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mission: the lord chaocellor and bare.headed : but when a commissionlord privy seal stay behind, until all er represents him, he is in an ordi. march away, and then return in the nary sute, and stands and speaks also same state to the palace, as they bare headed : (nor is the commission. ride to the parliament house. er covered when there is pleading at
When the king rides in person, the bar, but continues bare-headed the lord chancellor rides, bearing the as all the members are) and tells great seal: but this is not done before them the reason for which they are a commissioner.
called together, which is enlarged by When the king is present, the the lord chancellor. marquesses and dukes ride after the
The next thing to be done, is the earls'; but if his majestie's commis. chusing of the lords of the articles, sioner be present, they follow him at which is a matter of great impor. some distance, or on his right and tance, who are eight of every state, left hand. After the king or his who have been chosen different ways ; commissioner is received by the lord sometimes the bishops did chuse the chancellor, be is seated on a throne, eight lords, and sometimes the nosix steps high with a state over it : bility the eight bishops. At other And in the first step under him, in a times the nobility did chuse their bench, sits the lord chancellor, with own eight, and the bishops their other officers of state, on both hands eight: but now it is settled by an act of him: in the next step under these, of parliament, that the king, or his sit the lords of sessions, or judges : commissioner, 'names eight of the on the right hand of the throne is the bishops ; the lords chuse eight for bishops bench, that rises up in two themselves ; and these sixteen do rows of benches : on the highest the chuse eight commissioners for the two archbishops sit, and on the lower shires, and eight for the burroughs ; sit the bishops, according to the dig- these thirty-two are the committee nity of their sees.
of parliament, to prepare matters : the left hand of the throne when a bill is drawn by them, it is there is another great bench, of three brought into the parliament: antient. steps, and rows of benches, on which ly all these bills were brought in the sits the nobility, according to their last day of the parliament, on which precedency.
the members ride in the same state In the middle of the four there are as they do the first, and the bills be. two tables ; on the one whereof the ing read, they were put to the votes regalia are laid, and in two great of the parliament, and then were apchairs by them sit the constable and prored, or not; being approved, mareschal; at the other table sits were presented to the king, who by the lord clerk of registers, with his touching with the scepter, gives his deputy clerks, who are the clerks of assent to them, which is done by his the parliament,
commissioner in his absence ; if he There are also forms placed on the refuse to touch them, they are of no floor ; these on the right side are for force : matters have been fully and the commissioners of the shires ; and freely debated in parliament : sitting these on the left for the commission. all in one house, every one answers ers of the burroughs. When all are distinctly to his name, and gives bis placed, the parliament is fenced (as vote, which is in these terms, I apthe phrase is) in the king's name : prove, or net approve ; only these who then the king speaks to them, if he are not satisfied one way or another, be present, in his robes with the say non liquet, which is a great ease crown on his head, all standing up to those who are consciorious, and a
common refuge to the cunning poli. liad suffered considerably. Among the tician : the major vote carries it : no
measures adopted for that purpose, dissents or protests are allowed in it was resolved, in the first place, to publick acts; these are accounted vest in the Crown the estates of treasonable ; but in private acts that those who had been attainted in conrelate to mens properties and rights, sequence of their having engaged in any one may protest for his interest. that rebellion ; and afterwards these After all business is ended, the king estates were unalienably annexed or his commissioner makes a speech the Crown, and the rents and profits to the parliament assembled, after thereof were directed to be applied which they are dissolved.
“ for the better improving the HighSometimes the king his majesty lands of Scotland, and preventing makes use of a convention of estates, disorders there for the future." which can make no laws; only by These estateş accordingly contithis meeting impositions are laid up- nued annexed to the Crown, and the on the subjects' : they do not sit in rents were applied for the purposes state ; and have been most in use be intended, until the year 1784, when fore the kings were crowned. an act was passed, enabling his Ma.
Whatever acts are passed in par. jesty to grant to the heirs of the forliament, or convention of estates, are mer proprietors, upon certain terms to be proclaimed soon after the dis- and conditions, the forfeited estates solution, at the publick market-cross in Scotland, and repealing the last of Edinburgh, by the lvon king at arms, recited act, by which they had been with a great deal of state and cere. unalienably annexed to the Crown. mony; after which they are obliga Among the conditions to which tory on the subjects : and it is enact, the restoration of these estares was ed, that none of the lieges shall pre. made subject, the principal was the sume to impugn the dignity and au • repayment of certain sums paid by thority of the three estates, or any the public on account of the debts of them in time coming, under the due by the persons whose estates had pain of treason ; the authority of the been forfeited, amounting in all to parliament being the supreme court. 90,2 141. 125. 5d. His Majesty was
also authorised to grant the superio
rity of certain estates to the Dukes Report from the Committee on the of Argyll and Atholl, on the pay
Funds arising from the Forfeited ment of certain sums into the exche-
quer, to the amount of 32481. 168.
4d. Out of any payments thence aIT. T was in the year 1945 that the rising, all engagements entered into
adherents of the House of Stuart by the Board of Annexed Estates made their last attempt to place that were to be defrayed. family upon the throne of these The rents arising from these' eskingdoms.
tates having been unalienably approWhen the rebellion which they priated to public purposes in Scos. had raised was quelled by the deci- land, it necessarily followed, that sive victory of Culloden, the atten any sums arising from the restoran tion of government was directed to tion thereof should be applied to the the best means of preventing in fu same objects, Hence, by the disanture the return of internal disorders, nexing act, 15,000l. was granted for by which the public at large, as well completing a repository for the reas the districts where they prevailed, cords of Scotland, and 50,000l. for
completing the Forth and Clyde na By these, various grants the bą. vigation. By the same act, “ the lance at the disposal of Parliament balance of money to be paid in was would have been considerably redu. to remain under the care of the ced, had not the Forth and Clyde Court of Exchequer in Scotland, navigation repaid the 50,000l. it had subject to the future disposition of borrowed from the fund. In conse. Parliament."
quence of that payment, Parliament It appears that out of the said ba was enabled to lend that sum for lance several additional sậms were promoting two important public ungranted by successive acts of Parlia. dertakings, namely, 25,000l. to the ment, for public purposes in Scot. proprietors of the Crigan Canal, for land; namely 2000l. to the Society completing the same, and the like in Scotland for propagating Chris. sum to the Magistrates of the city of tian Knowledge ; 3000l. to the High. Edinburgh, for enlarging and im. land Society in Scotland : 1oool.
to proving the harbour of Leith. the building a jail at leverness; and The following is a state of the 1000l. for building a bridge over the fund now at the disposal of ParliaPease or Pass of Cockburns-path in Berwick.shire.
1. Balance in the hands of the Royal Bank of
payment of the annuities to the Officers of the
5 !5,125 o
city of Edinburgh, towards defraying the ex:
L. 46,454 184 Besides the above sum, the Magi- exclusive of the principal and the in. strates of the city of Edinburgh will terest of the sum lent out, to the have to pay 12 gol. of interest on the proprietors of the Crinal Canal, who, 6th July next, and the Royal Bank it is to be hoped, will be enabled to of Scotland will be indebted, on the pay the same out of the income pro29th of June next, to the amount of duced by that undertaking when the 8921. for interest on the above ba- work is completed. lance of 22,3291 now in its hande. Upon ascertaining the state of this
By transferring the payment of fund, your Committee were naturalthese annuities from the fund of ly led to inquire to what useful pur15,1251. which bears an interest of poses in Scotland the same could be only 4 per cent. to the 25,000l. due applied; and they have the satisfacby the city of Edinburgh, which is tion of stating to the House, that, at sl. per cent. the said capital of by a proper distribution of the capi15,1251. would become immediately tal, and the interest. above mention. disposable ; and as the annuities to ed, a number of most important pubthese officers are now reduced to lic objects may be obtained, which, 460l. per annum, there remains a they are satisfied, will prove
of infifree disposable income of nearly 3501. nite advantage to that part of the
United Kingdom. These may be [The report then proceeds to state elassed under the following general the particular circumstances attendheads :--
ing each of the foregoing heads.] 1. The improvement of the Bri-, The following then is the mode of tish fisheries. 2. The promoting of distribution of the funds iminediateagricultural and other improvements. ly disposable, which your Committee 3. The construction of the harbours beg to submit to the consideration of on different parts of the coast of the House : Scotland. 4. Canals. And
burdened with the annuities payable to
800 for 10 yrs.
at Edinburgh (the Court of Exche.
Li 47,800 The above exceeds the sum of but will also defray any expence like. 46,4541. now disposable by 13461.- ly to be incurred in carrying the abut it has been already observed, bove-mentioned plans into effect. that 1250l. of interest will be due by Your Committee also beg to obthe city of Edinburgh on the 6th of 'serve, that, besides the sums above July, and 8921 by the Royal Bank mentioned, there remains the princiof Scotland on the 26th of June ; pal sum and the interest due by the and as the whole of the sums propo- proprietors of the Crinan Canal, and sed to be granted will not be imme- the reversion of sool. per annum, diately required, the above and the proposed to be granted for ten years accruing interests are not only fully to the Highland Society of Scotland, adequate to the surplus of 13461. burdened with the annuities payable
to the remaining officers of the late manners do not reign in France; ge. Board of Annexed Estates. The nerally speaking, we prefer with reasums are reserved as a fund, whence son our own houses, and the meeting other useful objects, which Parlia. of a few friends, to these excesses ment may afterwards be disposed to which degrade humanity. This cha. encourage, may receive public aid. racter, this urbanity, this elegance,
this generosity, which makes us be
loved when we go among foreigners, Parallel betaveen the FRENCH and cannot be compared to the English ENGLISH National Character.
character, which some have attempt.
ed in vain to introduce among us. From the French of Sabatier.
I shall admire always the useful in.
stitutions of England, which tend all Fas est et ab hoste doceri.
to the prosperity of the inhabitants. THE 'HE French character, and the I shall admire the public spirit of
beauty of the climate, naturally this nation, and its devotion to the dispose the inhabitant to pleasure, common welfare; but never, in what and consequently invite him to pro. concerns private life, shall I prefer cure daily enjoyments of every kind, the English to the French national to multiply and vary them as much character. as possible, and even beyond his Was there ever at Vienna and in all
Do we enjoy what is called the kingdoins and principalities which a fortone? Do we occupy a distin. compose Germany, at London and guished place? welike, we even think in all England, at Madrid, and in all ourselves obliged, to appear in the the Spains, at Amsterdam, and in all Förld in a manner suited to our situa. Holland, in Switzziland, in Italy, tion; every thing in our houses is in &c. &c. Was there ever, I say, harmony with our appearance in the Frenchmen who have gone to inha. wor This manner of living oc- *
bit these countries, is equal number casions a very great internal consump. with the foreigners whom we have tion, and of consequence multiplies seen flowing into our territory? Did within the profits and the returns of we go abroad before the revolution ? commerce.
every one agrees that it was very The silent and reflecting character rare to find French families estab. of the English people has a very lished voluntarily in any of these different effect; it is only by starts, countries. at fixed hours, and with an excess If, on the contrary, the foreigner which cannot suit us, that they came into France, he could very abandon themselves to pleasure, and easily meet families of his own nacarry it even to satiety.
tion, domiciliated, nay naturalized The tavern, where each pays his among us, allied to our families, and reckoning, is in England, the place who, by the pleasures which they most frequented by the rich, and enjoyed, had lost all desire of re. those who occupy the most distin, turning into their country. Even guished rank in the world. There, the English, not withstanding their removed from their wives, their antipathy against the French, are children, whom they never, even in perhaps the people who, by numerous their own house, admit to a partici. establishments upon our soil
, have pation in their pleasures, they give most frequently attested the truth themselves up to every kind of excess, of what I here advance, and belied and never quit the party while they by the sentiment, and the interest are able to continue in it. These which leads them thither, ihe vain