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longer and more difficult, and

many tion was granted, and the convervessels were lost for want of a safe sion was now undertaken on a greater harbour to receive them at the mouth scale. The efforts made by these faof the river. It was determined there. thers appear to be almost incredible. fore to rebuild Buenos Ayres, and They went alone and unarmed to meet this was rendered easier by some es. bands of enraged savages, the inve. tablishments which had lately been terate enemies of the Christian name; formed from the side of Peru, on the they addressed them with mildness; plains of Tucuman and Chaco. Al. they represented that nothing but zeal though therefore the Indians, im. for their good could have induced mediately on their arrival, began to them to leave their own country, and attack them, yet the troops and mili- expose themselves to so many daniers. tary stores which they brought with The savages who, with allthen i rcethem were found suflicient for their ness, possess abundance of natural defence, and for placing the settle- good sense, were not insensible to ment in a state of security. From this courage and disinteressed benethis time therefore Buenos Ayres volence. Their hatred to the Spacontinued gradually to increase with niards was suftened, and they gra. the increasing prosperity of the dually assumed the Christian profes. country whose capital it formed.- sion. The Jesuits rejoiced to acThe chief object of attention, which complish this change ; and they are is now afforded by this part of Ame. said to have rejoiced still more, when rica, consists in the celebrated esta. they had the bappiness of obtaining blishments of the Jesuits.

the crown of martyrdom. They This society, whatever wrongs were also aided by the power of it may have committed in the old working miracles, which was abun. world, has certainly been the chief dantly bestowed on them; and thos and almost sole benefactor of the this resource was certainly a litile new. The hardships, the dangers, Jesuilical, yet co!lsidering the good. the privation of every comfort to ness of their intentions, it might ap. which its members submitted, in pear to them not very reprehensible the perilous attempt to convert and to make this use of their superior civilize its savage tribes, must rank knowledge. In this manner they them high among the disinterested went over a vast tract of country, benefactors of the human species. till some of the most judicious among Their efforts were not confined to the fathers at length observed that this any one portion of America ; but going about from place to place served while in other quartere they could no good purpose ; that no lasting efwith difficulty form a few scattered fect was produced; but that the Indians villages, here a vast tract of country immediately on being left to themwas covered with populous and fou- selves, relapsed into their former bar: rishing setilements. A few detach. barity. The only way therefore to cd missionaries first arrived at the effect a permanent improvement was Assumption ; but these were of so to unite them into towns, and to much use in quieting the neighbour change altogether their mode of life: ing Indians, and inspiring them with and the influence of the fathers over a favourable disposition towards the them was so great, as to induce them Spaniards, that all the inhabitants of to adopt this change, so repugnant that city united in earnestly petition- to all their former propensities. The ing for the establishment of a college first were the Guaranis, a numerous of Jesuits among them. This petic people on the banks of the river Pla ta, who being before inured to con- one of the most amiable and happy siderable subordination 'under their societies on the face of the earth, Caciques, were the better prepared The Jesuits had established a com. for submitting to this restraint. Con.. plete dominion both over their minds siderable difficulties however arose and actions; they carefully impressed in consequence of the irregular habits upon them the doctrines of Christian to which they had been liable, and morality, and studiously kept at a diswhich were




not easily eradicated. tance whatever could tend to seduce The most formidable however arosę them from its precepts.

Profound: from the polygamy which had been ly observant of human nature, they universal among the chiefs, and which saw the necessity of external pomp was a privilege they were not at all in their religion. Accordingly no inclined to give up.

And when, af. cost was spared in the embellishment ter much difficulty, they had at last of their churches. They were adornagreed to dismiss all their wives ex: ed with paintings, and with all kinds cept onę, an important question arose, of odoriferous plants and flowers, of which 'wife they should retain ? The which they know the Indians to be fathers called upon them to adhere to extremely fond. The pomp exhibi:. the one whom they had first married. ed at the sacraments is said to equal But to this they would on no account that of the greatest cities, and to be listen ; and absolutely insisted on be- conducted with much more decency. ing left at liberty to chuse the one Yet, says Charlevoix, “no treasures whom they liked best. "The con. are to be seen at this ceremony ; but version of the Indians was at a stand, the beauties of simple nature are there till the judgment of the papal see so happily disposed as to represent her could be obtained on this important in all her glory."

. matter. His holiness, after due con.' The Jesuits are also careful to pre. sideration, determined that the mis. vent as much as possible any commu. sionaries should have liberty to pro. nication between them and the Spa. ceed in the manner which circum- niards, which they always find pro. stances might require, and which ductive of mischief.

All the com. might appear most conducive to the mercial transactions therefore are propagation of the gospel. ' In con. carried on under their inspection, sequence of this prudent concession, and the lands of those who are em. no farther obstacle was opposed to ployed in them cultivated by the rest. the establishment of the missions, Indeed the greatest harmony is said As soon as a few villages were form: to have prevailed among these little ed, the obvious improvement on their republics, and the greatest prompti. condition, and their own persuasions, tude in supplying each other's wants. joined to those of the missionaries, They had retained the ancient sim. produced a rapid extension of these plicity, but divested of all that fierce.

stablishments. The whole nation of ness and licentiousness with which it the Guaranis were soon included; was accompanied. They had comto which the Chiquitos, a still 'more pletely shaken off drunkenness, which pumerous people, were soon added' ; was formerly their prevailing passion; and the more abundant subsistence

declaring, that though wine be the which was yielded by a seitled and best thing that comes from Spain, industrious mode of life, tended still yet to them 'it is perfect poison." farther to increase their numbers. They had got so free of all their

By all the accounts that have come other faults, that Faxardo, bishop of to Europe, this appears to have been Buenos Ayres, is said to have writ.


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ten to the Court of Spain, that he On the Efects of INDUSTRY.
did not believe there was a single

Qui non laborat non manducat."
mortal sin commited in any of these
reductions in the course of a twelve. F the

0 many virtues which merit month. Whatever faults they may the attention of the moralist, or Mave committed, they are generally employ the powers of men of genius, the first to acknowledge them and to is of more consequence than petition for chastisement.

that of industry. Wnile it is to the The missionaries declare that they statesman and philosopher the sou

ource would have wished to keep their of literary fame, and the parent of use. Hocks ignorant of the very name of ful discovery, it is at the same time no war, but this was impossible, from dess valuable to the mechanic and the vicinity of barbarous tribes, and daily labourer. It confers on them particularly from the establishment degrees of honour which stamp their of a band of Portuguese renegadoes reputation, and it has been found, in the back settlements of Brasil, from the peasant to the courtier, a pure Arms were put into their hands in fountain, from whence every social order to repel these enemies, which joy is made to flow. As there is no they did with great bravery. period of life in which the principle

These establishments are now at of virtue can be instilled in the disan end : The Jesuits of America position with so much advantage as 'were involved in the wreck of their

when reason begins to dawn, how inorder in Europe. The care with auspicious may be that man's fate, which they prevented all communi. who has estranged himself to early cation between the Spaniards and habits of industry, while he retraces Indians, and the training of the lat the barrenness of his past life, he will ter to arms, were interpreted as symp- be equally unable to provide for the toms of a design to establish an in- future. Our talents and corporcal dependent empire of their own. Yet strength are the gifts of nature, the reasons which they assign for stowed upon us to be cultivated and this procedure seem to be sufficiently improved ; and if our proper exertion plausible. Mr Davies mentions his of them fail to enliven the present having found some Jesuits at Buenos scene, it will invariably tend to emai Ayres who were possessed of papers bellish our future destiny. While we which threw great light on the pre- possess, therefore, each in our own sent state of South America, and of situation, a certain portion of sucks which doubtless our government will endowments, conscience is also awake avail themselves.

to call for our contribution of beneSome attempts were also made to "fit to society in general. To provide establish missions in the Magellanic for the folfilment of this demand, it regions. But the vicinity of Buenos is requisite that our capacities be imAyres on one side, and the attacks of proved in early life, when the imathe Savages on the other, prevented gination is awake to acute idea, and these from acquiring any degree of the mind fitted to receive those im. magnitude and consistence.

pressions, which will render youth Such are the principalevents which pleasant, manhood respectable, and have marked the history of Buenos old age honourable. On the contrary, Ayres to the time of its conquest by if we suffer habits of languor to steal Sir Home Popham. For the subse. away our abilities, or enervate our quent events we refer the reader to bodies, by indolence and ease, we shall the historical department of this ma. jusily incur the imputation of folly, gazine.

and bring npon ourselves not only the



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contumely of the world, but the more Bees, by driving the lazy drones poignant reproach of our own feel from out their commonwealth, seem ings: the finger of scorn will be point to teach us by humble example to ed at us, and we shall find, too late, banish

useless person

from wellthat we have destroyed to ourselves regulated society, and to reserve our every courtesy of human life. Indeed superfluities for those whose ill health if we refuse our share of general utili- or misfortunes have rendered incapaty, we may very deservedly be exclud. ble of fulfilling the duties of their sta. ed from participating in the harvest tion : such only are objects of chaof another's labour.

rity; and while we relieve the idle « Qui non laborat non manducat." and profligate, we are robbiog the He that does not labour does not eat. more deserving of their due. It may If we do not sow, how is it possible however be observed, that, by debar. for us to reap. Such are the diciares ing the inactive man from participa. of the voice of nature ; for would it ting in the benefits arising from the not be extremely unjust, if, after hav- labours of others, the affluent and the ing squandered selfishly whatever we great, who constitute 80 numerous possessed, we should be allowed to a portion of mankind, would then be reap the productions of others indus- left destitute. This objection may try, without endeavouring, in any indeed at first view appear specious, degree, to supplant those seeds of dif. but by close investigation the fallacy ficulty which our own indolence has of the argument will soon become rooted in the way of comfort ; or at- evident, and the confutation of it cogtempting, by every exertion in our sequently easy. By labour, we are power, to rear those of a more fruit. not only to understand manual works, ful nature? Would not the husband. but likewise those of the fertile brain, man have cause to murmur, were he the free use of which is given equally forced to divide the recompence of to the opulent and the indigent, the his toil and labour with an object illustrious and the abject. While so totally unworthy of his assistance ? the mechanic omploys himself in his and would he not be intitled to treat shop, and the husbandman wields the him with the same degree of scorn plough, the greater personage may that the Ant in the apologue of the be occupied in studying the national French fabulist showed towards the good, or in the improvement of his Gia shopper, who, after having sung own estates; and while he is tbus during the exuberance of summer, busied, perhaps, in designing plans without at all anticipating the deso. to be put in practice, or in directlation of winter, when that seasongar. ing and superintending the different rived, went to the provident Ant and artificers and workmen who execuie begged of him a trifling subsistence his designs, he may be considered as till the return of plenty, How labouring himself, and is entitled to

were you employed during tbe fine partake of the comforts arising from " weather?” said the sage insect. the industry of others. The impor** Night and day I sang and diverted tant truth of the necessity of activity “ myself,” replied the reduced born ought to be inculeated early, while

“ You sang ! I am glad you its influence may yet avail, and while were so merry, ,added the Ant, the mental soil is prepared by nature " and now you may go and dance.” to receive and nourish the seeds of It is not compassion, bur folly, to aid virtue; but care must be observed, those who, having ability, will not that in sowing them no bad ones he aid themselves. The busy industrious intermixed; for being of a more liardy


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nature, they will grow with greater such an acquisition. A perfect conrapidity, and be found more difficult formity of temper, and of excellence, to eradicate. If we sow in the Spring, was the pledge of their conjugal aftherefore, we shall in the Summer fection : but the contests which disreap a plenteous harvest; and while tracted Italy, soon called the Marwe are thus enabled to provide amply quis from his domestic enjoyments, for the feebleness of age, we shall and at the battle of Ravenna, where decline with chear ful resignation imo he had the command of the cavalry, a tranquil and honourable grave. But he was dangerously wounded, and if we sow nothing, we can expect to led, with the Cardinal de Medici, affind only brambles and thistles to ob. terwards Leo X. a prisoner to Milan. struct our progress in the spring of Whilst confined in the castle of that life, and to begin 10 fade ere the place, and prevented by his wounds summer of our existence is past; from bodily exercise, he devoted his hunger and faiigue will consequently hours to study; the result of which deprive us of the sweets of autumn, appeared in a dialogue on Love, adand we shall be left in the winter to dressed to his wife, which has not decay, unfriended and unpitied. been preserved to the present times,

W. S. M. but which we are assured was replete

with good sense, eloquence, and wit.

He was at length liberated from his Account of the Life and Writings of confinement by the active interference VITTORIA COLONNA.

of his friend the Marshall Trivulsio,

and by the active part which he af. From Roscoe's Lorenzo de Medici. terwards took in the military affairs

of the time, and the many engageV

ITTORIA COLONNA was the ments in which he was victorious,

daughter of the celebrated com. acquired the highest character among mander Fabrizio Colonna, grand the Italian leaders. Having entered constable of the kingdom of Naples, into the service of the Emperor, he by Anna de Montefeltro, the daugh- commanded at the battle of Pavia, ter of Federigo duke of Urbino. She in which Francis i. was made priwas born about the year 1490, and soner ; where he distinguished him. when only four years of age, was self no less by his magnanimity and destined to be the future bride of humanity, than by his prudence and Ferdinando d'Avalos, marquis of Pes- intrepidity, to which the success of cara, then very little further advan. the Imperialist has usually been atced in life. The extraordinary en. tributed. This event he did not, dowments, both of person and mind, however, long survive, having fallen with which she was favoured by na- a sacrifice to his military fatigues, ture, aided by a diligent and virtuous and the consequences of his wounds. education, rendered her the object of He died at Milan in the month of general admiration, and her hand was December 1525, after a short but repeatedly sought in marriage by se glorious life, which has afforded amveral of the independent sovereigns of ple materials for the historian. This Italy. Happily, however, the early fatal event blighted all the hopes of choice of the parents was confirmed his consort; nor did her sorrow adby the mutual attachment of their mit of any alleviation, except such offspring, and at the age of seventeen as she found in celebrating the chashe became the wife of a man who, racter and virtues of her husband, by his great endowments, unshaken fi- and recording their mutual affection delity, and heroic valour, merited in her tender and exquisite verse,


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