, in the same compass, such a vaTotal,

We can hard. riety of information.

57,195 Mr Arnot's computation in 1775 is ly discover any thing of importance still more considerable. According to

to have been omitted. Perhaps a his account, the number of families in greater exteosion might have been Edinburgh, Leith, and the environs, given to the commercial part ; a amounts to 13,806, which, calculating more detailed statement of the at the rate of six persons to each fami. produce of our different manufactures ly, makes the number of inhabitants to might have been both interesting and be 82,336, which, added to 1400 for the Castle, Hospitals, &c. amounts in all to

This might be

easily procured. 84,236. But six to a family has been done in a second edition, which we reckoned by some too large an average have no doubt will be called for in even for Edinbnrgh, large in general as

due time.

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II. The Poetical Works of Sir David · He gives also an interesting ac

Lyndsay of the Mount, Lyon count of his own feelings, at seeing
King at Arms under James V. James prematurely brought forward
A new edition, corrected and en- to the head of public affairs.
larged: With a life of the Au- I prayit, daylie, on my kne,

Prefatory Dissertations ; My young maister, that I micht se,
and an appropriate Glossary. By Of eild in his estait royall,
George Chalmers, F.R.S.' S.A. Havand power imperiall;
3 vols. Crown 8vo. Il. 16s. Con. Than traistit I, without demand,
stable and Co. Edinburgh; Long. Bot, my asking, I gat over sone,

To be promovit, to sum land ; man and Co. London.

Because ane clips fell in the mone,

The quhilk all Scotland maid on steir; (Continued from p. 529.) Than did my purpose ryn arreir,

The quhilk war langsum till declair,
ΤΟ

O enforce still farther his claim And als my hart is wounder sair,
on his royal master, Lyodsay soon

Quhen I have in remembrance,
after produced his Complaynt. He

The suddand change, to my mischance.

The king was bot twelf yeiris of age, represents himself as both grieved Quhen new rewlaris came, in thair rage; and ashamed, at never having got For common-weill makan na cair, any reward for his services.

Bot for thair profyte singulair.

Imprudently, lyke witles fulis,
my freindis bene eschamit,
And with my fais, I am defamit;

Thaytuke the young prince fra the sculis

Quhare he, under obedience,
Seand, that I am nocht regardit,

Was leirnand vertew, and science;
Nor, with my brether, in court, re-
wardit :

And haistely pat in his hand,

The
Blamand my sleuthfull negligence,

of all Scotland;

governance That seikis nocht sum recompence;

As quba wald, in ane stormie blast, Quhen divers men dois me demand,

Quhen marinaris bene all agast,
Quhy gettis thou nocht sum pece of Wald take ane chylde of tender age,

Throw danger of the seis rage,
land,
Als weill as uther men hes gottin :

Quhilk never had bene upon the sye,
Than, wis I to be deid, and rottin,

And to his bidding all obey,
With sic extreme discomforting,

Gevyng hym haill the governall,
That I can mak na answering.

Of schip, merchard, and marinall.

For dreid of rokis, and foreland,

P. 253. To put the ruther in his hand:
He again reminds him,

Without Goddis grace, is na refuge :

Gif thare be danger, ye may juge,
How as ane chapman beris, his pack,

I geve thame to the devill of bell,
I bure thy grace upon my back!

Quhilk first devysit that counsell;
And somtymes, stridlingis, on my nek,

I will nocht say, that it was treson, Dansand with mony bend, and bek :

Bot, I dar sweir, it was na resoun:
The first sillabis, that thow did mute,

I pray God, lat me never se ring,
Was pa, da, lyn, upon the lute;

Into this realme, so young ane king.
Than playit I twentie springio per.

P. 258.
queir,
Quhilk was greit plesour for to heir : The account of the arts employed
Fra play, thow leit me never rest,

in the King's seduction is curious, Bot gynkertoun thow luffit ay best ; and throws great light on the man. And ay, quhen thow come fra the

ners of the age, but is too long for scule, Than I behuffit to play the fule ;

insertion. At last, he comes to the As I, at lenth, into my Dreme,

grand object.
My sundry servyce

did
expreine.

I wat thy grace will nocht misken me,

F. 257. Bot, thow will oather geve, or len me : August 1806.

Wald

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landt,

Wald thy grace len me, to ane day, Thair just decreitis defende, and fortifie,
Of gold, ane thousand pound or tway. But gude counsall, may na prince lang
And I sall fix with gude intent

indure;
Thy grace ane day of payment, Wyrk with counsall, than sall thy wark
With seillit obligatioun,

be sure: Under this protestatioun,

Cheis thy counsall of the maist sapient,
Quhen the Bas, and the Ile of May * Without regarde to blude, ryches, or rent.
Beis set upon the Mont Sinay :
Quhen the Lowmound besyde Falk- Amang all uther pastyme and plesour,

Now, in thy adolescent yeiris ying,
Beis liftit to Northumberland :

Wald thow ilk day studie bot half ane

hour, Quhen kirkmen yairnis na dignitie,

The regiment of princely governing, Nor wyffis na soveranitie.

P. 276.

To thy pepill, it warane plesand thing :

Thare micht thow fynd thy awin vocaSir David's complaint having

tioun, brought him an office and pension, How thou suld use thy sceptour, swerd,

and croun. he determined to proceed in the same strain ; and next year produced The Cronikillis, to knaw, I the exhort, the “ Complaint of the Papingo”or Quhilk may be mirrour to thy majestie ;

Thare sail thou find baith gude, and parrot. This bird having set out

evill report, along with the author on a pleasure of everilk prince, efter his qualitie : excursion into the fields, imprudent. Thocht thay be deid, thair deidis sall ly got up.on a tree, and having, in nocht dee; spite of every warning, mounted too Traist weill thow sal be stylit, in that high, was blown over, and received storie, a mortal wound in her fall. She As thow deservis, put in memorie. then begins her dying lamentation, Requeist that roy, quhilk rent wes on but, instead of her own sufferings, the rude. she dwells altogether upon the mis

The to defend, from deidis of defame. fortunes of the kingdom and the That na poeit report of the bot gude; vices of the clergy. She begins, how

For princis dayis induris bot ane drame:

Sen first king Fergus bure ane dyadame, eyer, with addressing some very Thow art the last king of fyve score wholesome advices to the King.

and fyve, osen the definitioun of ane king

And all ar deid, and pane bot thow on
Is for 'to haif of pe pill governance,

lyve.
Addres the first, abufe all uther thing, Of quhose noumer fyftie and fyve bene
Till put thy bodye till sic ordinance, slane,
That thy vertew, thyne honour, may And most part, in thair awin misgover-

nance *:
Fór how suld princis governe greit re- Qubarefor, I the bestik, my soverane,
gionis,

Considderofthairlyvis the circumstance; That can nocht dewlie gyde thair awin personis ?

* The fact is, that few of the Scotish And, gif thy grace wald leif richt ple. kings died quietly in their beds: But, sandlie,

it was the fault of the constitution, and Call thy counsall, and cast on thame not of their awin misgovernance ; Lynd. the cure :

say only retailed the fictitious cant of
Boece, whose Chronikillis were transla-

ted by Bellendene, for the use of James * The Bass and the Isle of May are V. Lidgate, and the other old English well-known islets in the Frith of Forth. poets, had shown Lyndsay the way to

† The Lowmond hill near Falkland, instruct living kings, by raking up the in Fife,

misdeeds of the dead.

And

avance:

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