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ject in a clear and distinct manner, mutual co-operation by which the there ean be little doubt, but that a. general trade is carried on, the Uniniy respectable Bookseller. could urge versity, can bear no part. Of those many still more forcible arguments, whom he neither loves nor fears, by which it might be clearly shown, and from whom he expects no recithat their profits are by no means so procation of good offices, why should exorbitant as they are generally any man promote the interests but thought to be. I am,

for profit? I suppose, with all our SIR,

scholastic ignorance of mankind, we Your Constant Reader, are still too knowing to expect that Edinburgh,

the booksellers will erect themselves

7 August 14th, 1806. Š

W. V. S. into patrons, and buy and sell under

the influence of a disipterested zeal "To the Reverend Dr WETHERELL, for the promotion of learning. Master of UNIVERSITY COLLEGE,

To the booksellers, if we look for

either honour or profit from our

press, not only their common profit, DEAR SIR,

but something more must be allow« Few things are more unpleasant ed; and if books printed at Oxford than the transaction of business with are expected to be rated at a high men who are above knowing or ca. price, that price must be levied on ring what they have to do ; such as the publick, and paid by the ultimate the trustees for Lord Cornbury's in. purchaser, not by the intermediate stitution will, perhaps, appear, when agents. What price shall be set upyou have read Dr

's let- on the book, is, to the booksellers, ter.

wholly indifferent, provided that they The last part of the Doctor's let- gain a proportional profit by negoci. ter is of great importance. The ating the sale. complaint * which he makes I have. Why books printed at Oxford heard long ago, and did not know should be particularly dear, I am, but it was redressed. It is unhappy however, unable to find. We pay that a practice so erroneous has not Ro rent ; we inherit many of our inyet been altered; for altered it must struments and materials ; lodging and be, or our press will be useless, with victuals are cheaper than at London, all its privileges. The booksellers, and, therefore, workmanship ought, who, like all other men, have strong at least, not to be dearer. prejudices in their own favour, are pences are naturally less than those of enough inclined to think the practice booksellers; and, in most cases, comof printing and selling books by any munities are content with less profit but themselves, an encroachment on than individuals. It is, perhaps, not the rights of their fraternity, and considered through how many hands have need of stronger inducements to a book often passes, before it comes circulate academical publications than into those of the reader ; or what those of one another; for, of that part of the profit each hand must re

tain, as a motive for transmitting it

to the next. * Mr Boswell, the elaborate biogra- We will call our primary agent in pher of Dr Johnson, supposes, that the London, Mr Cadell, who receives complaint here alluded to was, that the trustees of the Oxford press did not

our books for us, gives them room allow the London Booksellers a suffi. in his warehouse, and issues them on cient profit upon vending their publica. demand ; by him they are sold to tions.

Mr Dilly, a wholesale bookseller,


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Our ex

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who sends them into the country ; trusts a year, not much more than
and the last seller is the country two and sixpence ; otherwise than, as
bookseller. Here are three profits he may, perhaps, take as long credit
to be paid between the printer and as be gives.
the reader, or, in the style of com- With less profit than this, and
merce, between the manufacturer

more you see he cannot have, the
and the consumer; and if any of country, bookseller cannot live ; for
these profits is too penuriously dis- his receipts are small, and his debts
tributed, the process of commerce is sometimes bad.

Thus, Dear Sir, I have been in. We are now come to the practical cited by Dr - 's letters to give question, What is to be done? You you a detail of the circulation of will tell me, with reason, that I have books, which, perhaps, every man said nothing, till I declare how much, has not had an opportunity of knowaccording to my opinion, of the ulti. ing; and which those who know it mate price ought to be distributed do not perhaps always distinctly conthrough the whole succession of sale. sider. I am, &c. The deduction, I am afraid, will

SAM. JOHNSON. appear very great : but let it be con.

March 12. 1774. sidered before it is refused. We must allow, for profit, between thirty and Upon the foregoing letter, Mr thirty five per cent. between six and Boswell says, “ I am happy in givseven shillings in the pound; that is, • ing this full and clear statement to for every book which costs the last " the public, to vindicate, by the autbuyer twenty shillings, we "Thority of the greatest author of charge Mr Cadell with something “ his age, that respectable body of less than fourteen. We must set the men, the booksellers, from vulgar copies at four ecn shillings cach, and “ reflections, as if their profits were superadd what is called the quarterly “ exorbitant, when, in truth, Dr book, or for


hundred books so Johnson has here allowed them charged we must deliver one hundred more than they usually demand.” and four.

The profits will then stand thus :

Mr Cadell, who runs no hazard, Journal of a Tour over-land" froma and gives no credit, will be paid for

INDIA in 1785
warehouse-room and attendance by a
shilling profit on each book, and his

(Continued from page 516.)
chance of the quarterly book.

Mr Dilly, who buys the book for THE time agreed upon with the fifteen shillings, and who will expect Shiek for our departure being the quarterly book, if he takes five elapsed, we set out for Zebeer, where and twenty, will send it to his coun- we arrived after a march of two try customer at sixteen and sixpence, hours and an half. This town lies by which, at the hazard of loss, and S. W. by W. from Bussorah, distant the certainty of long credit, he gains about nine miles. The Desart be. the regular profit of ten per cent, twist the two places is almost entirely which is expected in the wholesale bare of vegetation; near Bussorah trade.

the soil a light clay, and covered The country bookseller, buying at with salt ; towards Zebeer it becomes sixteen and sixpence, and commonly a little gravelly, and some spots protrusting a considerable time, gains duce barley, now fit to be cut down. bu three and sixpence; and it heThe towe is about a mile and an


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half in circumference, tolerably well onions, musk, melon, bringauts, built, the houses in the same stile as (the egg plant,) and some clover. those of Bussorah : it has no rampart, Here are plenty of wells, but the but the inclosures round the houses water rather salt. joining together, form a kind of wall, About one half of the desart we sufficient defence against any sudden passed over seems to be capable of attack. This place has formerly cultivation, and of producing a great been much larger, the ground for variety of both trees and grain, if near two miles round being covered pains were taken to preserve and prowith broken bricks and ruins. We cure water, which might easily be were very well lodged at the house done, by opening the creeks which of an Arab Sheik.

communicate with the Euphrates, In the morning of the 21st, we making tanks, or ponds, as in India, saw our baggage loaded on camels, to collect the water that falls during and after long disputes with our the periodical rains, by digging wells, Sheik, at last agreed to allow twenty. &c. But the nature of the people is eight camels for it (including six for so averse to constraint or regular the mahoffés, and eight for water,) rules of society, that I imagine it which was more than sufficient, by will ever remain in its present situa. at least six or seven. There are two tion, particularly as the stream of ways to avoid this imposition, viz. commerce is now almost entirely dito have all the baggage weighed, verted into other channels, (which, however, is a mode very dis. The soil produces spontaneously pleasing to the Arabs) or, to have in many places the following trees, &c. it packed up in such chests, that two exclusive of many others which I did will make a proper load, which, with not know the name of; but the trees a light caravan, ought not to exceed are only to be found in the beds of four hundred weight.

rivers or water courses, and are of a very The mahoffé is a kind of trough, dwarf kind, viz. · The poplar, wil. about two feet wide, and three and low, a species of the cypres tree, li. an half long; the ends and one side quorish root, thyme, fennel, poppy, are about four and an half feet high, onions, capers, sorrel, endive, oats, stuffed with cotton and lined with and barley. chintz, and having a kind of canopy or Great part of the desart is rocky, top. Two of these are fixed on one and it is in some parts covered with camel, the low side next the animal, sand. The inhabitants are in general and a kind of tent thrown over the below the middle size, and dark com. whole, so as perfectly to shade you plexioned, but well made, (particufrom the sun. They have also a larly about the legs) strong and ro kind of box added to the end of the bust, and seem equally capable of mahoffé into which you thrust your enduring the extremes of heat and legs at pleasure, by which means you cold. They are lively, and in general may lye at length, or sit up occa. obliging in their manners, but have sionally; the motion is not so great little idea of subordination, and of as to prevent you from either read

course treat you with great familiaing or sleeping during the journey. rity, which it is best to permit in

Burkseer is composed of two small some degree. They are all a little walled villages, within about 300 too fond of money (of which we yards of each other ; they stand in had several instančes) and are far a kind of bottom, and are surrounded from thinking it any great disgrace with a small quantity of ground pro- to be detected in a falsehood or even ducing good barley, (now nearly ripe) in theft ; several of them have sto


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704 miles.

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len things out of our tent and mahof- cessively; the first and third not vio. fés, and then had the assurance to lently, perhaps not one fifth of the tell us they knew where they were, numbers dying as during the second but would not return them without year. It was our fortune to see it a present. The breach of their word in its greatest vigour. It is also no has been too often obvious in the less remarkable, that although the course of this journal to require in plague be ragiog with the utmost stances. I believe them to be in violence at Constantinople, aod on general brave, and faithful, and in the road betwixt chat city and Adeed there have been several instan- leppo, they are never under the least ces of their behaving with great gal apprehension of its reaching Aleppo; lantry in defence of those under but, on the contrary, when they their protection.

hear of its breaking out in Egypt We were marching--3131 hours or Damascus, they are sure of its via from Bussorah to Aleppo, or about siting them that or next year, for

it always holds its course from South N. B. I imagine that the camels to North, and never from N. to S. travelled at the rate of 2 miles per The same observation holds good at hour on an average.

Cyprus, where at this time there are Spent our time very pleasantly vessels constantly arriving from the among our friends at Aleppo; al- coast of Syria with the plague on though the frequency of the burials, board, without ever spreading the which we saw almost constantly pas- infection, although there they use no sing under our windows, gave us precaution against it, (particularly at first) many disagree.

The city of Aleppo stands upon able sensations. It is computed that several hills, on the highest of which upwards of sixty thousand people of stands the castle, which has a very the city and suburbs have died of the fine appearance, but being built duplague since its commencement this ring the crusades, and entirely neglecyear, to the present time; and yet ted for many years by the Turks, is the town has by no means the ap. now falling in ruins very fast, as are pearance of being depopulated, nor also the walls of the town. do the people in general appear to The city, including the suburbs, be the least apprehensive, or to use

is about seven miles in circumaby precautions against the surround- ference, and is said to contain being contagion, being almost all, (par. tween three and four hundred thouticularly the lower class of people) sand inhabitants. It is built of a real predestinarians; the better sort kiod of stone resembling that found of Turks, however, are by no means

near Bath: the houses are but one blind to advantages, which the Franks story high, and all vaulted, on acderive from sequestrating themselves count of the scarcity of timber ; from society and most of them whose however having a number of small business will permit them, now re- domes, as well as windows towards tire to their country houses, or shut

the side turned from the street, themselves up in town under various they are sufficiently lighted. The pretences, not being allowed to assign streets are paved, but are alliexceed. the real cause, which would infallibly ingly narrow; and there being no draw upon them the resentment of windows to the houses, and latticed, the populace, as breakers of the law they have a very mean appear. of Mahomet. It is remarkable, that

The Bazars are all covered this dreadful disorder generally at. tacks the same place three years suc.

* Market place.

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on are

on the top, and toost of them arched, der ihe clouds that rapidly began to which serves at present to facilitate overshadow it, in an act of piety to. the communication between the hou. Words his murdered father, whose bes, the terraces being flat. There remains he removed from the church

a number of very handsome of St. Alexander Nevski, called the mosques in the city, which having in monastery ; and having exhibited general large cupolas, and very high them in great funeral state, he'con. minarets, give a very grand appear. signed them to the sepulchre of Ca. ance to the city from a distance, therine II. in the cathedral of St.

A little rivulet runs near the town Peter and St. Paul. The latter part which serves to supply it in part of this extraordinary transaction has with water, and for the rise of a few often induced me to think that Paul gardens, which furnish the inhabitants did not believe that his mother issued with vegetables, and fruits of nearly the order for the assassination of his the same sorts as in Europe, but of father. At this eccentric solemnity, inferior quality ; beyond these gar. he compelled Count Alexey Orloft

, dens is the Desart, which surrounds and prince Baratynski, under whose the city on all sides.

hands the unhappy monarch is said to have perished, to stand on each side

of the body as it lay in state, and Particular account of the ASSASSINA- afterwards to follow it to the tomb TION of the late EMPEROR PAUL.

as the principal mourners. From Carr's Northern Summer.

Not long after this event, his mind A Short time before her demise, began occasionally to display the

most fearful symptoms of distraction ; z-, her last favourite, whom she but when his reason was restored, highly esteemed, a declaration of her the hapless emperor never failed to will, addressed to the senate, pur.

endeavour, with the most affecting porting that Paul should be passed sensibility, to repair the ruin and over in the succession, and that the havoc which his delirium had occaGrand Duke Alexarder should mount sioned. The deposed Stanislaus, the vacant throne. As soon as the the broken-hearted king of Poland, favcurite was acquainted with the partook alternately of his beneficence sudden death of the Empress, he and severity ; but with what demon. flew to Pavlovsk, about thirty-five stration of respect and genuine grief versts from the capital, where Paul did the emperor attend the obsequies occasionally resided, whom he met of this last of the Sarmates. On on the road ; and, after a short ex. that gloomy occasion, he commandplanation, delivered up to him this ed in person the guards who assisted important document. Paul, charmed at the funéral : and uncovering him. with his zeal and loyalty, preserved self, with the most affecting emotions him in all his honours and fortunes, salured the coffin as it passed To whilst a general and rapid dispersion, the memory of the hoary and heroic to all points of the compass, instan- Suvaroff, who fell a broken hearted taneously succeeded amongst the victim to the distraction of his impemembers of the male seraglio of the rial master, in periods of agonized Hermitage. The emperor ascended and compunctious reflection, he raisthe throne without difficulty, but a ed a colossal statue of bronze, in the total siranger to his subjects. One vast area behind Benskoi's palace, of the first measures of his reign dis. opposit to Romanzoff's monument : played, in a very singular nranner, and on the days when he reviewed the native goodness of his heart, un- his troops there, he used to order


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