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It is well known, that the intro. These men, while living, did not duction of your petitioners as appel. think the addition of Robert or Wil. latives into this country has afforded liam to their other name any derofamilies an easy and familiar method gation of their dignity; and posteriof distinguishing their different off. iy, just in this instance, seldom or ne. spring. In the ages alluded to, we ver mention the one without the other. beg leave to observe, that your an- Why this rule should not be extended cestors lay under the greatest bard- to every case, or why your country, ships in this respect. Not being able men prefix the name only in particu. to write up any number above one, lar cases, the petitioners are at a and indeed having no knowledge of loss to conceive. The prince and the numbers at all, they were obliged to peasant, the two extremes of society, distinguish their progeny by terms are now almost the only persons to such as Great-head, Little-head, Red. be seen in your petitioners' company, baired, or Black-baired. Your peti- Honest Peter, or Honest John, King

, . tioners, pityir.g their ignorance, and Charles or King William, only regard feeling for the wretched shifts to us with a steady friendship. Indeed which they were reduced, came at the latter (to their honour be it menthis time to their aid, and for a long tioned) sensible of the luştre they detime were treated with the marked rive from our family, take their de respect which their services merited. nominations from them alone. Of late however your petitioners are The petitioners do not urge this sorry to observe, that that respect question merely in the form of sup. for their usefulness has been laid plication, they demand it as their unaaside, and chieffy by those from whom lienable right It is not from such as they had reason to expect a very dif- shopkeepers and merchants that they ferent conduct. We mean here those derive any honour ; nor should they whom the world have agreed to call once obtrude themselves on your notice great or celebrated characters. But for the sake of these. Let them put your petitioners would observe, that P. J. J. for Peter, James, and John, as the laying them aside (after having they please. Let them endeavour to passed the years of childhood and demonstrate, by this affected mutila. youth in the strictest intimacy) when tion of their Christian names, that they these persons have no further' occa. pay no regard to the doctrines or presion for their services, or think them- cepts of our holy religion, and wish selves toò high to be seen in their to sink its characteristic signature ;company, has the appearance of a their blood be on their own heads. false pride, affectation, and even in. What we regret chiefly is, that most gratitude, which we should be sore of the public characters (kings exry to lay to their charge on slight cepted) discharge us their service soon grounds.

after they come from school. For That your petitioners never dise instance, instead of William Shake. graced any families with whom they spear, John Milton, or Joseph Ad. formed a connection, they trust will dison, it is now only Shakespear, readily be allowed. The most ample Milton, and Addison, with every proof might be led on this point, did person who has occasion to mention your honour require it. But it will their names. be only necessary to mention the The petitioners beg leave to ob. names of King Robert Bruce and Sir serve, that the mutilations and desWilliam Wallace, two of the greatest truction of their family had scarcely characters your country has produ- begun at the period when the aboveçed in illustration of their claim.- mentioned characters fourished ; and



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pray, &c.

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they have reason to believe, that, being excluded for ever from all reli-
were they alive, they would not wish gious and moral society; and also,
to see one half of their names obliter. that your honour shall publish a de-
ated ; that part too by which they claratory act, ranking all persons,
were wont to be most frequently and who associate or'give countenance to
familiarly distinguished. It is only this mutilation or abbreviation, infi-
a conspiracy among infidel moderns dels and enemies to our holy reli-
to rob your petitioners of their just gion.
right, a right which should be held And your petitioners shall ever
sacred for its antiquity, its utility,

PETER. and its religious importance.

JAMES. The first persons who introduced

Јону. this infidel practice, were the pretended friends of religion ; we mean the reformed clergy. Before the Re. VINDICATION of BOOKSELLERS. formation, your petitioners flourish

To the Editor. ed ; and Friar Peter, or Father John, were as common then as daisies are SIR, now in summer, After that event, MANY, and indeed almo* uni. however, their family declined, chief. versal, are the complaints aly by the persecutions of their preten. gainst Booksellers ; a body of men, ded friends. It is a well-known fact, if not the most respectable, although that Bishop, Archbiskop, and Dean, in in general I deem them such, perthe sister kingdom ; and Doctor, and haps the most useful, for a variety Rev. Mr in this part of the empire, of reasons, to mankind in general, of have among the clergy almost obli- any society of merchants. Freterated the Christian signature. By quently have my ears been assailed stating this fact, we

with violent exclamations against say, that the clergy are not Chris- the immense price which they put tians; though they sink the name upon books, and the extravagant emphatically called the Christian, yet profit which many persons' (and they have still the substantial part of here I may remark that authors that character their livings. are generally the most severe in their

Upon the whole, the petitioners outcry in this point) suppose they hope, that what they have advanced must of course derive from them ; in support of their right, will meet and as frequently have I endeavourwith your approbation, and with that ed to repel the opinions of such of every lover of virtue aod religion : persons, by those arguments which and induce those in particular who appeared to me consistent with comare its directors, to set that example mon sense. in again assuming your petitioners But by inserting in your useful into their service.

miscellany the following letter, which May it therefore please your ho. I discovered in the 15th vol. page nour, to order and enact, that all per. 572. 3. 4. 5. and 176. of a neat edia sons, of whatever description, pre- tion of the celebrated Dr Johnson's tending to be Christians, and who works, printed at Edinburgh thiş have been honoured by their parents year, I have no doubt many will see with the company of your petitioners, their error, and cease exclaiming a. shall forth with and immediately re- gainst things the real causes of which sume them as their signatures, with. they don't know, and are incapable of out abbreviation or mutilation of any forming an opinion upon. Altho' Dc sort, under the pains and penalty of Johnson apparently handles this sub


mean not to


16 Few

ject in a clear and distinct manner, mutual co-operation by which the There can be little doubt, but that a. general trade is carried on, the Uniny respectable Bookseller could urge versity can bear no part. Of those maný still more forcible arguments, whom he neither loves nor fears, by which it might be clearly shown, and from whom he expects no recithat their profits are by no means so procation of good offices, why should exorbitant as they are generally any man promote the interests but thought to be. I am,

for profit? I suppose, with all our SIR,

scholastic ignorance of mankind, we Your Constant Reader, are still too knowing to expect that Edinburgh, 7

the booksellers will erect themselves

W. V. S. into patrons, and buy and sell under August 14th, 1806. Š

the influence of a disinterested zeal "To the Reverend Dr WETHERELL, for the promotion of learning. Master of UNIVERSITY COLLEGE,

To the booksellers, if we look for OXFORD."

either honour or profit from our

press, not only their common profit, DEAR SIR,

but something more must be allowogs are more unpleasant ed; and if books printed at Oxford than the transaction of business with are expected to be rated at a high men who are above knowing or ca. price, that price must be levied on ring what they have to do ; such as the publick, and paid by the ultimate

, the trustees for Lord Cornbury's in. purchaser, not by the intermediate stitution will, perhaps, appear, when agents. What price shall be set upyou have read Dr

's let- on the book, is, to the booksellers, ter.

wholly indifferent, provided that they The last part of the Doctor's let- gain a proportional profit by negoci. ter is of great importance. The ating the sale. complaint * which he makes I have Why books printed at Oxford heard long ago, and did not know should be particularly dear, I am, but it was redressed.

It is unhappy however, unable to find. We pay that a practice so erroneous has not Ao rent ; we inherit many of our inyet been altered ; for altered it must struments and materials ; lodging and be, or our press will be useless, with victuals are cheaper than at London, all its privileges. The booksellers, and, therefore, workmanship ought, who, like all other men, have strong at least, not to be dearer. Our ex. prejudices in their own favour, are pences are naturally less than those of enough inclined to think the practice booksellers; and, in most cases, com. of printing and selling books by any munities are content with less profit but themselves, an encroachment on than individuals. It is, perhaps, not the rights of their fraternity, and considered through how many hands have need of stronger inducements to a book often passes, before it comes circulate academical publications than into those of the reader; or what those of one another; for, of that part of the profit each hand must re

tain, as a motive for transmitting it

to the next. * Mr Boswell, the elaborate biogra- We will call our primary agent in pher of Dr Johnson, supposes, that the London, Mr Cadell, who receives complaint here alluded to was, that the trustees of the Oxford press did not

our books for us, gives them room allow the London Booksellers a suffi- in his warehouse, and issues them on eient profit upon vending their publica. demand ; by him they are sold to tions.

Mr Dilly, a wholesale bookseller,



March 12. 1774.



who sends them into the country ; trusts a year, not much more than and the last seller is the country two and sixpence ; otherwise than, as bookseller. Here are three profits he may, perhaps, take as long credit to be paid between the printer and as be gives. the reader, or, in the style of com- With less profit than this, and merce, between the manufacturer

more you see he cannot have, the and the consumer ; and if any of country bookseller cannot live ; for these profits is too penuriously dis- his receipts are small, and his debts tributed, the process of commerce is sometimes bad. interrupted.

Thus, Dear Sir, I have been in. We are now come to the practical cited by Dr

's letters to give question, What is to be done? You you a detail of the circulation of will tell me, with reason, that I have books, which, perhaps, every man said nothing, till I declare how much, has not had an opportunity of knowaccording to my opinion, of the ulti- ing; and which those who know it mate price ought to be distributed do not perhaps always distinctly con through the whole succession of sale. sider. I am, &c. The deduction, I am afraid, will

SAM. JOHNSON. appear very great : but let it be con sidered before it is refused. We must allow, for profit, between thirty and Upon the foregoing letter, Mr thirty-five per cent. between six and Boswell says, “ I am happy in givseven shillings in the pound; that is, ing this full and clear statement to for every book which costs the last “ the public, to vindicate, by the aubuyer i wenty shillings, we "thority of the greatest author of charge Mr Cadell with something “his age, that respectable body of less than fourteen. We must set the men, the booksellers, from vulgar

, copies at four eco shillings each, and reflections, as if their profits were superadd what is called the quarterly “ exorbitant, when, in truth, Dr book, or for every hundred books so Johnson has here allowed them charged we must deliver one hundred “ more than they usually demand.” and four.

The profits will then stand thus :

Mr Cadell, who runs no hazard, Journal of a Tour over-land" froma and gives no credit, will be paid for

INDIA in 1785. warehouse-room and attendance by a shilling profit on each book, and his

(Continued from page 516.) chance of the quarterly book.

Mr Dilly, who buys the book for THE time agreed upon with the fifteen shillings, and who will expect Shiek for our departure being the quarterly book, if he takes five elapsed, we set out for Zebeer, where and twenty, will send it to his coun we arrived after a march of two try customer at sixteen and sixpence, hours and an half. This town lies by which, at the hazard of loss, and S. W. by W. from Bussorah, distant the certainty of long credit, he gains about nine miles. The Desart bethe regular profit of ten per cent. twist the two places is almost entirely which is expected in the wholesale bare of vegetation; near Bussorah trade.

the soil a light clay, and covered The country bookseller, buying at with salt ; towards Zebeer it becomes sixteen and sixpence, and commonly a little gravelly, and some spots pro

, trusting a considerable time, gains duce barley, now fit to be cut down. bu three and sixpence ; and it heThe town is about a mile and an


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half in circumference, tolerably well onions, musk, melon, bringauts,
built, the houses in the same stile as (the egg plant,) and some clover.
those of Bussorah : it has no rampart, Here are plenty of wells, but the
but the inclosures round the houses water rather salt.
joining together, form a kind of wall,

About one half of the desart we sufficient defence against any sudden passed over seems to be capable of attack. This place has formerly cultivation, and of producing a great been much larger, the ground for variety of both trees and grain, if near two miles round being covered pains were taken to preserve and prowith broken bricks and ruins. We cure water, which might easily be were very well lodged at the house done, by opening the creeks which of an Arab Sheik.

communicate with the Euphrates, In the morning of the 216t, we making tanks, or ponds, as in India, saw our baggage loaded on camels, to collect the water that falls during and after long disputes with our the periodical rains, by digging wells, Sheik, at last agreed to allow twenty. &c. But the nature of the people is eight camels for it (including six for so averse to constraint or regular the mahoffes, and eight for water,) rules of society, that I imagine it which was more than sufficient, by will ever remain in its present situaat least six or seven. There are two tion, particularly as the stream of ways to avoid this imposition, viz. commerce is now almost entirely dito have all the baggage weighed, verted into other channels, (which, however, is a mode


dis. The soil produces spontaneously pleasing to the Arabs) or, to have in many placesthe following trees, &c. it packed up in such chests, that two exclusive of many others which I did will make a proper load, which, with not know the name of; but the trees a light caravan, ought not to exceed are only to be found in the beds of four hundred weight,

rivers or water courses, and are of a very
The mahoffé is a kind of trough, dwarf kind, viz.' The poplar, wil.
about two feet wide, and three and low, a species of the cypres tree, li.
an half long; the ends and one side quorish root, thyme, fennel, poppy,
are about four and an half feet high, onions, capers, sorrel, endive, oats,
stuffed with cotton and lined with and barley.
chintz, and having a kind of canopy or Great part of the desart is rocky,
top. Two of these are fixed on one and it is in some parts covered with
camel, the low side next the animal, sand. The inhabitants are in general
and a kind of tent thrown over the below the middle size, and dark com-
whole, so as perfectly to shade you plexioned, but well made, (particu-
from the sun. Th have also a larly about the legs) strong and ro-
kind of box added to the end of the bust, and seem equally capable of
mahoffé into which you thrust your enduring the extremes of heat and
legs at pleasure, by which means you cold. They are lively, and in general
may lye at length, or sit up occa. obliging in their manners, but have
sionally; the motion is not so great little idea of subordination, and of
as to prevent you from either read. course treat you


familiaing or sleeping during the journey. rity, which it is best to permit in

Burkseer is composed of two small some degree. They are all a little walled villages, within about 300 too fond of money (of which we yards of each other ; they stand in had several instances) and are far a kind of bottom, and are surrounded from thinking it any great disgrace with a small quantity of ground pro- to be detected in a falsehood or even ducing good barley, (now nearly ripe) in theft ; several of them have sto


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