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Auriga, Cepheus and Ursa ; Perseus the present moment, be altogether and Draco.

uninteresting We mentioned in a former memoir Mi Pitt was born the 28th of May the discovery of Pachioni respecting 1759. Perhaps no man ever entered the composition of muriatic acid. the career of politics with so many

A number of experiments on this advantages both of nature and forsubject were made at the Galvanic tune. His father, the most illustri. Society of Paris by M RIFFANT, ous statesman whom Britain had ever from which it would appear thai known, early discerned his talents, Italian philosopher has committed and spared no pains in cultivating some mistakes in his investigations. them. We may form an idea of the

It appears from Caulomb's experi- ardour with which he applied him. ments on magnetism, that at 200 de. self, when a child, to those objects grees of heat two fifths of it are de. which were to occupy his manhood, stroyed, and the whole magnetism is from the order of Lord Chatham not destroyed at 700 degrees of heat. to take William to the House of

Humboldt' has found, that the Lords, because if he heard any opishock of the torpedo is different from nion differing from his own, he would that of electricity. Its power is su. infallibly rise up and oppose it. perior to electricity, but inferior to "Mr Pitt, after the usual course of ihat of the gymnotes. A shock can study in the University of Camonly be obtained by irritating the a- bridge, was entered a student of Linnimal. Its electricity is not conduce coln's Inn, and made so rapid a proted by metals, fiame, or probably any gress in his legal studies, as to be other substance, and has no influence soon called to the bar with every on the electrometer.

prospect of success. We understand A new method of purifying oil, that he once or twice went upon the by M. CURADEAU may be seen in Western Circuit, and appeared as Nicholson's Journal, No. 51. p. 150. junior council in several causes. But Murrayfield, 2

he was destined to fill a more import

D. B. Feb. 25th 1806. S

ant station in the government of his country, than is usually obtained through the channel of law.

At the general election, 1780, he Vienu View of the Administration and Cha

was nominated by some of the most

respectable persons in Cambridge as racter of Mr Pitt.

a candidate to represent that Uni.

versity; but notwithstanding the THE 'HE life of this distinguished high character he had obtained

statesman affords almost as few there, he found very few to second materials for what can properly be his pretensions. In the following called Brography, as that of the most year, however, he was returned for obscure individual. No part of his the borough of Appleby, by the in- , life can be said to be private ; from terest of Sir J. Lowther. On takiog the first maturity of his powershis seat in the House of Commons, all his time and exertions were de- he enlisted himself on the side of the voted exclusively to the service of party which had constantly opposed the public. Although however there ihe Minister, Lord North, and the A. be little room for a memoir of Mr merican war, and which regarded him Pitt, yet a short view of the charac. with a degree of veneration ; recogter which he maintained during so nizing in his person the genius of his long an administration, cannot, at illustrious father revived and acting



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as it were, in him. His first speech were disposed to exclaim that "the was in favour of Mr Burke's bill; Sun of Great Britain was set for and one of the first acts in which he r!" Her debts were immense, her took the lead in the House, was that finances exhausted, her commerce which related to a reform in the was reduced to a low ebb, and after representation.

a long and ruinous war, a great EmOn the death of the Marquis of pire, the fruit of former victories, Rockingham, the old Whig party had been wrested from her hands. fell into a state of disunion, nearly Mr Pitt soon shewed himself emibordering upon dissolution. A new nently possessed of those talents arrangement took place soon after, which were requisite in order to raise and Lord Shelburne became the first his country from this depressed situaLord of the Treasury, assisied by Mr tion. An attention to commerce, Pitt, who astonished the country, and which has raised Great Britain to indeed, all Europe, by the pheno- such a high rank among the nations, menon of a Chancellor of the Exche. has peculiarly distinguished his ad. quer at the age of twenty-three. ministration. The oldest and most

His popularity at this period ef- experienced merchants have been asfectually screened him from every tonished at his readiness in convercharge which his youth and inexpe. sing with them upon subjects of rience might justly have warranted, which they thought themselves exand which were sirongly urged a- clusively masters.

Many who have gainst him by the adverse faction. waited upon him in full confidence The American war had become gene- that they should communicate some Tally odious; and all hearts panted new and important information, have, for a cessation of hostilities. This to their great surprize, found him desirable object was, therefore, the minutely and intimately acquainted first consideration with the new Mi- with all those points to which they nistry.

.conceived he was

a stranger. By The combined powers having re- the close attention which he uniformcently experienced great humiliations, ly paid to the mercantile interests, afforded an opportunity which was he also secured to himself an exclunot to be lost.

A general peace ac- sive basis of support, which enabled eordingly took place ; the terms of him not only to resist a most vigowhich however were a rous opposition, but to carry into considerable part of the nation. On effect financial measures until his time this occasion, Mr Pitt delivered a deemed impracticable. He was parmost masterly defence of himself and ticularly acquainted with figures. his colleagues, which failed however Before he came into office, the pubof producing the desired efect. The , lic accounts were involved in obscu, administration, of which he was one rity, but he instituted such a plain of the most distinguished members, was and simple method of stating them, therefore, short lived. On its dissolu- that every person could at the first ition, the young statesman withdrew glance comprehend them. into retirement, and afterwards went An inflexible constancy of purabroad for some time, visiting Italy, pose, equally proof against casual and several of the German Courts. failure, and the most unsurmountable

Soon after, at the age of 25, he difficulties ; a love of his country, triumphed over the efforts of the co- and of the British constitution ; an alition, and was called to the head of erectness of principle, and a pride affairs, during a period of extreme originating in, and supported by difficulty and depression, when many conscious integrity : these were his Feb. 1806.


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chief characteristics as a Minister. racter, were followed with the most --At the period of his coming to of. complete success.

In a few years fice, the most pressing and alarming after this calamitous war, Britain circumstance was the immense load not only repaired her losses, but ros of public debt, which had accumula- to a degree of prosperity which e. ied without any effectual means pro. clipsed that of any former period. vided for its redemption. llere, his And, not withstanding the enormous most determined political opponents expences of the last war, its com. have proclaimed his merits, both in merce and wealth continued yearly the adoption of a well-devised plan increasing. Of this the wonderful for its gradual extinction, and in the extent to which inland navigation steadiness with which he adhered to was carried during that period, is at it under the most pressing exigen- once a proof, and a sure ground to cies.

expect its future continuance. Mr Pitt had studied deeply the In a subsequent period of his ad. science of political economy, and ministration, Mr Pitt was placed in had decidedly adopted those liberal a situation of peculiar difficulty, by and enlightened principles which had that violent tendency towards incobeen recently unfolded upon that vation which was produced by the important subject. The fruit of example of a neighbouring country. these views soon appeared in his com- The firmness, energy, and decision mercial treaty with France, by which of his character, was on this occathe illiberal and pernicions restric- sion of inestimable value ; and was tions, which had long encumbered perhaps indispensably necessary for the trade between the two rival na. the preservation of our best intertions, were almost entirely removed. ests. Internal commotions require In an admirable speech upon this strong exertions of authority; and occasion, Mr Pitt reprobated the Mr Pitt has been accused of carrying idea that any two nations could be these to a length which endangered natural enemies. There ought, on the British constitution. Now, howe. no account, to be any jealousy be- ver, that the storm has passed, and tween them; each gained by the vi- that the government ailuded to has cinity of the other, which afforded ceased to contain any thing contaa ready market for the productions gious, we find that our liberties have of its industry. To the honour of survived unimpaired; nor has any the country it may be observed, that House of Commons more strongly this measure was received with uni. asserted its independence, than that versal approbation. Soon after, a which is now sitting. treaty of commerce with Ireland, As a prace minister, Mr Pitt njust founded on similar principles, was wė think be allowed to rank higher proposed, and carried in the British than his illustrious father ; but in his parliament; but was unaccountably warlike operations we do not altoge. rejected by that of Ireland, though ther discover the same energy, prompchiefly calculated for the benefit of titude, and ample provision of the that country. The Union, which has means of success, which, with the been lately effected, will embrace all latter, secured the prosperous issue the advantages of this measure, be. of every measure which was undersides others peculiar to itself. taken under his auspices. As a war

The exertions of Mr Pitt, joined minister, Lord Chatham seems still in the auspicious influence of the unrivalled. It was under Mr Pitt, British constitution and national cha- however, that the British Navy rose


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to a piteh of glory hitherto unparal- of Europe. To rouse the powers of leled, to which the wise and steady the Continent to an effectual resissystem of patronage adopted during tance against French aggressions, had his administration

essentially contri. long been his favourite object, not buted.

only with the view of securing the Perhaps the greatest defect in Mr safety of this country, but as he himPitt's character, was in his calcula. self expressed it, from a regard to the tion of future events, of which he happiness of mankind, because he was always disposed to form too san. thought it might afford, to the naguine an estimate. This has appear- tions who were suffering under ed on many occasions ; and particu. French tyranny, an opportunity of larly at the conclusion of the war be- throwing off the yoke. At length, tween Austria and France in 1800. after many difficulties, he succeeded At that period, Mr Pitt continued in organizing a confederacy, to which to urge the Emperor to a renewal of the nation in general looked with a the war, and expressed high expecta- considerable degree of hope, and tions of success, after the resources from which his sanguine mind had of that unfortunate monarch, ex- doubtless anticipated every thing that hausted by repeated overthrows, were was brilliant and prosperous. It is obviously unequal to such a contest. needless to say how deeply he must Few indeed will now be disposed to have been affected by those disasters deny that the general principle upon which followed each other with such which he acted in his continental re- an unforeseen and terrible rapidity. lations was founded on the most wise His constitution, weakened by recent and liberal views of policy ; but this intense application, was unable to characteristic disposition rendered him withstand the shock, and after a short not always sufficiently judicious and illness this great man paid the debt temperate in its application.

of nature on Thursday the 23d Jan. Mr Pitt never shewed much incli- 1806. nation to become the patron of The following particulars of his literature, or learned men; but was last moments have been published rather suspected of a hostile disposi. by authority. tion towards them.

"Upon being informed by the

Bishop of Lincoln of his precarious Few friends are found for poetry and 'state, Mr Pitt expressed himself per

wit From Nortb, well natured, to Imperial with the utmost composure asked

fectly resigned to the divine will, and

Sir Walter Farquhar, who was prePerhaps this may have been partly sent, how long he might expect to owing to the part which was embra. live. He then entered into a conced by many of them during a criti- versation of some length with the cal period of his administration.- Bishop of Lincoln upon religious subYet possibly this hostility of theirs jects. He repeatedly declared, in the may have been in a great degree strongest terms of humility, a sense owing to that neglect which can be of his own unworthiness, and a firm ill brooked by a race so, jealous of reliance upon the mercy of God thro' public attention.

the merits of Christ. After this he There was something peculiarly received the Sacrament, the Bishop melancholy in the closing period of of Lincoln prayed by his bedside for the life of this great man, so soon af. a considerable time, and Mr Pitt ter witnessing the calamitous issue of appeared greatly composed by these the late struggle for the deliverance last duties of religion. Mr Pitt af



terwards proceeded to make some are been expensive in this place, contrary
rangements and requests concerning to my inclination, and no ways suita.
his own private affairs, and declared ble to my present circumstances.
that he died in peace with all mankınd. Now, dear Gip, as to business,
His lase words were, Oh ! my country.I'ne ignorant by prescription, and

The most letiy disinterestedness for. my humour is so peevish, that I abmed a prominent feature in Mr Pitt's horr all politicks at present, so I recharacter. Fleshewedhimselt superior, solve to entertain you with a delicat not only to every thing dishonoura- French Ragout of old charters and ble, but to every thing which could writts belonging to our countrey in have been in the least unsuitable to ancient times, and in this l'me the the dignity of his situation. Mr Fox, more intent, because I love the Land much to the honour of both, has re. of Cakes, and will always reverence peatedly been the first to acknowthe memory of our ancestors. I was ledge this distinguished excellence yesterday for 4 or 5 hours closed in in the character of his political rival. the Scots College in this place, toNever surely was there an example gither with a very learned antiquary of a minister so long in possesion of and keeper of the records and libthe public inoney, who died in debt; rary: understanding that I was remitand it must also be considered, that ted to my study of the law, he prothis debt was not the consequence of duced all their old writts on the table; any tendency to profuse expenditure, and first we read ane old chartour but merely of that devotion to the granted by Robert the second, which public, which left no leisure for the ar. is without doubt a clear solution of rangement of his domestic economy. the debate concerning his marriage :

the writt contains a donation of se.

veralllands nearto Hamiltonjin favours Letter from a Scots Gentleman to a of a chappele founded in memory of friend in EDINBURGH, giving an ac- his beloved spouse Elizabethe More, count of the manuscripts which were dum in humanis ageret; and indeed then in the Scots College at Paris *. the whole stile of the chartour runs

with tbe outmost love and respect Paris, Sept. 23. 1716. N. St. to her memory. This chartour is;

dated very distinctly 1363. One OliDEAR SIR,

fant, Lindsay, and severalls more, inHAVE several times thought sert as witnesses, ten years before he

with much concern about you and was marryed to Eupham Ross; nor do our other good friends, since we I see the least ground of suspicion in pairted, and I assure you that neither this writt, it is writt very clear, all in distance or time shall ever extin- contractions usuall in those days, guish the least valuable pairt of our

but no such affected antiquity as very friendship on my side. I have trou- probably a forgerer would have u. bled you with this, pairtly to put you sed: the sealls are distinct, the first and all the bonest club in David's the Arms of the family of the Stew.. to the expence of a bottle to an old arts, sett in its ordinary way, and no commerads health, and that you may supporters, the inscription Robertus acquaint our friends of my health, rex Scotorum ; the other seall is not and that I go to-morrow for Angiers, so dist met,

but represents

the same to study there this winter, for I have arms in a shield sett angularly, or like

a lozen (excuse my ignorance of * From the original, in the possession Heraldry) with a horse issuing of the publishers.

from the angle as the crest and no

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