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That repeated and probably some
not of this formation, are more of what extensive volcanic convulsions less shelving. In such places the formight have had some share in produ. mer activn of the sea is very evident, cing such a phenomenon, is not to the soil being washed
away,' and be cienied; but independent of such banks formed, regularly of the same influence, the sea has retreated, and elevation above the present high wais now many feet below the level it ter mark, and often running along once occupied. There are some in. for several miles. dications of recent yolcano, or at This is particularly striking on least of partial effects of heat, in dif- the western shore of the extensive peferent places on the shore, but these ninsula of Kintyre, along the road appear to have been anterior to the from Mackrihanish bay in the mouth subsiding of the water.
of Loch Tarbert, a distance of more By following the line of coast up. than twenty miles, where the land is on the map, from the estuary of the lower and less rocky than any other Clyde into Loch Fyne, round the part of the county, In this tract great head-land of Kintyre, along many acres of ground have been gainthe west coast of Scotlaod to Fort ed by the retreating of the sea, espe. William, from thence to the point of cially a large fiat of many square Ardnamurcban, and stretching as far miles called Runachuran has been left North as Cape Wrathi, comprehend. dry. ing the shores of the counties of Ar- As the coast extends northward gyll,. Inverness, Ross, and Suther. it becomes more rocky and irregular, land, including in this range the im. displaying, in a more eminent degree, mense group of islands, and taking the wonderful and inexplicable openotice of the innumerable lochs and rations in which mature has been embays with which the whole is stud. ployed during a vast series of ages, ded, the stranger will have an idea of in effecting various changes upon the its astonishing length. It takes up face of the country. several hundred leagues.
The rocks along the shore are ag. In this very extensive course there gregates, composed of many genera is no variation in the height to which and species variously combioed, and the sea formerly rose, the ancient arranged in every possible diversity marks by which it was bounded be- of strata. The pudding stone rock, ing distinct, and still easily pointed which is rarely met with on this out; and these give reason to believe coast, forms however an extensive that the water fell off suddenly, as in part of it in this immediate vicinity. many parts appearances favour such It is generally in immense masses, an opinion, though it certainly must without any intermixture, and of ithave continued at iis original level for ‘self composes many bills of consideramany centuries before such indelible ble eminence upon the shore, but it proofs could have been produced, to is not to be found at any distance shew that it then flowed about forty from it. feet higher than at present.
These rocks are of every imaginaAs the land is mountainous and ble shape, and exhibit a different exrugged, there is little or no part of terior according to the manner in the coast low or very even, and which they are disposed, and have when viewed from the sea it ap- resisied the force of the waves in a pears altogether of a bleak and bar. greater or less degree as they have ren surface, the few flac spaces being been exposed to their operation in a lost in the deep shade of the moun- shelving or perpendicular direction; tains, and whatever portions of it are and wherever these rocks rise, or for.
merly merly rose, upright or nearly so, from it, and followed as far as the eye can the water's edge, whether they pre- survey. sent smooth, fissured, or unevenly The same curious circumstance is fractured surfaces, the ancient height universal every where on the shores of the tide can very readily be deter- of the numerous Hebrides, as well as mined by them. The reason is, that on that of the main land. Were of a corresponding elevation with the there only a solitary proof of this lanks produced by the same cause at theory to be mentioned it might be other parts of the shore, the rocks inconclusive; but as it is founded uphave been flattened, hollowed, and on general pripciples, a simple enu. frequently deeply excavated by the meration of the places where the action of the sea. This effect is not powerful agency of water has in this so conspicuous where the water at way been exerted, seems sufficient to the base of a rock is very deep, buţ establish it, and to set aside the neis chiefly observable where it was cessity of more comprehensive desmore shallow, and where probably cription. the loose stones of the bottom were The beautiful and grotesque excadriven against it by the consecutive vations principally alluded to are of impulsion of the waves. That this congenerous formation, and being all unceasing attrition has gradually worn of the same elevation in situations away the solid rock, in the state it opposed to the violent impetus of the now appears, is as incontestible as it waves, are certainly to be ascribed to must remain an assurance to future the force with which they were im. generations, that the sea was at one pinged. At the Moil, and on the time forty feet higher upon the shore coast of Kintyre, Jura, Belnahuay, than it is at present, and, that, con.. Mull, Egg, Rum, and Cana; at the sequently it fowed over many of the castles of Goalan, Dunollie, and most valuable pieces of land now dry. Dunstaffnage, many such effects may
The higher parts of these rocks be seen. where the water did not reach still To those beneficial changes which display undecayed all the rugged ir- the receding of the sea bath occaregularity of their original forma. sioned at the extremities of the inlets tion; and this destruction of them is which so numerously intersect the invariably greatest, where most ex- coast, are to be added the ravages of posed to the furious dashing of the large and rapid rivers which enter uninterrupted swell of the Atlantic. them during the floods caused by the
For fifteen miles along this shore, sudden melting of snow, or the exwhich is very bold, and principally cessive torrents of rain to which this composed of pudding stone rock of climate is liable from its local situadifferent altitudes, tiom 50 to 130 tion. These deluges having stripped feet, this surprising fact is perfectly and washed the soil, and loose stones satisfactory, for over the whole of from the lateral declivities of the that range these hollows and excava. mountains, sweeped them along to tions rise equally forty feet above the the valleys and heads of bays, where, present tides, and in a line quite ho. b.ing, gradually accumulated, they rizontal, accurately agreeing with si assisted the retiring of the water in milar signs, and the banks of earth such places, formed considerable flats which constituted the old shore in of new land, and filled up such cavi. other places, and this alternate line ties and covered such rocks as were of excavated rocks and earthy banks formerly occupied by the sea. can be traced over the whole coast, All the extensive portions of level. and may be taken up at any part of land on this coast are only to be seen
in such situations, and the good qua- ried down into this bay must have
At the beads of all the lochs over
Character of the most eminent SCOTS
WRITERS of the present day. shore, this formation of new land has taken place, for there are none with. Translated from a French work entitled, out one or more rivers entering them.
“ Londres ou les Anglais ;" by Terri de St
, all AMONG living authors who have the stones of every size found in such places being round, having been so distinguish Messrs Ferguson and Gil. shaped by great and long continued lies : the former, who was the counfriction against each other.
tryman and friend of Hume and In such situations, anciently co. Robertson, holds, as an historian, an vered with water, now stand the honourable place by their side. In Towns of Campbeltown, Ioverary his “ History of the Progress and and its Castle, the villages of Loch- Termination of the Roman Repubgilphead, Tarbert, Beaumore in lic," he has profited by the works of Islay, Fort William, and Oban; and those who preceded him; but, from many thousand acres have in the a fund which appeared exhausted, same way been left dry, particularly he has drawn an infinite variety at Crinan, now an immense stretch of of new matter. The philosophical barren moss.
In different places of spirit by which he is guided, leaves this amazing collection, the bottom a great distance between him and has been dug up, and fossils, sea sand, his predecessors. It were to be wishand stones been discovered, showing ed however that Mr Ferguson's style that the sea had once occupied the possessed more elegance, and somespace now taken up with this moss, times more clearness. and formed an extensive shallow bay, Mr Gillies was first known by a with a narrow opening into the wes- translation of Lysias and Isocrates. tern sea. That it increased subse. Instead of an ordinary preface, he quently to the withdrawing of the wa. prefixed to his translation a “ Dister is certain, but originally it must course upon the General History of have taken its rise from the moss and Greece," which proved that the auearth brought into the bay by two thor was capable of treating with suclarge rivers, one of them issuing from cess this interesting subject. This has a great fresh water lake, extending been confirmed by his “ History of 30 miles into the interior, and which Greece," published in 1785. The lake is supplied by several large rivers first part comprehends the history of descending from mountains at a dis- the Greeks from their origin till the tance of twenty miles more, so that period in which they lost their liberthe quantity of these substances car- ty. Mr Gillies does not treat his
subject in sổ profound and extensive the historical compositions of the ante a manner as Mr Mitford: this work cients,
I'm is, in a manner, only an'abridgement, Mr Somerville has given the "his. yet it contains a
all that is most inter- tory of-political transactions and para esting in the history of Greece. He ties, from the restoration of Charles is now employed in the continuation II. to the death of King William”. of this history, which he intends to His style is not so beilliant.as that of bring down to moderir times. On many of his cotemporaries, but it is the death of Frederic the Great, diguified, simple, and agreeable. He King of Prussia, Mr Gillies, who is exact in his narratives, impartial in had visited his court, wrote a paral. his judgnients, and liberal in his opilel, equally interesting and instruc- nions. The same qualities are found live, between that monarch and Phi. in his “ History of Great Briiain un. lip King of Macedon, as a politician der the reign of Queen, Aune," and a warrior. M. Gillies' writes Mo Heront in his new | General an elegant and agreeable style, but History of Scotland, from the most it is thought too luxuriant, and iris or=" ancient times to the periods of the siaments are sometiines" inispliecd. abolition of hereditary-jurisdictious." 04 He seeks to initate the manner of has followed in part the plas adopted Gibbon, forgetting that it is not style by Dr Henty to his History of Eng. which forms the chief merit of that land; he has, like him, the merit of celebrated historian.
presenting an interesting and curious, Dr Watson published the historý picture of the manners, customs, laws, of the reign of Philip II. as a séquél &c. of the people wbose history he to that of Charles V. by the celebran : writes, in times of ignorance and bar 1a. brated Robertson ; he meant also to barism. Mr Pinkerton' has written give the history of Philip IIT. whose * the * History of Seat land, froin the reign forms the era of the decline of accessiori of the House of Stuart, til the Spanish monarchy; but he had the reign of Marya? y. His work is to only begun his work, when he died. forms a sequel to that of David Dal-'sa Drs Robertson and Blair, being inrymples and closes at the period ja trusted with the manuscripts of Wát - which that of Robertsool begins Merbor son, chose Mr William Thomson tos Pinkerton's style basgreat merits her, continue this history. In the bpi.*i has been reproaekeln ás not exempt, nion of the best critics the conté- from pedantry, causticit, and bad nuator is superior to Watsoin. M* "taste' but he hafla profound know Thomson has also continued Gold. ledge of his»subjecty and much jederas smith’s History of Greece," from gy in lsis" stylea Puma" 6331419dbo, Alexander the Great till the taking *** of Constantinople,
10. Moral Philosoma SIA is yre
0 ExtoW bons4 National
, history employs a num. Among those who have eated.. ber of writers.
First in this class the theory of retriss science ye may, we may place Șir John Dalrymple, distinguish Di Adam Fergusondial author of Memoirs of Great Britain the year 1770 he published bistan and Ireland, which is regarded as stitures of Moral Philosophy. which, one of the best productions of the were only the teyHabuss of the Learn kind which exist in the English lan- Heures which he delivered in the sypis, ' guage. He goes, to
es to the fountaih.versity of Edinburghasut His ignea head, and, writes only upon authen: "work, intitled 6 Pouciples of Mocaba tic information. We sind in His and Political Seidsce? didmet appear . work, that simplicity and selection till 1792. Dr Fergoson's philosophy circumstances, which distinguish is characterised by his never losing
sight, in his theories of man, such as chief author of the Mirror and Loun. history displays him. He has con- ger. The first of these works aptested the principles of Dr Price, peared at Edinburgh, in 1779 and and some other philosophers, upon 1780, and the second io 1785 and civil and religious hberty, beca116€ he 1786. Mr Mackenzie, already dis. does not believe item applicable to tinguished by his romance entitled the actual condition of Society. Dr “ The Man of Feeling," was assisted Dugald Stewart has succeeded Mr only by Scotsmen, among whom we Ferguson in the chair of moral philo. may distinguish Messrs Craig, Abera sophy in the university of Edinburgh. cromby, Frazer. Tytler, Herry, Cula Few writers of the present day are len, &c. but it is to him that these so celebrated in England. The Llo- works are indebted for their success, ments of Moral Philosophy, which as he has written the greatest and he 'illestrates in his lectures, have best part. The Mirror and Lounger proved him worthy of supplying the contain little that is original, connecplace of Mr Ferguson. Dr John ted with the knowledge of the huBruce, another professor in the Unie man lieart, and the precepts
of morersity of Edinburgh, has published rality. Neither have the fictions two esteemed works, the “ Elements which are employed in diffusing of Morality, and the “ First Princi- variety over the portrait of manners, ples of Philosophy.” Dr Beattie, and characters, much merit in point professor in the University of Aber of novelty. The critical and philodeen, has published “ Elements of sophical papers are often deficient in Moral Science," in 2 vols. Svo. ; an precision and depth, through the neelementary work, which contains little cessity of being understood by all that is new, but has the merit of cor. readers. The success of these works rectness in the thought, and elegance has been produced chiefly by the pain the style. Dr Beattie has, in his pers on pathetic and sentiinental sub" Dissertations Moral and Critical, jects, and by those of gay and delicollected whatever was most interesting cate pleasantry. The story of " La and original in lois Lectures on Mon Roche," the object of which is to ral Philosophy. The Dissertations, convert a Deist by the mere force of and particularly these relating to sentiment, is one of the most affecting criticism, are full of taste, of inge. that it is possible to read. The lei. nious and original observations. The ters signed Homespun may be comUniversity of Aberdeen numbers also pared to the best humorous pieces among its professors, Dr James Dun. inserted in the Spectator by Addison, bar, author of a very ingenious moral and in the World by Chesterfield. work, entitled, “Essays on the His. These essays, in such various styles, tory of Mankind.”
are all by Mr Mackenzie. Periodical works of morality, of
METAPHYSICS. which the Spectator presented the Locke threw the same light upon first model, are always suited to the Metaphysics, i hat Newton did upon English taste. Although this kind Natural Philosophy; he has disciples of writing has become more difficult who have gloriously followed his since Addison has found successful steps, though sewer among his coun. imitators in the authors of the World, trymen than among the French. An the Rambler, the Connoisseur, and Englishman has even attempted to the Adventurer, yet many living revive the errors of ancient Metaphy writers have attempted to follow his sics, and to combat the principles of footsteps, and several with success. Locke. Happily the works of Lord Of this number is Mr Mackenzie, the Monboddo, who is lately dead, are sa Oa. 1806.