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vested with the office of Solicitor Ge- royal prerogative, and create a new neral, in the place of John Dunning, power in the constitution. Esq. and in January 1771 he suc- Mr Pitt, who had before acted as ceeded William Delpey, Esq. after. Chancellor of the Exchequer under wards created Lord Walsingham, as Lord Shelburne, now became first Attorney General.

Lord of the Treasury and Premier, The Bedford, or Bloomsbury party, on which occasion he selected Lord then supported Lord North, and as Thurlow for the great seal, and that very warm debates soon after a rose on nobleman accordingly resumed his the subject of the American war, in seat on the woolsack, on the 23d of which the minister was combated December 1783, after a short interby the eloquence of Savile, Burke, val of eight months and a fortnight. and Fox, he found great advantage

After his resumption of the seals, from being supported by the abili. Lord Thurlow continued for some ties of Thurlow, who zealously es. time to support the administration, poused that side of the question. of which he himself constituted a

Such zeal, joined to such abilities, conspicuous portion. He had now could not long pass unrewarded ; and attained the summit of his ambition, accordingly, on the 2d of June 1778, for indeed he could climb no higher, he was appointed Lord High Chan- and having received the reversion of cellor of Great Britain, by virtue of a tellership, which soon after dropwhich office, he, at a single bound, ped, he was become perfectly indebecame the second subject in the pendent, in point of fortune.

He kingdom. On the next day he was did not always accord, however, with created a Peer of Great Britain, by the Premier; and as neither of these the title of Lord Thurlow, Baron of celebrated men was famed for a conAshfield, in the county of Suffolk, ciliatory spirit, it is not at all surpriwith remainder, in case of default sing that they should have, at length, of issue male, to his nephews. agreed to separate. To those who

He continued to fulfil the duties were personally acquainted with them of his arduous and important situa. the wonder indeed was, that they tion for five years, and during that should have remained so long as period raised his second brother froin nine or ten years in the same cabinet. an humbly rectory to the episcopal At length, in 1793, Lord Thurlow dignity. But when Lord North and resigned the high and important Mr Fox united, and formed the coa- functions of Lord High Chancellor, lition administration, he was obliged and was succeeded by Lord Loughto retire, and on the 9th of April, borough, afterwards Earl of Rosslyn. 1783, the scals were put in commis- From that period his Lordship sion.

frequented the House of Peers but This state of affairs, however, seldom, and his health having become proved but of short continuance ; for very precarious, the air of the town the new adminiscration was not sup. was supposed to be hurtful, so that, ported by the voice of the people, even during the winter, he seldom or and it so happened, by a coincidence never slept in his house in St James'srather unusual, that the king was of square. the same mind. His Majesty was Meanwhile, having purchased an indeed peculiarly averse to the con- estate in the neighbourhood of Dultinuence of the junto in office, as the wich, Lord Thurlow ordered a house project of the East-India Bill seem• to be built on a rising ground for his ed to be calculated to abridge the accommodation. A regular estimate

was He was

was accordingly made out by an emi- them, although they were far less nent architect, and the mansion com- common than at present. pleted, but the final charge was so particularly severe in the case of such disproportionate to the sum originally adventurers as had carried off the proposed, that the noble lord ex.

wards of his court ; and in respect claimed " that he would never either to another class of persons, who were coter or pay for it, but remain in his also under the immediate guardianship farm-house to the day of his death." of the Chancellor, his conduct has

As he had exhibited great attach- been recently quoted with great apment to the King, during the dis. plause by Lord Erskine. It was he cussion of the Regency Bill *, so he indeed who first instituted the rule, afterwards enjoyed the intimacy and that in respect to supposed lunatics, the confidence of the Prince of Wales, the onus probandi should attach to the and is supposed to have been the ad- plaintiff; whereas,' when a statute viser of his Royal Highness on many had been once obtained, the proof of critical and important occasions. He sanity was to rest with the defend. was accustomed to meet him at the, ant. hospitable house of the late Mr Mac- The conduct of Lord Thurlow namara, of Streatham, and was per- on the woolsack was dignified, yet suaded to sit to Rossi for a bust, the impatience of contradiction, or which is now in Carleton House. the access of disease, would some. For several years past his Lordship times produce irritation. has divided his time between Dul. wonderful with what cordiality the wich and Brighton, at the latter of public took his part, when a noble which he usually spent some of the Duke, who had alluded to new fami. summer months ; during which he lies and upstart lawyers, was remindrode on the fine Sussex downs, enjoy. ed of the meretricious claims of one ed the bracing air of the sea, and oc- of his own ancestors, in a dignified casionally saw and conversed with the and manly speech delivered by the heir to the crown.

subject of this memoir. In summing up the character of During the first time that he held Lord Thurlow, it will be found that the seals Lord Thurlow was accused this nobleman was entitled to much of treating the gentlemen of the bar praise as a Chancellor. The inflexi- with a degree of roughness and seve. ble integrity that governed his deci. rity, at which he himself, while in sions was never once called in ques. their situation, would have been the tion, while the wisdom by which first to spurn. We have some rea. they were regulated has been always son to suppose, however, tbat on his admired. He was eager to detect, return to office he altered his conduct to expose, and if possible, to punish in this instance, and ever after dis. the mal.practices of low attornies, played more urbanity to that reand other retainers of the law, who spectable class of men, out of which are a disgrace and an opprobrium to

his own successors were destined to the profession. He saw, and he la- be chosen. mented the frauds and chicanery fre.

It is well known, that the patron. quently arising out of commissions of age of an English Lord Chancellor, bankruptcy, and wished to restrain in respect to ecclesiastical affairs, is

extensive. All vacant livings under * His celebrated exclamation of

a certain amount are in bis gist, and " When I forsake my King in the hour his voice is, at the same time, at. of his distress, may God forsake me !" tended to in respect to the disposal produced a wonderful effect.

of the dignities of the church.

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vast extent appears' to rest upon a obtained two lucrative sees in suc- base of calcareous stone, covered by cession, and by his liberality a no- a stratum of vegetable mould, which minal Dean of Caius was rendered a varies in its composition, and is from real one, cum cura animarum. Hor. several inches to ten and even fifteen sley also, on account of his coutro. feet thick. The limits of the im. versial talents, was by his means mense stone-bank have not yet been seated on the Bishops bench; but accurately ascertained; but its thick. notwithstanding this, it is on record ness must be very considerable, from that he was unable to obtain for Dr the appearance it exhibits at the riJohnson such an increase of his pen. vers, the banks of wbich, particularsion as would have enabled him to ly those of Kentucky, and Dick Ri. endeavour to repair a broken consti- vers, rise in some parts perpendiculartution, by flying to the genial climately to the height of three hundred

feet, in which spaçe nothing but this Edward Lord Thurlow died at stone is perceptible. The soil of the Brighton in Sussex, on the 12th of Kentucky, though irregular, is not September, 1806, in the 71st year of hilly, except in some few parts near

He had three daughters the Ohio, and on the side of Virginia. by Miss Hervey, one of whom, Mrs Calcareous stone, and abundant mines Brown, who had married in opposi- of unexplored coal, are the only mition to his wish, was present at his neral substances observable. Iron demise.

mines are scarce, and, as far as I He is succeeded in his Barony by can recollect, one only is worked, Edward, now Lord Thurlow, the which is by no means sufficient for eldest son of his brother, the late the wants of the country. Bishop of Durham, with remainder, In 1782, the number of inhabit. in case of default of issue male, to ants in Kentucky did not exceed Edward South Thurlow, M. A. one three thousand ; but in 1790, it a. of the six prebendaries of Norwich. mounted to one hundred thousand ;

and in the general census of 1800, it is computed at two hundred and

twenty thousand. At the time of Account of the AMERICAN Settlement my journey to Lexington, in Auof KENTUCKY.

gust, 1802, they calculated its popula.

tion to amount to two hundred and From MICHAUX's Travels.

fifty thousand; including about two

thousand negro-slaves. Hence in 'HE State of Kentucky is situa- this State, where perhaps there can

ted between 36° 30' and 39° 30% not be found ten individuals twentylat. and between 28° and 29° of long. five years of age, who were born Its boundaries are, to the N. W. ihe there, the number of inhabitants is Ohio, for an extent of about seven already as great as in seven of the hundred and sixty miles ; to the E. old States, while there are only two Virginia, and to the S. the State of whose population is twice as numerTennessee. It is separated from Vire This rapid increase might ginia by Sandy River, and the Lau. have been much greater, but for one rel-hills, one of the principal chains particular circumstance, which preof the Allegany Mountains. The vents emigration to those districts : extreme length of this state is about í allude to the difficulty of establishfour hundred miles ; and its greatest ing claims to landed property : for of width nearly two hundred. This all the States of the Union, it is in Nov. 1806.

. 3

this

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this that such claims are most the lows, that many people are not ia. subject of controversy.

I never clined to improve their possessions, stopped at the house of a single in. lest they should sustain a considerahabitant, who did not appear convin. ble loss, and be in their turns expelo ced of the validity of his own title, led by others, who may attack them while he doubted that of his neigh at a moment when they least expect bour. Amongst the numerous causes it. This uncertainty, with respect which have produced this incredible co landed property, is an inexhausticonfusion in property, the principal ble source of long and expensive law. may be considered the ignorance of suits, by which the attornies gaia the land surveyors, or rather the dif- considerable advantage. ficulty they at first experienced in the The inhabitants of Kentucky, as pursuit of their operations. The con- has been already mentioned, almost tinual state of war in which this all originally came from Virginia, country was then involved, often obli- and particularly from the most re. ged them to suspend their labours to mote parts of the state, and, with avoid being shot by the natives, who the exception of the lawyers, phyespied them in the woods. The sicians, and a few of the citizens, danger they incurred was extreme ; who have received an education suit. for it is well known, that a savage able to their professions, in the towns often goes fifty leagues to'kill a sin- on the Atlantic, they retain the maogle enemy; that he remains for se- aers of the Virginians. They carry veral days together in a hollow tree a passion for gaming and spiritous to surprize lim; and when he has liquors, to excess, and sanguioary succeeded he takes off his scalp, he quarrels are frequently the consereturns with the same rapidity. quence. They meet often at the la. From this state of things it results, verns, particularly during the sitting that not only the same lot has been of the courts of justice, when they measured several times over by dif. pass whole days in them. Horse ferent surveyors, but that it has and law-suits are therusual subjects of often been divided by different their conversation. When a travel. lines, describing such and such ler arrives, his horse is valued as soca portions of a lot to depend upon as they can perceive him. If he stop others adjacent ; which in their they offer him a glass of whiskey, turn have been subjected to the same and a multitude of questions follow, misapplication with regard to others such as, Where did you come from . in their vicinity. In short, there are Where are you going? What is lots of a thousand acres, in which your name? Where do you reside? every hundred is the subject of con- Your profession! Have the inhabitest. The military rights are, how. tants of the country you have passed · ever, considered as more secure; but through any fevers ? &c. Thest one remarkable circumstance is, that questions, which are repeated a thoumany of the inhabitants find a gua- sand times, in the course of a long rantee for their property in this con. journey, ac length become tiresome; fusion ; for the law, being particular- but, with a little address, it is easy ly favourable to agriculture, has de to stop them. They have, however, creed, that the clearing and ameliora. no other motive for them but that tion of the land shall be reimbursed curiosity so natural to persons living by the person who may succeed in retired, in the midst of woods, and ejecting the first occupier; and as who scarcely ever see a stranger. the estimation, on account of the They are never influenced by suspiextreme scarcity of hands, is always cion; for, from whatever part of made in favour of cultivators, it fol. the world a stranger comes to the

earer.

United States, he may enter all the and frequently, in the middle of their sea-ports and principal towns, remain sermons, many of the congregation in them, or travel, as long as he become frantic, and fall down, inspi. pleases, through every part of the red, exclaiming, Glory! Glory! It country, without any public officer is chiefly, however, among the women inquiring who he is, or what are his that these absurdities take place.reasons for travelling:

They are then taken from

among

the The inhabitants of Kentucky are crowd, and put under a tree, where very willing to give strangers the in. they lie supine for a long time, formation they require respecting uttering deep groans, the country in which they reside, At some of these assemblies as and which they consider as the best many as two hundred will fall in this " Dart of the United States; as that manner, so that a number of others .zn which the soil is most fertile, the are required to help them. While I climate most salubrious, and where was at Lexington, I attended one of all who have come to settle, were these meetings. The better-inform.

sed by the love of liberty and inde. ed people differ from the opinion of spendence. In their houses they are the multitude with respect to this .-decent and hospitable; and, in the species of extacy; and thus they

ourse of my journey, I preferred frequently draw upon themselves the jodging with them, rather than in appellation of bad folks. But this is

he taverns, where the accommoda- the extent of their intolerance ; for ion is frequently worse and much when they return from the sermon,

religion seldom forms a subject of The women seldom interfere in conversation. Although divided inhe labours of the field: they remain to different sects, they live in the

home, assiduously engaged with greatest harmony, and when an alliomestic cares, or employed in spin. ance is projected between famiing hemp or cotton. This labour lies, difference of religion never cauie Tone is considerable, for there are ses any impediment: the husband : w houses in which there are not and wife follow the worship they pur or five children.

approve; as do their children, when Among the different sects which ex. they have arrived at maturity, with. t in Kentucky, those of the Metho. out the least opposition from their sts and Anabaptists are the most nu. parents. erous. The religious enthusiasm has, Throughout the Western Counitbin the last seven or eight years, ac. try, the children are punctually senc aired a new degree of strength in to school, to learn reading, writing, ose regions; for, independently of and the elements of arithmetic. e Sundays, which are scrupulously These schools are supported at the » served, they meet, during the sum. expence

of the inhabitants, who proer, in the course of the week, to cure masters as soon as the popula. :ar sermons, which last for several tion and their means enable them;

ys in succession. These meetings, it is therefore very uncommon to meet bich often consist of two or three with an Amcrecan who is unable to ousand persons, who come from ten read and write. On the Ohio, and in

twelve miles round, take place in the Barrens, however, where the setHe woods. Every person brings histlements are very widely dispersed, vn provisions, and they pass the the inhabitants have not yet been a' ght round fires. The ministers ble to procure this advantage. e very vehement in their discourses;

SCOT

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