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Last advice of CHARLES I. to his Son ments and consciences with the King's
arguments and reasonings, that there
no other way but a personal (This interesting M.S. was found in remov
ving some fumily papers in the Register treaty, to restore his Majesty and
But Cromwell broke all, and when
he and others of his black gang, by
many dark and various ways had ft. IT being my greatest honour and ted their hortid designs to a time fix
happines to have served your roy, ed upon, to introduce their matchall father of blessed memory, from less crueltie and murder, which nei. his comeing to York in 42, to the ther men nor books can equall or end of the warr, as a souldier and paralell; then all, (some very few servant to his Majesty, and being at excepted) of the King's servants and London when his Majesty was trait. friends was put from the court, aerously and treacherously carried from mongst whom, may it please your MaHolmeby to Newmarket, the Duke jesty, I was one, who unfortunately of Richmond sent me to the King
was to take my last leave of his Mawith letters pertinent to his Majesty's jesty my most gracious soveraine and affairs at that time, from which time, master, who was then pleased to think until his Majesty was forced from
me worthy of his favor, and to give Hampton court, he commanded my
me in charge that which I now must stay, and gave me many imployments humbly present to your Majesty, as in his publick affairs, as they then
neere as I can, in the King's very stood perplext with the proposals of woords: the army and propositions of the “ Sir, You see and know how I am, howses; to reconcile which, the King and have been tormented betwixt the in his great wisdom found a personal proposals of the Army, and the treaty to be not only the best, but Presbeterian propositions. The first sole expedient, and to promote that I am more inclined to, as being in was the cheife imployment his Ma- the armies power; and the proposals jesty gave me for many weeks, direct, in some things ia agreeing better ing me both as to persons * and with my principles, but they change things as his affairs required.
with success, will not keep their But Cromwell, that source of ma.
woords, and are like sand, of which I lice and mischiefe, crost all his Ma
can take no holde. jesty's wise councils and intentions
“ For the other, they propose tome, of good to his people, and by his disi- but on such hard teermes as neither milations and counterfeit pietie, with
my conscience as a Christian King, his quack of weepeing, frustrated all nor my judgement as a reasonable the fair hopes his Majesty had of man, and their lawfull souveraigne, treaty, notwithstanding the heads of can condiscend, or ought to be prest the congregations and many others to; yet these, though they would of note (and at that time in power) leave me only a title, reserving the concurred with his Majesty to that power, give me election to conclude or end, as being satisfied in theire judge- not, and it is something to deal with
principled men (though bad) because * Major Huntington, Capeain Mid:
one knowes what to refuse. Leton, both living.
" Therefore from these and many o. Dec. 1806,
ther observations which my experience right be a thing in itself true, yet, in hath made in government, I charge practice, it is only power that makes you to tell my sonn what I shall com. it so. Desire him to remember that." mand you, who is after me your law. And when I was about to kneel to full king, and I hope will enjoy his kiss his Majesty's hand, the King crown in God's good time; for what staid me and said: may become of me I know not, having “Pray you Sir be satisfied you leave no confidence in those subjects, not- me resolved not to be persuaded or withstanding all their glossings to in. forced to do any thing against the tend well to that King they put upon rights of the church, or the crowne, such extreams, as the Turk did the or to do any thing to the prejudish Christian, when he bid him renounce of my friends; and yet I shall (with his religion.
that care) goe very lowe for peace “Sir, if things go on to the woorst, and the good of my people”. And I trust you and command you to tell after I had kissed his Majesty's hand my sonn, it is my advice to him, and taken my leave, he called me to tbat in matters of religion he doe him and said: nothing against his conscience, or 6 I must say something to you as the church well settled, nor gratify to the Covenant, which I would have any faction or party by adheering as my friends to know, many having head to any one side; for by a seeming sent to me of late for my pleasure apolicy to gain some, he will in truth bout it; I could wish (the King said) loose more ; but if affairs of that sort every man would follow my example. run up to a height, bid him from me But I shall not direct in these hard order things to go, in point of power, times, when bread and scruples of that he force what he cannot per conscience justle one another. I suade, and never to trust those men, shall think very well of those that that, under pretence of religion, take it not, and I shall not take it ill stawke into a war against lawful of those that are necessitated to take authoritie.
it." “ In matters of state (tell my sonn) it holds alsoe ; for when his judgement (as King) is convinced what is on the Changes which time has effected right, and soe best, desire him from
on the Face of the Country, in the me not to be drawn from it ; and tho'
West HIGHLANDS of SCOTLAND. many reasons may, and I doubt not will be given him, not to rest upon
(Continued from. p. 743.) his own single judgement, his being SIMILAR phenomena may be a King making him incapable to
at know truth in some things, but by the Lochs Fyne, Craignish, Feachan, other mens eyes and eares; yet those Moidart, Carron, Nakeal, and almost reasons signify no more than this, all those on the coast, and at the mouth that he be the more carefull how he of Loch Etive, where an extensive flat grounds his judgement and who he of Moss has been formed by the spoils believes. Therefore I confine my of the mountains brought down by advice to him, that he govern first the rivers, and collected by the tides, justly, then resolutely, it having bin until the sea receded, and left it upno small occation of these our missiries covered. On the North of this bay that some men plaid their games at a considerable bank of saad, which my hazard, which I would have bin constituted the old shore, is very visiaware of.,
ble. It rises by a gradual declivity Then his Majesty added : " Tho' from the present shore, and is now
under tillage, and covered with houses, sides, it is known, that artificial misproving that formerly this bay was tures with the assistance of heat, cati joined to Loch - Creran, and that be made to resemble volcanic appear. Ardmuknage was an island.
ances in every respect. If Mr PenOn this ground rises a hill about nant believed this hill to be the effect eighty feet high, at one period in. of volcano from its being close to sulated, on the summit of which, in an extensive ride of mountains whol. former ages, stood the fortress of ly composed of pudding-stone ; he Berigonium, fancifully supposed to he was equally in an error, the texhave been in those days the principal ture of this aggregate rock being city of Scotland: It might then collection of shore or river slones, of have been a royal residence, as there various sizes, made round and ellipare accounts of one of the early Scot. tical by the action of water, and ad. tish monarchs having taken refuge in hering together by means of sand, it, and being besieged. The site of andthe pulverulent remains of mineral it may yet be discovered, as part of substances, which filling up the inthe walls are still extant : and it terstices, form, by the addition of may not be improper here to refute oxide of iron, a hard cement, equal. the opinion of the late Mr Pennant, ly solid with the flints it envelopes. respecting this antique, in his ascri. Advancing northward by the road bing it to volcanic origin. The hill which proceeds along the windings upon which this fortress was erected of the shore, the naturalist will freis one sulid mass of common and quently be gratified by a diversity of shistose granite, with a mixture of scenery which will croud upon his trap, and the remains of the walls eye, and if he be a Painter also, there prove it to have been one of those are some exquisite views to be caught vitrified forts, of which few vestiges on the road hence towards Lochaber, are now to be found. I am pos. and in this range there are likewise sessed of several specimens of the observable some permanent signs of composition of the walls, which the ancient extent of the sea. plainly shew they were of this kind, On the shore below what was once and that the fuel used in this process the seat of the powerful but unfortuof vitrification was wood, as the im- nate chief of the clan, Stewart of pression the glassy parts received Appin, is a granite of a prodigious from the charcoal by cooling in con. size, placed upon a shelving rock in tact with it, are quite distinct and a manner not to be accounted for, conclusive. The rock known by the by a small protuberant part resting name of Granite is supposed to be of upon four small stones that supprimary arrangement, and coeval with port it at the height of nine inches, the formation of the globe, of course The figure of this stone is nodulous, this hill cannot be of volcanic origin, and its circumference every way, veeven supposing it to have been thrown ry considerable. Its texture is differup above the surface into its present ent from other granites lying close to irregular shape by subterraneous fire, it, and it is surrounded by the sea at and it bears no marks of having had a high water. crater : And though the component The entrance to the vale of Glenparts of the vitrified walls upon its coe from the West is marked by the top have the appearance of the differ- sea in the same manner as the more ent species of lava and pumice, yet southern parts of the coast, and shews the impression of the charcoal suffi. that at one period it run a consider: ciently proves the principle upon able way into it. wbich such fabrics were reared : be- The wild sublimity of this Glen,
the imaginary birth-place of the fic- continual agitation. Ta this may be titious Celtic bard, is rendered inter. added the remains of marine vegeta, esting from the infamous and per. bles which grew and decayed upon fidious massacre to which its simple these rocks, and which being decom: possessors were subjected in 1692 by posed by intimate collision with this order of King William.
calcareous powder, became the soil. The gloom which constantly reigns There are several considerable banks over these valleys, and the dark fea. of entire shells upon the island, protures of the surrounding mountains, bably collected by the tides, which in accord with the melancholy sensations these seas are very rapid, produced by the recollection of a cir- The surface of this island is cocumstance so disgraceful to the an- yered with a fine s vard, and feeds a nals of these kingdoms, and seem to large herd of cattle; but a curious point out this place as a fit situation appearance which takes place in the for the perpetration of a deed so fields about the end of Winter and be, shocking to humanity.
ginning of Spring is perhaps not ea. The island of Oronsay, one of the sily accounted for. At this season Hebrides, seems to have undergone a when vegetation is at a stand, a num. more remarkable change than perhaps ber of circles become visible upon the any part of the mainland, and an ex- grass, and the leaves which form amination of it shews, in a satisfacto. them, rapidly get the lively green of ry manner, the singular means by an advanced crop, while the surroundwhich new land hath been produced, ing pile is still bleak and torpid.where originally there was none ; These circleş or rings are of various while at the same time it establishes diameters, from two to fifteen feet, that the sea on the west coast of and mathematically accurate. SeveScotland has fallen greatly below ral segments of them are sometimes its former level.
joined, and the line of circumference When the sea was, of its original of all of them is nearly alike from boundary, the principal part of this twelve to fifteen inches broad. island was under water, and it is The ground where these are seen probable that it was then onlyan exten- has frequently been turned up with sive range of sunk rocks, feeding my- the plough, but when again laid riads of shell animals, and sea plants. down to grass, the same circles apBy the excessive force of the tem peared. They are sometimes interpestuous sea to which it is exposed rupted by different eminences, such from its situation in the western as old turf dikes, or the like; but cean, the surrounding sand and fos. the circle continues across, and forms sils, which were broken and powdered regularly on both sides. by its action against the rocks, as The island of Tyree is in many. they emerged above the surface of the respects similar to that of Oronsay, water, were driven by the winds and and seems to have owed its origin to waves upon the rocks so as gradually tậe same cause. and completely to cover them. This In the island of Belnahuay, forty simultaneous process of the elements feet above the high water mark, begoing on regularly as the water reced. sides the large cave from which it is ed, produced the beautiful piece of flat named, there have lately been discoland which now forms the island, the vered proofs equally convincing.soil of which sufficiently justifies this This island is wholly formed of aropinion, being wholly a mixture of gillaceous shistus, a considerable, sand, and shells long driven about by quarry of which has been wrought the waves, and finely powdered by for some time.
Upon removing the mould which extremity, falling into the then great scarcely covers the rock, great quan- bay of Crinan, and carrying with it cities of testaceous shells were found, such quantities of mud as afterwards and many of them still firmly adhered formed that extensive moss, as before to it.
noticed. It is now discharged from In mountainous countries there is the side of the lake, at the distance a natural tendency to collections of of twenty-five miles from the old fresh water, the inequality of the place, into Loch Etive, at the base surface not admitting of the direct of the prodigious mountain of Cruadescent of the streams which occa. chan, from which descend many sionally rush from the heights to streams, rendered impetuous by its the sea, the great reservoir of all. great declivity, and which are no's The water being consequently col tributary to this river. lected in the deep interstices between In tracing the effects of these the mountains, forms those sheets of mountain streams at different periods, water, of every imaginable magnitude, it appears probable that these assist so often useful and ornamental. ed the breaking out of the lake at
This body of water, being gradu. this place, by washing away the ally accumulated, readily finds an ef. earth, during a long course of years, Aux at the lowest part of the sur. from the side of the lake, which be. rounding banks, and rushing from its ing suddenly inundated at some fulconfinement, is precipitated with more ture period, and meeting with little or less celerity, according to the resistance, the water burst forth as it ground over which it passes, and be. now flows, and the channel becoming comes a river, shaping for itself a daily deeper from the rapidity of the bed, which getting deeper by degrees, stream, at last drained off such a is frequently fixed as its unalterable quantity of the water as obliterated course.
the ancient passage, and left a great From such causes, all the lochs space of the banks dry. The same that are scattered over this country changes, from the same cause, have al. must have had their origin ; but so happened to two considerable lakes their borders have undergone changes in this vicinity, those of Avich and not less advantageous than the sea Scamadil, shore, from the deepening of the The fresh water lake of Lochchannels of rivers issuing from them nell, now about two miles distant allowing the water to escape and leave from the sea, appears at one time to the banks.
have been an arm of it. A circum. On the borders of Loch Awe, one stance perfectly satisfactory from of the largest lakes in Scotland, the the appearance of the intermediate beautiful and romantic scenery of ground. which must have fascinated every That this country has been sub. traveller of taste, changes of the same jected to violent volcanic concussions nature have taken place, new land in the earlier periods of time, there being gained in like manner as upon can be no doubt, as the arrangeinent the sea coast, by the conjoint effects of the mountains, and the irregularity of several considerable rivers which of the various strata which compose supply it, and the diminution of its them, shew that they are not of pri. water.
mary formation, so that its origin In former ages, when the water of may, with much probability, be as. this lake extended many feet higher cribed to subterraneous fire, which so upon the banks than at present, it es- convulsed the primitive structure as caped by an outlet at the south-west to produce the confused mixture of