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State of the BAROMETER, in inches and deci.
mals, and of Farenheit's THERMOMETER, in the open air, taken in the morning before fun-rise, and at goon; and the quantity of rain-water fallen, in inches and decimals, from Sept. 26. to October 25. 1806, in the vicinity of Edinburgh.
High Water at LEITH,
H. M. H. M. Sa. 1 6 18 6 46 Su. 2 7 15 42 M. 3 8 9 8 37 Tu. 4 9 2 9 27 W. 5 9 53 10 18 Th. 6 10 44 11 9 Fr. 7 11 34 11 29 Sa. 8
0 25 Su. 9 0 51 1 18 M. 10 1 45 2 12 T'u. 11 2 40 38 W. 12 3 35 4 2 Th. 13 4 29 4 56 Er. 14 5 20. 5 47
6 11 6 35 Su. 16 6 58 7 21 M, 17 7 42 8 1 Tu. 18 8 25 8 46 W. 19 9 6 9 27 Th. 20 9 47 10 8 Fr. 21 10 29 10 50 Sa. 22 11 12 11 35 Su. 23 11 59 M. 24 O 23 048 Tu. 25 1 14 1 41 W. 26 2 9 2 38 Th. 27 3 7 3 36 Fr. 28 4 6 4 35 Sa. 29 5 4 5 32 Su. 30 6 0 6 27
1806. Barom. Thermom. Rain. Weather. Sept.
N. In. Pts. 26 30.09 57 65
Clear 27 30. 52 62
Ditto 28 29.95 50 65 0.02 Showers 23 29.9 53 60
Clear 30 29.95 53
0.05 Rain 29.94 54
Cloudy 29.95 41 | 60
Clear 3 29.71
0.85 Rain 4 29.8 53 57
Clear 5 29.85 54 61
Ditto 830. 52 62
Ditto 9 30.1 49 57
Cloudy 10 30. 50 62
Ditto 11 30.
Pitto 12 29.9 51 60
Ditto 13 29.81 | 39 60
Ditto 14 29.5 50 59
Clear 15 29.61 52 54
Ditto 16 29.52
Ditto 17 29.5 43 53
Ditto 18 29.41
Ditto 19 29.3 42 50
Ditto 20 1.29.25. 38 47
Ditto 21 29.1 42 51 0.15 Rain 22 29. 44 44 0.11 Ditto 23 29.2 32 47
Clear 24 | 29:3 32 50
Ditto 25 | 29.1 47 55 0.05 Rain
For NOVEMBER 1806. Apparent time at Edinburgh.
D. H. M. Last Qurtr. ' 3. 3. 15. even. New Moon, 10. 11. 28. morn. First Qurtr. 18. 7. 8. morn, Full Moon, 26. 1. 47. morn).
Quantity of Rain 1.23
November 2. Duke of Kent born, (1767.)
3. Prss. Sophia born, (1777.) 8. Prss. Aug. Sophia born, (1768.) 11. Martinmas. 12. Session sits. 25. Duke of Gloucester born, (1776.) 30. St Andrew.
EDINBURGH LITERARY MISCELLANY,
For OCTOBER 1806.
Descripticn of the View. BRECHIN Castle, the property Castle was principally built in the
and present residence of the Hon. beginning of the last century by Pa. Mr Maule of Panmure, M. P. for trick Earl of Panmure; and very the county of Forfar, is situated in considerable additions have been since a most romantic manner, on a high made to it, particularly by the preand abrupt bank, or rather precipice, sent proprietor. overhanging the river South Esk, The most celebrated event in the which at this place forms a broad history of Brechin Castle was its des and deep pool beneath. The scite fence under the gallant Sir Thomas of the castle is at once beautiful and Maule, who then governed it, against uncommon.
a no less distinguished character than This property has, for many cen- Edward the 1st of England, who turies, belonged to the family of beeieged it in person, with his whole Panmure and their immediate ances- army, in his famous expedition to
The most ancient proprie- the North anno 1303, with a view tors with whom we are acquainted, to be subjugation of all Scot. were the Brechins, Lords of Bre: land. Indeed, with the exception of chin, who were long in possession of Stirling Castle, this was the only it. From these it passed by descent place which at that time made any to the family of Barclay, afterwards considerable resistance against that Lords of Brechin, about the year most formidable enemy of Scotland. 1321: with whom it remained some- The following description of the what more than a century. From siege, extracted from Mathew of them it afterwards was acquired, Westminster, the historian and eu(partly in right of blood, partly by logist of Edward, is so remarkable purchase,) by the family of Panmure, and curious, that we shall subjoin a about the year 1438, and with them literal translation of it. it has remained ever since.
• (Anno 1303.) And when he The Castle, in former times, ap- “ (Edward) approached the Castle of pears to have been a place of great “ Brihin, which held out against strength, and was surrounded by a 6 him, he ordered it to be besieged. very broad and deep ditch, or fosse, " But the commander of that Castle, which communicated with the river. • Sir Thomas Maille, no ways affraid Of the ancient Castle, a very small 66 of bis royal army, trusting in part is now remaining. The present or the firmness of his strong bul. « For,
* warks there
** 6- warks; despised the efforts of " whilst he yet breathed, some of his " the powerful battering engines. “ people ranning up to him, asked,
whilst the potent batter. " whether they should now surren“ ing machines * of the king of “ der the Castle ? at this proposal, “ England threw' stones incessantly « swearing at them, he expired with 66 against the walls of the Castle, " the oaths on his lips. And imme
yet were not able to beat down “ diately afterwards, on that same “ the wall by their rebound, that “ day, the besieged being destitute
same Sir Thomas stood with a 66 of all assistance, delivered up the “ towel in his hand, and wiped off « Castle to the king of England." “ the dust, in contempt and derision Lord Hailes, in his annals of Scot. “ of the whole English army; and land, mentioning the above event, " when he had gallantly defended and the conduct of Sir Thomas " the Castle during the space of Maule, adds the following judicious
twenty days; on the eve of the observation: «. A governor, in our “ feast of St Laurence, whilst he "-days, imitating the conduct of Sir “ himself was standing near the pro- 6. Thomas Maule, would be ridicu.
jection of the wall, one of the en- “ lous ;. but in the 14th century “ gines being directed against the " this was considered as a sign of " said Sir Thomas, the stone struck “ bold defiance. In those days there part of the bastion, and from its
" were certain affronts in the man. “ impulse flying forwards, struck Sir ner of declaring war, and in the " Thomas on the breast; who be. “ mode of resisuing an enemy, which " ing completely crushed thereby; . " are now hardly intelligible."? “ fell down on the ground. And
Some Account of the Settlement of Buenos AYRES. FEW. countries are less known to the north, it is bounded by the dis
British readers in general, than trict bordering on the river of the that extensive and beautiful region in Amazons, which consists only of imwhich Buenos Ayres is situated. mense desarts, inhabited by a variety Now, therefore, that recent political of savage tribes. The south is occuevents have rendered it the object of pied by the tribes who reach to the such peculiar interest, a short view of Magellanic regions, a good deal cele, its situation and productions, derived brated for their gigantic stature, tho' from the best authorities, may not be this extraordinary fact bas in a great unacceptable.
measure disappeared before a more We shall divide our account into careful examination. wo parts, Descriptive and Historical This extensive tract of country is
The country of Paraguay extends' perforated, throughout its whole ex. far through the centre of South tent, by the prodigious river, de la America, having on one side Bra- Plata; sil, and on the other Peru, from
to wbose dread expanse, which it is separated by the gigantic' Continuous breadth, and wond'rous ridge of the Andes. It is 1500 miles length of course, in length, aod 1000 in breadth. On Our floods are rills,
Nothing, in fact; on the old conti. * These are else where described by nent seems capable of giving an ade. Mathew, as being capable of throwing quate idea of its magnitude. The stones from 200 to 300 pound weight." mouth is 150 miles broad, so that
there it resembles a great sea, rather highest degree, and actuated by the than a river; and to a spectator pla- tiercest hostility against the Spaced on its banks, the opposite coast niards, who were obliged to be conis far out of sight. Even at a hun- stantly on their guard against sudden dred miles farther up, a traveller incursions. In the province of Padeclares that he sailed twenty-four raguay, which lies to the north of hours across, witbout coming in Buenos Ayres, and on both sides of sight of land; and that he felt as if the great river, lie the celebrated es. be had been in the middle of some tablishments of the Jesuits, of which vast ocean. The Atlantic itself seems we shall give some account in the to sink under this prodigious influx Historical part. The province of of waters, and becomes fresh for se- Buenos Ayres itself consists of an veral leagues distance.
immense plain, bounded by the ocean It is navigable for Spanish vessels on one side, and on the other by the to Assumption, which is nearly a mountains which separate it from thousand miles above its mouth. Chili. It is almost wholly uncultiRaynal asserts its navigation to be vated; but is not, like the other difficult, and dangerous, but as usual, wastes of the new world, covered does not assign his authority, nor do with impenetrable forests. On the we find this defect mentioned by any contrary, it scarcely contains a tree ; other author.
the whole extent is one uninterrupted At some distance above its mouth, level. it receives two great rivers, the Uru- The Spaniards being obliged to guay and Parana, which run a course evacuate Buenos Ayres soon after its little inferior to its own, and the lat. foundation, let loose into the fields a ter of which penetrates far into Bra- few horses and horned cattle, which sil. Besides these, throughout its they had along with them. These whole extent, innumerable smaller finding a vast extent of rich pasture, streams flow into it, from Brasil over which they could roam unconon one side, and Peru on the other; trouled, soon multiplied incredibly, which, in the hands of an active and and covered the whole of that ima commercial people, could not fail to mense plain, which extends to Chili. be of high advantage for distributing Here they rove about in herds of European commodities through those thirty or forty thousand, without fertile and extensive countries. One, au owner, and the property of any in particular, called the Pilcomayo, one who will take the trouble of takes its rise in the mountains of catching them. Since that time, Potosi, (well known to contain the their hides and tallow have furnished richest mines in the new world) and the staple commodities of Buevos is navigable to its source. From these Ayres. In 1628 they are said to circumstances, though Paraguay con. have been in such plenty, that a good tains no gold or silver mines, it bas horse might be purchased for two always abounded with these metals, needles, and an ox in proportion: and exports a considerable quantity. No ship ever left Buenos Ayres with According to a statement of the Ab. out forty or lifty ihousand hides ; bé Raynal, this amounted annually, which were not obtained without on an average of ten years, from 1750 killing double the number of animals, to 1760, to nearly 300,0001. as only skins of a certain size were
This extensive country is in a very allowed in trade. Since that time imperfect stane of cultivation. Great they have considerably diminished; part is bccupied by barbarous na. not only from ihe number taken, but tions, of a character atrocious in the from the multiplication of a räce' of