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time it was light, into a ground moon, thereby giving us opportunity where they could not hinder us from to draw off those horse to the rest of our victual; which was a high act the army, which accordingly was of the Lord's providence to us. We done without any loss, save of three being come into the said ground, the or four of our aforementioned forenemy marched into the ground we lorn, wherein the enemy (as we be.. were last upon ; having no mind lieve) received more loss. The army either to strive to interpose between being put into a reasonable secure us and our victual, or to fight; being posture, towards midnight the enemy indeed upon this lock, hoping that attempted our quarters on the west the sickness of your army would end of Heddington, but (through the render their work more easie by the goodness of God) we repulsed them. gaining of time; whereapon we The next morning we drew into an marched to Musclebrough to victual, open field, on the south side of Hed. . and to ship away our sick men, where dington ; we not judging is safe we sent aboard near Gve hundred sick

for us to draw to the enemy upon and wounded soldiers; And upon se- his own ground, he being preposrious consideration, finding our weak. sessed thereof, but rather drew ness so to increase, and the enemy ly- back to give him way to come to us, ing upon his advantages, at a general if he had so thought Fit; and having councel it was thought fit to march waited about the space of four or to Dunbar, and there to forrifie the five hours, to see if he would come to town, which, we thought, if any 118 ; and not finding any inclination in thing, would provoke them to en. the enemy so to do, we resolved 10 gage ; as also, the having a garrison go, according to our first intendment, there, would furnish us with accommo. to Dunbar. By that time we had dation for our sick men ; would be marched three or four miles, we 'saw a place for a good magazin (which some bodies of the enemies horse we exceedingly wanted,) being put draw out of their quarters; and by to depend upon the uncertainty of that time our carriages were gotten weather for landing provisions, which neer Dunbar, their whole army was many times cannot be done, though upon their march after us; and, inthe being of the whole army lay up- deed, our drawing back in this manon it ; all the coasts from Leith to, ner, with the addition of three new Berwick not having one good har. regiments added to them, did much bor; as also to lie more conveniently heighten their confidence, if not preto receive our recruits of horse and sumption and arrogancy. The enefoot from Berwick. Having these my, that night, we perceived, gatherconsiderations, upon Saturday, the ed towards the hills, labouring to thirtieth of August, we marched make a perfect interposition between from Muscleburgh to Heddington, us and Berwick; and having, in this where, by that time, we had got posture, a great advantage, through the van-brigade of our horse, and his better knowledg of the country, our foot and train, into their quar. which he effected, by sending a con. ters; the enemy was marched with siderable party to the strait pass at that exceeding expedition, that they Copperspeth, where ten men to binfell upon the rear forlorn of our der, are better than forty to make horse, and put it in some disorder ;, their way: and truly this was an exiand indeed had like to have engaged gent to us; wherewith the enemy our rear brigade of horse with their reproached us with that condition whole army, had not the Lord, by the parliament's army was in, when his providence, put a cloud over the it made its hard conditions with the

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king in Cornwal. By some reports jor.general and myself coming to the that have come to us, they had dis- Earl of Roxburgh's house, and obposed of us, and of their business, in serving this posture, I told him, I sufficient revenge and wrath towards thought it did give us an opportunity our persons; and had swallowed up and advantage to attempt upon the the poor interest of England, believ- coemy; to which he immediately ing that their army and their king replyed, that he had thought to have would have marched to London with said the same thing to me: so that out any interruption; it being told it pleased the Lord to set this appreus, we know not how truly, by a pri- hension upon both of our hearts at soner we took the night before the the same instant. We called for fight, that their king was very suddon. Colonel Monk, ‘and shewed him the ly to come amongst them with those thing ; and coming to our quarter English they allowed to be about him ; at night, and demonstrating our apbut in what they were thus lifted up, prehensions to some of the Colonels, the Lord was above them.

they also chearfully concurred; we The enemy lying in the posture resolved, therefore, to put our busibefore mentioned, having those ad- ness into this posture, that six regivantages, we lay very neer him, be. ments of horse, and three regiments ing sensible of our disadvantage, and a half of foot, should march in having some weakness of flesh; but the van; and that the major-general, yet consolation and support from the the lieutenant general of the horse, Lord himself, to our poor weak faith, and the commissary general, and Col. wherein, I beleeve, not a few amongst Monk, to conmand che brigade of us shared, that, because of their num. foot, should lead on the business ; bers, because of their advantages, be. and that Colonel Pride's brigade, cause of their confidence, because of Colonel Overton's brigade, and the our weakness, because of our strait, remaining' two regiments of horse, we were in the mount, and in the should bring up the cannon and rere ; mount the Lord would be seen, and the time of falling on to be by "reak that he would finde out a way of of day ; but, through some delays, it deliverance and salvation for us ; and proved not to be so till six a clock indeed we had our consolations and in the morning : The enemies word our hopes. Upon Monday evening, was, The Covenant ; which it had the enemy, whose numbers were very been for divers days ; ours, The great, as we hear, about six thousand Lord of Hosts. The major-general, horse, and sixteen thousand foot, at Lieutenant General Fleetwood, and least; ours drawn down, as to sound Commissary. General Whaley, and men, to about seven thousand five Colonel Twisletons, gave the onset ; hundred foot, and three thousand the enemy being in very good posture five hundred horse ; the enemy drew to receive them, having the advandown to their right wing about two. tage of their cannon and foot against thirds of their left wing of horse, to

Before our foot could the right wing shogging also their come up, the enemy made a gallant foot and train much to the right, resistance, and there was a very hot causing their right wing of horse to dispute at swords point between our edge down towards the sea. We horse and theirs : Our first foot, als could not well imagine, but that the ter they had discharged their duty, enemy intended to attempt upon us, being over powered with the enemy, or to place themselves in a more ex- received some repulse, which they act condition of interposition. Ma. Sood recovered; but my own regiDec. 1806,

our horse.


this war.

ment, under the command of Lieu. addition, I do not believe we have tenant-Colonel Goff, and my Major lost twenty men; got one commisWhite, did come seasonably in ; and, sioned officer slain that I hear of, at the push of pike, did repel the save one cornel, and Major Rooksby, stoutest regiment the enemy had since dead of his wounds; and not there, meerly with the courage the many mortally wounded; Colonel Lord was pleased to give; which Whaley onely cut in his band-rist, proved a great amazement to the re- and his horse twice shot and killed sidue of their foot. This being the under him, but he well, recovered first action between the foot, the another horse, and went on in the horse, in the mean time, did, with a chase. great deal of courage and spirit, beat back all opposition, charging through the bodies of the enemies horse and Historical Account of the Settlement of their foot, who were, after the first

BUENOS AYRES. repulse given, made, by the Lord of Hosts, as stubble to their swords.-

(Concluded from p. 814.) Indeed, Dabeilieve: bother specielt THE condition of the Spaniards commanders, and others, in their se. able than at Buenos Ayres, was veral places, and soldiers, also, were far from being uudisturbed. War acted with as much courage as ever was first to be waged with several of hath been seen in any action since the neighbouring tribes ; wbich how

I know they look on to ever, by the skill and conduct of the be named'; and therefore I forbear governor Don Alvarez, was soon particulars. The best of the enemies brought to a happy terminatjon. horse and fooi being broken through Internal dissensions then began to and through in less than an hour's prevail; the chief men, emboldened dispute, their whole army being put by their vast distance from Spain, into confusion, it became a total thought themselves at full liberty to rout: our men having the chace and disregard the authority of its sove. execution of them near eight miles. reign and the officers whom he had We believe, that upon the place, and appointed. Don Alvarez himself, notnear about it, were about three thou withstanding his exemplary conduct, sand slain ; prisoners taken of their was loaded with false accusations, officers, you have this inclosed list ; and sent over in chains to Spainof private soldiers, near ten thousand; Here he underwent a long trial, which the whole baggage and train taken ; terminated in the most decisive proof wherein was good store of match of his innocence ; but notwithstandpowder, and bullet; all their artil ing this, it was not thought advi. lary, great and small, thirty guns ; sable to send him back to Paraguay, we were confident they have left be- nor did he for a long time receive a. hinde them not less than fifteen thou. ay mark of the Emperor's favour, or sand arms. I have already brought any compensation for what he had into me near two hundred colours, suffered. which I herewith send you; what The removal to Assumption had officers of quality of theirs are killed, been made by the colonists with a we yet cannot learn : but yet surely view to their own convenience, and divers are, and many men of quality had certainly improved their situaare mortally wounded ; as Colonel tion ; but it was very much otherwise Lumsdel, the Lord Liberton, and o for the mother country. The navi. thers; and that which is no small gation from it was rendered much

longer They

longer and more difficult, and many tion was granted, and the convervessels were lost for want of a safe sion was now undertaken op a greater harbour to receive them at the mouth scale. The efforts made by these faof the river. It was determined there thers appear to be almost incredible. fore to rebuild Buenos Ayres, and They went alone and unarmed to meet this was rendered easier by some es bands of enraged savages, the inve. tablishments which had lately been terate enemies of the Christian name; formed from the side of Peru, on the they addressed them with mildness; plains of Tucuman and Chaco. Al they represented that nothing but zeal ihough therefore the Indians, im. for their good could have induced mediately on their arrival, began to them to leave their own country, and attack them, yet the troops and mili- expuse themselves to so many dao;ers. tary stores which they brought with The savages who, with all their örcethem were found sufficient for their ness, possess abundance of matural defence, and for placing the settle- good sense, were not insensible to ment in a state of security. From this courage and disinteresred benethis time therefore Buenos Ayres volence. Their hatred to the Spacontinued gradually to increase with niards was suftened, and they gra. the increasing prosperity of the dually assumed the Christian profes, country whose capital it formed.- sion. The Jesuits rejoiced to acThe chief object of attention, which complish this change ; and they are is now afforded by this part of Ame. said to have rejoiced still more, when rica, consists in the celebrated esta. they had the happiness of obtaining blishments of the Jesuits.

the crown of martyrdom. This society, whatever wrongs were also aided by the power of it may have committed in the old working miracles, which was abun, world, has certainly been the chief dantly bestowed on them; and the and almost sole benefactor of the this resource was certainly a litile new. The hardships, the dangers, Jesuilical, yet co!1sidering the good. the privation of every comfort to ness of their intentions, it might ap: which its members submitted, in pear to them not very reprehensible the perilous attempt to convert and to make this use of their superior civilize its savage tribes, must rank knowledge. In this manner they them high among the disinterested went over a vast tract of country, benefactors of the human species. till some of the most judicious among Their efforts were not confined to the fathers at length observed that this any one portion of America ; but going about from place to place served while in other quartere they could no good purpose; that no lasting ef. with difficulty form a few scattered fect was produced; but that the Indians villages, here a vast tract of country immediately on being left to themwas covered with populous and flou- selves, relapsed into their former bar- : rishing setilements. A few detach- barity. The only way therefore to cd missionaries first arrived at the effect a permanent improvement was Assumption; but these were of so to unite them into towns, and to much use in quieting the neighbour-change altogether their mode of life: ing Indians, and inspiring them with and the influence of the fathers over a favourable disposition towards the them was so great, as to induce them Spaniards, that all the inhabitants of to adopt this change, so repugnant that city united in earnestly petition- to all their former propensities. The ing for the establishment of a college first were the Guaranis, a numerous of Jesuits among them. This peti- people on the banks of the river Pla ta, who being before inured to con- one of the most amiable and happy siderable' subordination 'under their societies on the face of the earth, Caciques, were the better prepared The Jesuits had established a com. for submitting to this restraint. Con.. plete dominion both over their minds siderable difficultie's however arose and actions; they carefully impressed in consequence of the irregular habits upon them the doctrines of Christian to which they had been liable, and morality, and studiously kept at a diswhich were

not easily eradicated. tance whatever could tend to seduce The most formidable however arose them from its precepts. Profound from the polygamy which had been ly observant of human nature, they universal among the chiefs, and which saw the necessity of external pomp was a privilege they were not at all in their religion. Accordingly no inclined to give up.

And when, af.

cost was spared in the embellishment ter much difficulty, they had at last of their churches. They were adornagreed to dismiss all their wives ex: ed with paintings, and with all kinds cept one, an important question arose, of odoriferous plants and flowers, of which wife they should retain ? Thé which they know the Indians to be fathers called upon them to adhere to extremely fond. The pomp exhibi:. the one whom they had first married. ed at the sacraments is said to equal But to this they would on no account that of the greatest cities, and to be listen ; and absolutely insisted on be conducted with much more decency, ing left at liberty to chuse the one Yet, says Charlevoix, “no treasures whom they liked best. 'The con. are to be seen at this ceremony ; but version of the Indians was at a stand, the beauties of simple nature are there till the judgment of the papal see so happily disposed as to represent her could be obtained on this important in all her glory.matter. His holiness, after due con- The Jesuits are also careful to.pre. sideration, determined that the mis. vent as much as possible any commu. sionaries should have liberty to pro. nication between them and the Spa. ceed in the manner which circum- niards, which they always find pro. stances might require, and which ductive of mischief. All the com. might appear most conducive to the mercial transactions therefore are propagation of the gospel. ' In con. carried on under their inspection, sequence of this prudent concession, and the lands of those who are em. no farther obstacle was opposed to ployed in them cultivated by the rest. the establishment of the missions, Indeed the greatest harmony is said As soon as a few villages were form: to have prevailed among these little ed, the obvious improvement on their republics, and the greatest prompticondition, and their own persuasions, tude in supplying each other's wants. joined to those of the missionaries, They had retained the ancient sim. iroduced a rapid extension of these plicity, but divested of all that fierce

stablishments. The whole nation of ness and licentiousness with which it the Guaranis were soon included; was accompanied. They had comto which the Chiquitos, a still more pletely shaken off drunkenness, which pumerous people, were soon added'; was formerly their prevailing passion; and the more abundant subsistence declaring, that though wine be the which was yielded by a seitled and best thing that comes from Spain, jidusirious mode of life, cended still yet to them it is perfect poison." farther to increase their numbers. They had got so free of all their

By all the accounts that have come other faults, that Faxardo, bishop of to Europe, this appears to have been Buenos Ayres, is said to have writ.


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