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this that such claims are most the lows, that many people are not iasubject of controversy.

I never clined to improve their possessions, stopped at the house of a single in lest they should sustain a considerahabitant, who did not appear convin. ble loss, and be in their turns espelo ced of the validity of his own title, led by others, who may attack them while he doubted that of his neigh at a moment when they least expect bour. Amongst the numerous causes

it. This uncertainty, with respect which have produced this incredible to landed property, is an inexhausticonfusion in prop.rty, the principal ble source of long and expensive lawmay be considered the ignorance of suits, by which the attornies gaia the land surveyors, or rather the dif- considerable advantage. ficulty they at first experienced in the The inhabitants of Kentucky, as pursuit of their operations. The con- has been already mentioned, almost tinual state of war in which this all originally came from Virginia, country was then involved, often obli- and particularly from the most reged them to suspend their labours to mote parts of the state, and, with avoid being shot by the natives, who the exception of the lawyers, phy. espied them in the woods. The sicians, and a few of the citizens, danger they incurred was extreme ; who have received an education suitfor it is well known, that a savage able to their professions, in the towns often goes fifty leagues to'kill a sin- on the Atlantic, they retain the mangle enemy; that he remains for se- aers of the Virginians. They carry veral days together in a hollow tree a passion for gaming and spiritous to surprize bim ; and when he has liquors, to excess, and sanguioary succeeded he takes off his scalp, he quarrels are frequently the conse: returns with the same rapidity: quence. They meet often at the 1a. From this state of things it results, verns, particularly during the sitting that not only the same lot has been of the courts of justice, when they measured several times over by dif. pass whole days in them. Horse ferent surveyors,

but that it has and law-suits are therusual subjects of often been divided by different their conversation. When a travel. lines, describing such and such ler arrives, his horse is valued as soga portions of a lot to depend upon as they can perceive him. If he stop others adjacent ; which in their they offer him a glass of whiskey,

, turn have been subjected to the same and a multitude of questions follow, misapplication with regard to others such as, Where did you come from

. in their vicinity. In short, there are Where are you going? What is lots of a thousand acres, in which your name? Where do you reside? every hundred is the subject of con- Your profession? Have the inhabitest. The military rights are, how. tants of the country you have passed ever, considered as more secure; but through any fevers ? &c. Thes one remarkable circumstance is, that questions, which are repeated a thoumany of the inhabitants find a gua. sand times, in the course of a long santee for their property in this con. journey, at length become tiresome ; fusion ; for the law, being particular. but, with a little address, it is easy ly favourable to agriculture, has de. to stop them. They have, however, creed, that the clearing and ameliora. no other motive for them but that tion of the land shall be reimbursed curiosity so natural to persons living by the person who may succeed in retired, in the midst of woods, and ejecting the first occupier; and as who scarcely ever see a stranger.the estimation, on

account of the They are never influenced by suspi. extreme scarcity of hands, is always cion; for, from whatever part of made in favour of cultivators, it fol. the world a stranger comes to the




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United States, he may enter all the and frequently, in the middle of their sea-ports and principal towns, remain sermons, many of the congregation in them, or travel, as long as he become frantic, and fall down, inspi. pleases, through every part of the red, exclaiming, Glory! Glory! It country, without any public officer is chiefly, however, among the women inquiring who he is, or what are his that these absurdities take place.reasons for travelling.

They are then taken from

among the The inhabitants of Kentucky are crowd, and put under a tree, where very willing to give strangers the in. they lie supine for a long time, ..formation they require respecting uttering deep groans.

the country in which they reside, At some of these assemblies as ruand which they consider as the best many as two hundred will fall in this

part of the United States; as that manner, so that a number of others **n which the soil is most fertile, the are required to help them. While I climate most salubrious, and where was at Lexington, I attended one of all who have come to settle, were these meetings. The better-informsued by the love of liberty and inde. ed people differ from the opinion of Dendence. In their houses they are the multitude with respect to this decent and hospitable; and, in the species of extacy; and thus they

s'ourse of my journey, I preferred frequently draw upon themselves the godging with them, rather than in appellation of bad folks. But this is

he taverns, where the accommoda- the extent of their intolerance ; for ion is frequently worse and much when they return from the sermon,

religion seldom forms a subject of The women seldom interfere in conversation. Although divided inhe labours of the field: they remain to different sects, they live in the t home, assiduously engaged with greatest harmony, and when an alliomestic cares, or employed in spin- ance is projected between fami. ing hemp or cotton. This labour lies, difference of religion never caue lone is considerable, for there are ses any impediment: the husband

houses in which there are not and wife follow the worship they pur or five children.

approve; as do their children, when Among the different sects which ex. they have arrived at maturity, with. t in Kentucky, those of the Metho. out' the least opposition from their sts and Anabaptists are the most nu. parents. erous. The religious enthusiasm has, Throughout the Western Coun

itbin the last seven or eight years, ac. try, the children are punctually senc Tired a new degree of strength in to school, to learn reading, writing,

ose regions ; for, independently of and the elements of arithmetic. e Sundays, which are scrupulously These schools are supported at the served, they meet, during the sum- expence of the inhabitants, who pro. er, in the course of the week, to cure masters as soon as the popula. ar sermons, which last for several tion and their means enable them; ys in succession. These meetings, it is therefore very uncommon to meet bich often consist of two or three with an Amcrecan who is unable to ousand persons, who come from ten read and write. On the Ohio, and in

twelve miles round, take place in the Barrens, however, where the sete woods. Every person brings histlements are very widely dispersed, vn provisions, and they pass the the inhabitants have not yet been aght round fires.

The ministers ble so procure this advantage. very vehement in their discourses;



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SCOTTISH REVIEW. Soon after the publication of li I. Account of the Life and Writings, two first works, Dr Beattie twice

of the late Dr Beattie, by Sir visited London, where he met with William Forbes of Pitsligo, Bart. the most distinguished reception 2 vols. 4to. 21. 12s. 60.; l. p. 51, 5s. from persons the most conspicuous (Concluded from p. 767.)

for rank and literature. Mrs Mon. HO

AVING brought down the nar. tague, Lord Lyttleton, Dr Johnson,

rative to the establishment of Dr and Sir Joshua Reynolds were aBeattie's literary reputation, we shall mong his particular friends. Both now look back to some domestic oc- their Majesties honoured him with currences, which were omitted in particular marks of approbation.their proper place.

His friends in power were anxious In 1767, he was married to Miss that something should be done for Mary Dun, daughter of Dr Dun, his fortune, and after several plans rector of the grammar school, in had been started, the king at length Aberdeen. This lady is said to have determined to give him a pension of possessed a variety of accomplish. 2001. a year. The Queen had pre ments, which were peculiarly calcu- viously expressed an intention Jated to render her agreeable to Dr making him a present, which hor. Beattie. The connection, however,

ever he declined, on account of his was productive of much unhappiness. expectations from the King. Di Mrs Beattie had inherited from her

Beattie had also the honour of a primother a tendency to a fatal dis.. vate interview for upwards of an hour, order, which, says our author, “ thol with the King and Queen, with it did not for a considerable time which he appears to have been highbreak out into open insanity, shewed ly gratified. We shall give, from hi itself in caprices that embittered every own journal, a transcript of some part hour of his life, till, at last, it un- of this interesting conversation. questionably contributed to bring him

We had much conversation on mo?! to his grave.In a letter to Dr Blacklock he subjects ; from which both their Mio

ties let it appear, that they were warm thus describes his feelings on the friends to chrisrianity; and so little birth of his first son :

clined to infid-lity, that they could ha? You ask me, what are my feelings? ly believe that any thinking man coup Perhaps I shall be in a better condition really be an atheist, unless he cou to answer that question afterwards than bring himself to believe that he ma.? now. He is always near me, and never himself; a thought which pleased has had any illness; and you know, that King exceedingly; and be repeated adversity is the only true touchstone of several times to the Queen. He ah affection. I find my imagination recoilsed, whether any thing had been writi' from the idea of such adversity as would against me. I spoke of the late par bring my affection to the test. To tell, phlet, of which I gave an account, it the truth, I am at no great pains to ob- lig him, that I never had met witin trude that idea on my fancy; evils come man who had read it, except one Q.136 soon enough, we need not anticipate This brought on some discourse abo". them. At present, however, I feel e. the Quakers, whose moderation, a: nough to convince me experimentally of mild behaviour, the King and Queel what I have proved from the principles commended. I was asked many quer of reason in my essay, that this sigyn tions about the Scots universities, ??

something entirely different from that revenues of the Scots clergy, their ma affection we feel towards dependants, of praying and preaching, the as well as from that which arises from college of Edinburgh, Dr Gregory, ! a habit of long acquaintance.

whom I gave a particular characie


P. 137


and Dr Cullen, the length of our vaca- In 1773, the chair of naiural phi. tion at Aberdeen, and the closeness of losophy having become vacant by our attendance during the winter, the

the death of Dr Russel, a proposal number of students that attend my lec

was made to Dr Beattie to remove tures, my mode of lecturing, whether from notes, or completely written lec

to the university of Edinburgh; Dr tures; about Mr lluind, and Dr Ro. Ferguson, who had formerly filled bertsun, and Lord Kinnoull, and the that chair, being willing to resume Archbishop of York, &c. &c. &c. His it, and to leave vacant for him that Majesty asked what I thought of my

of moral philosophy. His friends in new acquaintance, Lord Dartmouth? I

Edinburgh urged him a good deal said, there was something in his air and manner, which I thought not only a.

to accept this offer. He gives a greeable, but enchanting, and that he number of reasons for declining it, seemed to me to be one of the best of particularly his knowledge, ihat men; a sentiment in which both their there were in Edinburgh a number Majesties heartily joined.

They say of persons by whom he was viewed ti that Lord Dartmouth is an enthusi.

with an unfavourable eye, on account ast,” said the Kiog, “ but surely he says

of his opposition to Mr Hume. He nothing on the subject of religion, “ but what every christian may and

strenuously denies, however, bis be" ought to say? He asked, whether I

ing under


fear of ihese persons; did not think the English language on but, says he, “ I am so great a lover the decline at present? I answered in of peace, and so willing to think well the affirmative ; and the King agreed, of all my neighbours, that I do not and named the “ Spectator” as one of wish to be connected even with one the best standards of the language. When I told him that the Scots clergy

person who dislikes me.” Neither will sometimes prayed a quarter or even

he admit, that he is less useful at A. Tialf-an-hour, at a time, he asked whe. berdeen than he could be in the metro. ther that did not lead them into repeti. polis. He gives the following ac. tions? I said, it often did. That," count of his academical employment said he, “ I don't like in prayers; and in the former place : “excellent as our liturgy is, I think it "somewhat faulty in that respect.”- My lectures are not confined to my “ Your Majesty knows,” said I, own class. I do what no other profes“ three services are joined in one, in the sor here ever did, and what no profesordinary church-service, which is one sor in any other part of Great Britain

cause of those repetitions.” “True," can do ; Í admit, together with my own he replied, “ and that circumstance ale students in moral philosophy, all the

so makes the service too long,” From divinity students of two universities, this, he took occasion to speak of the who are willing to attend me; and I composition of the church-liturgy; on have often a very crowded auditory ; which he very justly bestowed the high and I receive fees from nobody, but est cominendation. “ Observe,” his from such of my own private class as Majesty said, “ how flat those occasional are able to pay them. Nobody ever

prayers are that are now composed, in asked me to do this, and nobody thanks "! comparison with the old ones." When me for it, except the young men themI mentioned the smallness of the church- selves; and yet, in all this there is so livings in Scotland, he said, “ he won- little merit, it being as easy for me to “ dered how men of liberal education lecture to a hundred as to thirty, that “ would chuse to become clergymen I should not have thought it worth men. “ there," and asked," whether in the re: tioning, except with a view to obviate “ mote parts of the country, the clergy, an objection, that seems to be implied “ in general, were not very ignorant?" in some things, that have been thrown “I answered, No, for that education out at this time.

was very cheap in Scotland, and that " the clergy, in general, were men of

He concludes with expressing a “good sense, and competent learning.” conviction that a continuance in his

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P. 270.

present station will be more for the myself it has, I would not for the wealth comfort of himself and family, and of the Indies do any thing to counteract will leave him more leisure for his that tendency; and I am afraid, that literary undertakings.

tendency might in some measure be Shortly after, the Bishop of Win. if I were to give the adversary the least

counteracted, (at least in this country) chester, through the channel of Dr ground to charge me with inconsistency. Porteous, made Dr Beattie an offer It is true, that the force of my reason. of a living in the church of England, ings cannot be really affected by my which was worth 5001. a' year. His character; truth is truth, whoever answer to this offer gives a striking be the speaker: but even truth itselt be. view of the purity and scrupulous dis

comes less respectable, when spoken, or interestedness of his character. He

supposed to be spoken, by insincere

lips. begins with staring, that if he were “ It has also been hinted to me, by to become a clergy man, he would pre. several persons of very sound judgment, fer the church of England, and that that what I have written, or may here. he had often felt a disposition to en

after write, in favour of religion, has a ter into that profession. He then chance of being more attended to, if I states, as follows, his reasons for de. continue a layman, than if I were to

become clining the offer.

a clergyman. Nor am I with.

out apprehensions, (though some of my “ I wrote the. Essay on Truth," friends think them iil

founded, that, with the certain prospect of raising from entering so late in life, and from many enemies, with very faint hopes of so remote a province, into the Church attracting the public attention, and with. of England, some degree of ungracefulout any views of advancing my fortune. ness, particularly in pronunciation, might I published it, however, because I thought adhere to my performances in public, it might probably do a little good, by sufficient to render them less pleasing, bringing to nought, or at least lessening and consequently less useful. the reputation of, that wretched system

" Most of these reasons were repeatof sceptical philosophy, which had edly urged upon me, during my stay made a most alarming progress, and in England, last summer; and 1 freely done incredible mischief to this coun- own, that the more I consider them, try. My enemies have been at great the more weight they seem to have. pains to represent my views in that pub. And from the peculiar manner in which fication, as very different: and that my the King h-s beer. graciously pleased to principal, or only motive was, to make distinguish me, and from other circuma book, and if possible, to raise myself stances, I have some ground to prehigher in the world. So that if I were sume, that it is his Majesty's pleasure, now to accept preferment in the church, that I should continue where I am, and I should be apprehensive, that I might employ my leisure hours in prosecuting strengthen the hands of the gainsayer, the studies I have begun. This I can and give the world some ground to be:

fmd time to do more effectually in Scotlieve, that my love of truth was not land than in England, and in Aberdeen quite so ardent, or so pure, as I had pre. than in Edinburgh; which, by the bye, tended.

was one of my chief reasons for declina “ Besides, might it not have the ap. ing the Edinburgh professorship. The pearance of levity and insincerity, and, business of my professorship here is in. by some, be construed into a want of deed toilsome: but I have, by fourteen principle, if I were at these years, (frI years practice, made myself so much am now thirty-eight) to make such an master of it, that it now requires little important change in my way of life, mental labour; and our long summer and to quit, with no other apparent mo- vacation, of seven months, leaves me tive than that of bettering my, circum.

at my own disposal, for the greatest and stances, that church of which I have best part of the year; a situation favour. hitherto been a member? If my book able to literary projects, and now behas any tendency to do good, as I Aatter come necessary to my health. P. 360.


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