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diately on this his fileet, besides the last, dissentions at home, and war. fortresses on the isles in the æstuary with the French abroad, engaged the of the Forth, seized this of Brough whole attention of the English. Pro. ty, and filled it with an English visións, arms, and ammunition, ceasforce.

ed to be regularly sent to their gar. As the Duke of Somerset depart. risons in Broughty, and the fort of ed with his army by the cast of Scot Balgillo ; and thus, on Febyrary 20. land, the Earl of Lennox, who had 1550, they fell an easy prey into the received a disgust in the court of that hands of the allied army of Scots, kingdom, and had been honoured Germans, and French, commanded with the alliance of Henry VIIl. en. by Des Thermes, the successor of tered by the west, His presence D'Esse. Both fortresses were then •spread terror and dismay, and none dismantled; and though they have met him but to do bim bomage. The been more than once repaired and heart of Arran, the regent, which fortified, yet history describes them was never intrepid, now shrunk with. as the scene of no action which me. in him. To conceal his fear, how- ' rits record. At present, there are ever, he collected the scattered re only a few vestiges of fortification mains of his enfeebled host, and from to be seen on the hill of Balgillo ; the western parts of Scotland, where and Broughty castle is fast wasting he had taken refuge after the unfor. down to ruin. tunate action at Musselburgh, march

In the following number of our ed by Perth and Dundee to blockade Magazine we will give oyr readers a the castle of Broughty. After hav. very minute and curious account of ing lain before it from the 1st of the two attacks made on Broughty October 1547 to the 1st of January Castle, by the Earl of Argyle and 1548, he departed from the siege Mons. de Dessé, extracted from a with the loss of one of his best gene- very rare work, Beague's account of rals, and with that of all his ordnance, the Campaigns 1548 and 1549, orilamenting his doom to perpetual ginally published at Paris in 1556, misfortune. Inspirited with this suc. and afterwards translated and repub. cess, the English fortified the hill of lished at Edinburgh in 1706 by Balgillo, about half a mile northward, Abercromby, author of the martial and, notwithstanding the active exer- atchievements of the Scots nation ;lions of James Haliburton, provost a fact, by the way, not generally of Dundce, with a hundred horse, known, as his name does not appear and of Sir Robert Mayle, in his cas in the translation. tle of Panmure, about six miles north-eastward, and about half a mile cast from the present beautiful seat Memoirs of Mr FRANCIS Masson, the of that family, in the parish of Pan

celebrated BOTANIST. bride, laid waste Dundee, and most of the county of Angus. With rage HIS gentleman died in Ame, the Earl of Argyll heard the report. He collected his valiant clans, and, in about seventy. He was a native of dignant, marched to Broughty, but Aberdeenshire, and although sprung felt ihe, mortification of repulse - from an humble stock, and rather Not long after, a similar fate await- of a limited education, raised himself ed three regiments of the French, to mueh honour and celebrity in the commanded by D’Esse, and as many annals of botany. In the early part regiments of Germans, commanded of his life he left his home, and went by one of their own princes. “Al 10 England to follow the employment

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of a gardener ; this profession na- veral months were 10 penetrate into
turaliy led him to the study of bo- the country together, put up with
tany, to which he applied with great whatever we should find, whether
assiduity and success. That, however, good or bad, and frequently seclude
was not his only pursuit in natural ourselves from almost all the rest of
history, for in all the branches of the world and of the human race."
that science he acquired a general, Mr Masson, in a letter to Sir Joha
although not a minute knowledge. - Pringle, then President of the Royal
The fields were the scenes which he Society, has given an account of this
took for, his observations on the eco. and other two journies into the in-
nomy of the animal and vegetable terior of Africa; they are inserted in
kingdoms, in place of books and the the LXVI. vol. of the Philosophical
closet, from whence too many of our Transactions.
modern naturalisis derive and deal About the same time he became
out their studies of nature,

acquainted with Lady Ann Monson, His great curiosity, and unbounded who, although "soinewhat declined desire of viewing the works of God, into the vale of years,” accompanied stimulated him to a love of foreigo her husband to India; not only as a voyages and travels. He visited duty to him, but in order to indulge most, if not all the islands in the Ai- a fondness, which she had contracted lantic, the West Indies, Africa, and for the pursuits of natural liistory. North America, but never mentioned She often attended Mr Masson in his being in the interior of Asia, as his excursions round the Cape. le reported in some of our news papers. compliment to her, or perhaps from He embarked in the same ship with her own discovery, he has named one Captain Cook, when on his voyage of his beautiful heaths, Erica Montowards the south pole, and round soniana.He was in all about thirthe world. Forster and Sparrman, teen years in this country, making both naturalists, proceeded with this the Cape his bead quarters, and from celebrated navigator, but they left thence sending to England, as oppor. Mr Masson at the Cape of Good tunities offered, that fine collection Hope, it being the intention of bis of African plants which now enriches Majesty that he should explore that the gardens of Kew. The most nu. coast, and the interior of Africa, for merous, and perhaps the most conthe discovery of unknown plante. spicuous, are his Stapelia and Erice.

After he had made his first jour. These he published in two folio vols. ney, we find him, on the 11th of of elegant coloured plates. After Sept. 1773, prepared for another, his return home from Africa, he was and joined by the indefatigable Pro- solicited by the King to undertake fessor Thunberg, who in the 20 vol. a voyage to N. America, on purpose of his travels thus mentions their to make botanical researches on the outset : " At this time I met with other side of the Allegany or ApaMr Masson ; he, was well equipped lachian mountains, a field little known, with a large and strong waggon, tilt and scarcely ever before trod by the ed with sail.cloth, which was driven foot of a botanist. With some re. by an European servant, upon whom luctance he consented, well knowing he could depend. We had each of how hard the extremes of the heat us a sadule horse, and for our wag: and cold of that climate would gon we had several pair of oxen. bear, upon his age, evca although

* “ Thus we formed a society, con possessed of an uncommonly vigosisting of three Europeans and four rous constitution. Unluckily in his Hottentots, who for the space of se- passage he was taken by a French

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ship of war. They treated him very National Debt, the Land Tax, and harshly ; however, he was so far for Imperial Loan, to the 1st Nov. 1806. tunate as to remain with them only Redeemed by annual milfor a few days. A New-England schooner heaving in sight, they put Ditto by L.1 per cent.

lion, &c.

L. 61,668,168 him on board of her, throwing after

per annum on Loans, 52,156,420 him his trunks, which contained his

Ditto by Land Tax, . : 22,645,280 hooks, clothes, &c. He arrived soon

Ditto by Ll per cent. after at New York, where he was hospi.

per annum on Imperial tably received by his countrymen and


719,016 all the lovers of science. There he continued for many months, occa

Total, L.137,188,884 sionally making excursions into the Jersies and Pennsylvania, for the pur, pose of botanizing ; he there found The Sum to be expended in the ensu. many plants formerly unnoticed by

ing quarter is L.2,267,171..0..7 either Kalm or Clayton ; of these he sént home several dried specimens to Sir Joseph Banks. The writer of this memoir has to

CELESTIAL PHENOMENA for January mention, that there has been a chasm

1807. in his correspondence with Mr Masson since the spring of 1799; he was

Thursday, January 1st. then at Montreal, preparing to join T.

'HE planer VENUS is at present the N. W. traders on their journey situated in longitude 98.. 11°.-5, through the interior parts of Americ and latitude 40 minutes South. She

If his manuscripts are preserved comes to the meridian almost at the from that period to the time of his same time as the Sun. last illaess, they must be a most va. Juable acquisition to natural history. Wednesday, January 7th.

Mr Masson was of an athletic form, The longitude of JUPITER is at somewhat above the middle size, of present 98..19°..9, and his latitude an open, mild, and engaging counte- 13 minutes South. nance; his manners were plain, gentle, modest, and unas

assuming : he was a Saturday, January 10th. safe and an agrecable companion, and The planet MERCURY will arrive a most steady and affectionate friend. at his greatest elongation from the It is much to be regretted that no Sun. He comes to the meridian a. proper provision was made for this bout 15 minutes after 10 o'clock in worthy man, that he might have en. the morning, and may therefore be joyed, ere he had "shufled off this seen in the morning before sun-rise. mortal coil," that ease and comfort His declination is at that time 21°.. to which his years, bis toils, and his 49' South, and consequently his merits, were so well entitled.

amplitude will be nearly the same as
that of the Sun.

Sunday, January 11th.

The planet JUPITER will be in

conjunction with the Sun, at 3 miTH 'HE following account shows nutes after one o'clock in the morn. what has been redeemed of the ing.




Tuesday, January 13th. of a factitious minium, a vivid red SATURN is situated in 75..9°..23', with a cast of yellow. When gently of longitude, and 2°..23' of North la- heated with the blow-pipe, it assumes titude. His declination is 12°.. 22' a darker colour, but on cooling reSouth, and he souths about 45 minutes sumes its original red. With a strongafter 6 o'clock in the morning. er heat it melts to litharge. On the

Sunday, January 18th. charcoal it is reduced to lead. Me About 18 minutes after 6 o'clock Smithson conjectures that this na. in the evening the Moon will be in tive minium is produced by the deconjunction with à Arietis, and will cay of agalina, which he supposes to very nearly eclipse. As the Moon be itself a secondary production from is only in the beginning of her second the metallization of white carbonate quarter, this conjunction will be ea. of lead by hepatic gas. sily seen with a common telescope. It appears from Mr Davy's experi

Tuesday, January 20th. ments on the chemical effects of elec. The Sun will enter the sign A- tricity, that electricity does not generquarius at 18 minutes after 9 o'clock ate fixed alkali, as supposed by Pacin the evening, and his longitude will chiani, but only evolves it. be exactly 10 signs.

A new portable blowpipe for cheWednesday, Jamuary 21st. mical experiments has been invented The GEORDIUM SIDUS will be in by Dr W. H. WOLLASTON. A de. quadrature with the Sun, at 27 mi- scription and drawing of it may be autes after 3 o'clock in the morning. seen in Nicholson's Journal, No. 63, His longitude will then be 78..0°.. 16', p. 284. and his latitude 33 minutes North. The action of bodies upon light His declination is 110..3' South, and has been very successfully employed he comes to the meridian about 30 by M. Biot, for analysing transpaminutes after 5 o'clock in the morn. rent substances, and particularly gasing.

If two substances of known reFriday, January 23d. fraction and proportions be mixed, The planet MERCURY will be sta- and regard be had to the density of tionary in longitude 98..110.10. the mixture, total refraction may be

Friday, January 30th. calculated ; and, on the contrary, The planet SATURN will be in when the refraction of a mixture of quadrature with the Sun, at 47 mi. which the elements are known, is asnutes after 9 o'clock in the evening. certained, their proportion may also

be had. M. Biot found that


refracts the least, and hydrogex the Memcirs of the Progress of Manu: most, at equal densities ; and that at

FACTURES, CHEMISTRY, SCIENCE, mospheric air gave exactly by expea and the FINE ARTS.

riment, the refraction, which, accord

ing to calculation, ought to be proNATI

ATIVE minium has lately been duced by a mixture of 210 parts of

discovered by JAMES SMITHSON, oxygen with 787 of azote, and 31 of Esq. It is disseminated in small carbonic acid. quantity in the substance of a com- A planetary epocha, discovered by pact

carbonate of zinc.. Its appear- a German 50 years ago, has lately ance in general is that of a matter in been made public. In the space of a pulverated state ; but in places it 280,000 years, the six planets reshews to a lens a flaky and chrystal. tuin to the same point of the hea, line texture. Its colour is like that

The number of revolutions


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found by the German Astronomer, But that the cianabar from Neu. for each of the planets have been re- maerkeel, in Carniola, consists of duced into seconds by La Lande, and Mercury - 85.00 are as follow :


14.25 No. of Rev. No. of Seconds, Mercury, 1162577 8836135098921

99.25 Venus, 455122 8895595689448

Professor PLOUST has discovered Earth, 280000 8835940680000 that the nitrate of soda is an econoMars, 148878 8835946519500 mical article for fire. works, in the Jupiter, 23616 8835946544448 following propertions : fine parts of Saturn, 9516 8835946558608 the nitrate, one of charcoal, and one

These numbers differ so little from of sulphur, afford a powder which cach other, that the deviation from

gives a flame of a reddish yellow, of the same precise number of seconds considerable beauty; and the mix. in cach sum of revolutions, is not ture, burned in a metallic tube, will greater than the uncertainty in last three times as long as the same the known duration of these revolu.

charge of common powder. tions.

The same chemist has examined A curious piece of sculpture has the birds' nests of the East, and finds been found in the suburb of Roule. them to consist merely of a single car. It is a head sculptured upon a piece tilage, uniform in its texture. He of fint, of the same kind as that of boiled one in water, which became which

gun flints are made, and is a. soft, but was not separated in its bout 3 inches and 4 lines from the

parts, and lost only four hundredths extremity of the chin, to the summit of its weight. of the cranium. Its head-dress re- Messrs VAUQUELIN aad ROBIsembles that which was worn by the QUET, have discovered a new vegeta. Greeks and Romans. The fint of ble principle in Asparagus, which is which it is formed has been covered, chrystallizable like the salts ; but wherever it was not broken or rubbed, is neither acid nor neutral, and of with a coating of fine white, of a which the solution in water is not af. thickness scarcely perceptible. This fected by any of the re-agents usual. coating was attached by none of the ly employed to ascertain the presence acids, and it united the harshness of and nature of the salts dissolved in chaldedony, the vitreous consistence

water. They have also discovered of an enamel sufficiently translucid to another principle, which seems to readmit of the different grey or blue semble manna. shades of the flint being seen thro? NI, LEBRUN has invented a method it,

of coating, the inside of trumpets Professor KLAPROTH has taken with a lac, which unites to smooth. great pains to investigate the com. ness tenuity, without any injury to ponent parts of native cinnabar; and the sound of the instrument. By he finds, as results of his experiments, this means he prevents the deleterious that Japan cinnabar, exclusive of its consequences arising from the oxides foreign parts, cuntains

of copper being collected in the inMercury 84.50

sides of trumpets, and thus inhaled Sulphur 14.75

into the lungs.



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