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Historical Affairs.

Revious to the commencement of hos-

“ Peace, however, still continued upon the Continent. The German Empire had

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Declaration, or Manifesto, in which the the midst of this peace, nevertheless, the violent and perfidious

conduct of France to French troops invaded the electorate of the whole Princes of Europe is represented Hanover; a country which had no concern in an able and convincing manner.


in the war betwixt France and England, fatal course of policy hitherto followed by while the ports of Germany were shut ahis Majesty must therefore be regretted. gainst the British Aag; and the better to The opportunity which occurred last year,

effect her object, France took possession of the most favourable perhaps that may ever

Cuxhaven, and the territory of a free state, offer, for compelling the common enemy to

which was still more a stranger to the war accede to honourable terms, was neglected, than Hanover. and Prussia supinely suffered Bonaparte to

“ In the midst of this peace also, the dictate the ruinous peace of Presburg. Had same troops, a few months after, violated his Majesty acted at that critical period the German territory in such a manner as with one half of the energy now displayed,

to wound the honour of the nation still he would not now have to contend for the deeper. The Germans have never avenged existence of his monarchy.

the death of the Duke D'Enghien ; but the

remembrance of that event will never be PRUSSIAN MANIFESTO.

extinguished among them. “AS his Majesty the King of Prussia has “ The treaty of Luneville guaranteed the taken up arms for the defence of his people, independence of the Italian Republic. In he thinks it necessary to lay before them, spite of the most positive promises, did Naand all Europe, the circumstances which poleon place the Iron Crown of Italy upon have imposed this duty on his Majesty. his own head. Genoa was incorporated

“ The politics of France have been with France ; Lucca was very near sharing the scourge of humanity during the last the same fate. Only a few months before fifteen years. Those men who, in rapid had the Emperor, on a solemn occasion succession, have been at the head of affairs -an occasion which imposed very imporin that country, have only sought the tant duties upon him-declared before his means of their dominion in war, and the people and before all Europe, that he wishguarantee of their existence in the wretch- ed not to extend the limits of his territory. edness of the people, may be viewed with- Besides, France was bound by a treaty out astonishment. But the introduction of with Russia, to put the King of Sardinia in a regular Government, to which the same possession of indemnities in Italy. Instead necessity could not be imputed, gave new of fulfilling that obligation, she made herlife to the hopes of the friends of peace.- self mistress of every object which could Napoleon, invested with the supreme powo

have been serviceable towards that indemer, victorious, surrounded by weaker States, nification. friendly disposed Governments, or con- “ Portugal wished to maintain her neuquered or exhausted rivals, had it in his trality, but Portugal was compelled to purpower to perform a better part. For the chase by gold the deceitful security of a greatness of France, nothing more remained few moments. for him to do; for her happiness, every

“ The Porte, who had not forgotten thing was in his power.

the invasion of Syria in Egypt, was the “ It is painful to be compelled to say, only power remaining in Europe which had that French politics still remained the same. not been subjected to the arbitrary proceedAn insatiable ambition was still the ruling ings of France. passion of France. She made use of arms

is But to these acts of violence, a system and of treaties with the same view. The of abuse and injury remained still to be adpeace of Amiens was scarcely concluded, ded. A Journal, which proclaimed itself before the signal for the first acts of vio. the voice of Government, was chosen as a lence followed. Holland and Switzerland, chronicle of the attacks incessantly made two independent states, were compelled upon every crowned head. to accept a constitution which converted « Prussia could be no stranger to any of them into French provinces. " The renewal these general acts of oppression. Many of. of war was the consequence.

them were nearly connected with her subNov. 1806.


stantial interests; especially as the wisdom France from augmenting her troops in of that system, which considers the states of Hanover, he had promised to suffer ne atEurope as members of the same family, tack to be made on that territory. The calls upon each of them for the defence of Russians and Swedes were preparing for all; and that the unbounded aggrandize- an attack upon the French. From this ment of one state exposed the rest to dan- ' period, the whole burthen of the contract ger, was sufficiently manifest to experience. between France and Prussia weighed up. “ Still it is most essentially necessary to

on the latter only, without producing to represent in what manner the conduct of her the least advantage; and, by a singuFrance was calculated to operate in its im. lar concatenation of circumstances, it seemmediate relation to Prussia.

ed that Prussia, who only wished to remain “ It were superfluous to enumerate all impartial and eutral, could no longer purthe good offices rendered to Napoleon by sue her former system, except to the prePrussia. Prussia was the first Power that judice of the allied powers. Every advan. acknowledged him. No promises, no me. tage which resulted from this situation of naces, had been able to shake the King's affairs was on the side of France; and the neutrality. Every thing that the duty of a King was daily threatened with a collision, good neighbou could prescribe was most not less formidable to him, than decisively amply afforded during a period of six years. favourable to the plans of Napoleon. Prussia esteemed a valiant nation, which “ Who could have thought, that the very alone had learned, on its part, to respect moment when the King had given to the Prussia both in war and peace; and she

French Government the strongest proof of did justice to the genius of its chief. But

his determination, and a singular example the remembrance of these times is no longer of the faithful fulfilment of engagements in. retained by Napoleon.

to which he had once entered, should be “ Prussia had permitted the territory of chosen by Napoleon to do the King the Hanover to be invaded. In this she had most sensible injury? Who does not remem. countenanced an act of injustice ; therefore ber the violation of the territory of Anwas it her first view to remedy it. She of- spach, which took place on the 3d of Octofered herself for it instead of England, un- ber in the last year, notwithstanding the der the condition that the latter should remonstrance of the Provincial Administra. cede it. It must, however, at least, be re- tion, and of his Majesty's Minister? collected, that thus a boundary was pre- « This contest between that moderation scribed to France, which she should not which pardons every thing--that integriry pass. Napoleon solemnly pledged himself which remains true to its engagements to not to compromise the neutrality of the the last, on the one part; and the abuse of Northern States; to exercise no violence power, the insolence aspired by deceitful towards any of them; and, in particular, fortune, and the habit of only reckoning not to increase the number of troops in on this fortune, on the other, continued se. the Electorate of Hanover.

veral years. The King declared to the " Scarcely had he agreed to these stipu. Prench Government, that he considered all lations, than he broke them. Every one his connections with it as dissolved. He is acquainted with the violent manner in placed his armies on a footing suitable to which Sir George Rumbold was seized ; circumstances-He was now fully convinevery one knows that the Hanse Towns ced, that no pledge of security remained were laid under contribution, under the for the neighbours of France, but a peace appellation of loans, not by any means, for established upon firm principles, and guatheir interests, but exactly in the same ranteed by all the powers in common. manner as if France had been at war with

“ His Majesty offered the allies to be them. For the first of these injuries, his the mediators in negociations for such a Majesty contented himself with accepting peace, and to support them with all his an inadequate satisfaction. Of the second force. It is sufficient to know the condihe took no cognizance, being prevented by tions then proposed, to be convinced of the the apprehensions and representations on moderation which, at all times, has goverthe part of the Hanse Towns. His Majes- ned the politics of his Majesty in their ty, on his part, did not scruple to make whole extent. Prussia, at this moment, lis. any sacrifice, as the preservation of peace tened not to the voice of revenge; she passed was the dearest wish of his heart.

over the events of the late war, however “ The patience and sufferance of every violent they might have been, since they other Court were exhausted sooner than had been sanctioned by existing treaties that of his Majesty.-War again broke out She required nothing but the punctual fulon the Continent—the situation of the filment of those treaties; but this she reKing, with respect to his duty, was more quired without limitation. Count Haugdifficult chan ever. In order to prevent witz repaired to Vienna, where the French

Emperor Emperor then was. Scarcely had this Mi- Majesty the King of Great Britain should nister been there a few days, when the be obtained. whole face of affairs was changed; the mis- All the advantages of this treaty were fortunes experienced by the Court of Vien- for France. On the one side, she received na had compelled it to sign an armistice, guarantees which put the se... on her conwhich was immediately followed by a quests; on the other, she gave what she did peace. The Emperor of Russia sacrificed not possess, what might be again conquer. his magnanimous views to the wish of his ed by the chance of an uncertain war, while ally, and his troops returned home. Prussia in the cessions of Prussia she found the stood now alone on the field of contest. means of enriching her allies. His Majesty was obliged to limit his poli- But between a policy which will do ecy by his powers; and instead, as had been very thing in its power, and an integrity his wish, of embracing the interest of all which regards its duties, and especially its Europe, made his own security and that of promises, the contest is ever unequal. The his neighbours his first object.

King approached the moment when he The French Emperor proposed to Count was convinced of this by experience; this Haugwitz a treaty, in which wa. stipula- moment was the most painful of his reign. ted on the one side, a mutual guarantee of It was in the power of France to reject possessions, the inviolability of the Turkish the modifications under which the King territory, and the results of the peace of had confirmed the treaty, if she did not apPresburgh : and on the other, the taking prove them. But she avoided doing this; possession of Hanover by Prussia in return for the whole Prussian army was still unfor the cession of three provinces.

der arms.

She con inued to be lavish of The first part of this treaiy promised, at assurances of friendship-she fulfilled the least, for the future, an acknowledged, treaty as far as it suited her ; but when his guaranteed, and, if Napoleon had so plea. Majesty wished to reap the only advansed, a firmi political Constitution. The re- tages which he had proposed to himself sults of the peace of Presburgh were a ge. from the late negociations, and which was neral misfortune to Europe; but Prussia nearest his heart, she suddenly altered her sacrificed herself alone when she accepted language-the modifications added to the them; and, to place a limit to the inces. treaty of Vienna were now rejected at sant usurpations of France, should the trea- Paris. Endeavours were made to force ty be considered by the Court of St Cloud Prussia into the most injurious measures ; as any thing more than words, appeared an and when Count Haugwitz, who was at advantage. The King therefore ratified Paris, remonstrated against this, the un. this article unconditionally.

conditional fulfilment of the treaty was The second half of the treaty of Vienna haughtily insisted on, as were the inmedia related to an object, the importance of ate cession of the three provinces, and the which had been manifested by serious ex- recal of the patent by which the occupaperience. Prussia could not rely on security tion of Hanover was declared provisional. for a moment so long as Hanover remained Prussia was required to resign a part of involved in a war in which that country the advanrages stipulated, and to shut her had, in fact, no concern. At whatever price ports against the British flag in the same it might be purchased, Prussia was resolved manner as if the French had returned into that the French should not return thither the Electorate. She had her choice to obtain this end either The King at length was perfectly conby a treaty or a war. The cession of three vinced of the true character of the friendprovinces, which had been always faithful ship of the Emperor of the French-a so. and happy, was a sacrifice not to be made porofic draught for a power which still for any plan of vain ambition ; but these feels its own strength; an instrument of deprovinces, in case of a war, would have gradation, and finally of subjection, to e. been the first sufferers: all the calamities very power which no longer possesses of that war would have pressed upon the strength. monarchy, while the acquisition of Ha- In the mean time, Napoleon was in posnover, could it have been made under less session of every advantage. The Russian unhappy circumstances, would have been army had returned; his own, after some productive of the most valuable advantages niovements of no consequence, at which to Prussia.

deceived Germany prematurely rejoiced, The King, therefore, conceived that he on some frivolous pretences, established it. reconciled his wishes with his principles self on this side the Rhine. The first con. when he accepted the proposed exchange, fict might produce misfortunes. War, only under the condition, that the fulfilment which is not, under all circumstances, the of the same should be deferred till the ge- greatest of evils, might become such unneral peace, and that the consent of his der those then existing. The King deter


mined to continue the part he had hitherto months after, the Confederation of the acted for some time longer. Wishing to Rhine overthrew the Germanic Constitupreserve his force, now more than ever ne- tion, deprived the Emperor of the ancient cessary to Europe, and at least to secure ornainent of his house, and placed Bavaria, the tranquillity of the North, he confirmed and thirty other Princes, under the tutethe new treaty. Confidence, however, was lage of France. But it is necessary to apnow utterly lost. Prussia was convinced, peal to treaties to form a judg:nent of this that, on the first opportunity to weaken extraordinary event. Previous to all treaher without danger, she might expect an ties, nations have their rights, and had not attack from her pretended ally; convinced France sported with the sanctity of an oath, that there is a degree of anibition which this act of unexampled despotism would exnothing can satisfy, which proceeds with. asperate every mind. Toodeprive Princes out intermission from usurpation to usur- who had never offended France, and to renpation, sometimes without a plan, but ever der them the vassals of others, themselves intent on destruction; careless of the choice the vassals of the French Government--to of means, and employing alike arms and abolish with a stroke of a pen a constituthe pen, violence and oaths.

But even

tion of a thousand years duration, which with this conviction, so great is the unfor long hařit, the remembrance of so many il. tunate superiority obtained by such policy lustrious periods, and so many various and over those who wish only to be just, the mutual relations, had rendered dear to such King fulfilled all the conditions of the trea- a number of Princes, which had so often ty with the punctuality of a faithful ally. been guaranteed by all the European powIt is known what the consequences were

ers, and

France herself to lay with respect to the connexions of his Majes contributions on the cities and towns in the ty with England. Fránce gained nothing midst of profound peace, and leave the new by this, but she triumphed in secret at the possessors only an exhausted skeleton-to thought of having disunited the two Courts, abolish this constitution, without consulting the union of which might have been dan- the Emperor of Germany, from whom a gerous to her: and what, in the view of crown was wrestedmor Russia, so lately France, gave the principal value to her als become the guarantee of the German liance with the King was, that this alliance League-or Prussia, intimately interested in isolated his Majesty, since it produced an that league, thus arbitrarily dissolved ---No opinion that Prussia was a participator in wars and continued victories have somethe cause of so many misfortunes. But, times produced great and remarkable catasnot content with this, we shall soon see in trophes, but such an example in time of what manner the politics of France, assure peace was riever before given to the world. ed that she had now no enemy to fear, be- The King commiserated the unfortunate lieving that she had annihilated Austria,for- Princes who suffered by these transactions, ming a judgment of Russia with equal ig- but he pitied not less those who had suffernorance and rashness, and blinded by the ed themselves to be lured by the hope of apparent tranquillity of Prussia, at length gain, and he would reproach himself, should threw off the mask, and despising forms, he increase their unhappiness by judging which she had hitherto sometimes respec. them with too great severity. Deluded by ted, openly trampled on all treaties and all the reward of their compliance, probarights; three months after the signing of bly forced to obey commands which admitthe treaty with Prussia, all its articles were ted of no opposition, or, if surprised into violated.

consent, sufficiently punished by their acquiThe treaty had for its basis the status sitions, and by being reduced to a state of quo of the nioment in which it was con- vassalage as harsh and degrading as their cluded ; also the guarantee of the German former relations were honourable, they de. empire and its states, according to the con- serve not to be treated by Germany with stitution then established. This truth a. the utmost rigour. Perhaps, when the rises not only from the nature of things, magnanimous nation, to which they forthe treaty had also expressly prescribed to merly belonged, arises round them on ethe two powers their duties. The rela- very side to contend for their independence, tions in which the peace of Presburgh had they may listen to the voice of gratitude Jeft his Majesty the Emperor of Austria and honour, and at last abhor their chains were guaranteed to him, consequently also when they find they must be stained by the Imperial Crown of Germany and the the blood of their brethren. rights connected with it. The existence of It was not enough that these despotic Bavaria, and consequently the relations acts were immediately injurious to Prussia. which had connected it for so many centu- The Emperor of France was intent on ren. Tips to the empire, were likewise confirmed dering them sensible to the person of the by the same common guarantee. Three King in all his allied states. The existence


of the Prince of Orange was under the per sense of the term, and not French procommon guarantee of the two powers, for vinces; but it cost the Cabinet of St Cloud the King had acknowledged the political only a word to deprive them of their indechanges in Holland only under this condi. pendence. The appellation the Great Emtion for several years. This Prince had pire was invented, and that empire was expected that his claims, secured by the sti- immediately surrounded with vassals. pulations of Prussia and France, should be Thus the e was no trace of the treaty satisfied. The Batavian Republic had been left; yet Prussia proceeded to shut her willing to enter into an accommodation, but ports against England, and still considered the Emperor Napoleon forbade it. Nei- herself as having obligations to fulfil. ther the recollection of this circumstance, The Emperor at length informed his nor the consideration of the ties of blood Majesty, that it was his pleasure to diswhich united his Majesty to the Prince, solve the German Empire, and form a Connor the declaration, twenty times repeated, federation of the Rhine; and he recommendthat the King could not desert the rights ed to the King to establish a similar Conof his brother-in-law, could prevent his be- federation in the North of Germany. This ing added to the heap of victims. He was was according to his customary policy; a the first who was deprived of his paternal policy which had long been crowned with property. Eight days before he had recei

success, at the moment of the birth of any ved from the Emperor a letter condoling new project, to throw out a lure to those with him, in the customary forms, on the Courts which might occasion difficulties in death of his father, and wishing him joy on the execution of such a project. The King his undisturbed succession to the states of adopted the idea of such a confederation; his house. None of these circumstancas not that the advice he received made the are unimportant; each throws a light on least impression on him, but hecause, in fact, the whole.

it was rendered necessary by circumstances; Cleves had been allotted to Prince Mu. and because, after the accession of the rat.--Scarcely become a Sovereign, he wish- Princes who had acceded to the Confedered likewise to be a conqueror. His troops ation of the Rhine, a close union between took possession of the Abbeys of Essen, those of the north became more than ever Werden, and Elten, under the pretext that the condition of their safety. The King they appertained to the duchy of Cleves, took measures to establish this league, but though they were entirely territories new- on other principles than those of the moly acquired, and there was not the shadow del presented to him. He made it his pride of a connection between them and the ce- to collect the last of the Germans under his ded provinces. Great labour was employed

but the rights of each he left unin vain to give even a colour to this out- impaired, and honour alone was the bond rage. Wesel was to belong to the new of the league, Duke, not to the Emperor Napoleon-- But could France advise the King to any the King had never resolved to give up the measures which should be productive of adlast fortress on the Rhine into the power of vantage to Prussia ? We shall soon see France. Without a word by way of ex- what is to be expected, when France makes planation, Wesel was annexed to a French professions of favour. department.

In the first place, care had been taken to The existing state of the Austrian Mon- introduce into the fundamental statute of archy, and of the Porte, had been mutually the confederation of the Rhine an article guaranteed. The Emperor Napoleon cer- which contained the germ of all future intainly wished that Prussia should be bound novations. It provided, that other Princes by this guarantee, for in his hands it was should be received into this Confederation, an instrument which he might employ as should they desire it. In this manner all suited his policies; a pretence for demand relations in Germany were left indetermiing sacrifices in any contest which his ain- nate; and as the means were still reserved bition might occasion. He himself, how- to detach and annex to this league the weaever, did not observe it longer than it con. ker states, either by promises or threats, it tributed to his interests. Ragusa, though was but too probable that in time this Conunder the protection of the Porte, was ta- federation would be extended into the heart ken possession of by his croops. Gradisca of the Prussian Monarchy. And that this and Aquileia were wrested from Austria, might no longer remain doubtful, but be under nearly the same pretexts which had manifest to every one, the first attempt was been employed when the French seized the immediately made. Fortunately, it was three Abbeys.

made on a Prince, who knows not fear, and In all political proceedings it was natu- considers independence as the highest obrally taken for granted that the new states, ject of his ambition. formed by France, were states, in the pro. The French Minister at Cassel invited the



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