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children. In “hop-scotch” the ground is marked tion of it in Watt's Bibl. Brit. or Lowndes' Bibl. out in the identical squares and divisions that I Man. : remember in my early schoolboy days in England. “ The Shrubs of Parnassus, consisting of a Variety of The“ tip-cat” is also of the same shape, and used Poetical Essays, Moral and Comic, by J. Copywell of in the same way. The question is, did the English Lincoln's-Inn, Esq; London : Printed for the Author, bring these games to India, or did they introduce and sold by J. Newbery at the Bible and Sun in St. Paul's

Church Yard, MDCCLX." them from India to England, or are they of unknown date in both countries ? W. H. W. Amongst the list of subscribers, the names of Benares, August 24.

D. Garrick, Sam. Johnson, A. Murphy, Dr. SmolHurst CASTLE.—Why is this castle so named? lett, B. Thornton, and other celebrities occur.

R. C. The word Hurst I know means a wood, but such

Cork. a derivation seems totally out of character here, where there are no trees near, the bare downs of SPADE GUINEAS.- What can be the reason that the island and the long shingly beach on the a spade guinea is considered more of a curiosity mainland being totally bare. If it is so, never or of value than some other-say Queen Anne of was there a clearer case of lucus a non in every 1714, or George II. of 1734 ? (Vide “N. & Q."

3rd S. i. 230, 299.)

GLWYSIG. It occurred to me recently that the word probably is not Hurst but Hrust, the Northern name

THE TAROT.—I cannot anywhere find any scienfor a race or rush of water (the Roost of Sumburgh, tific explanation of the hieroglyphics of The Tarot, for instance), which would be natural and appro- and of the manner of reading them, except in priate. This emendation is simple, but I have the following passage from Dogme et Rituel de la never heard or seen it before ; and so commit it to

Haute Magie, vol. ii. p. 355:“N. & Q.," asking in return if there is any men

“ La manière de lire les hiéroglyphes du Tarot, c'est de tion of the promontory by name before the castle

les disposer soit en carré, soit en triangle, en plaçant les was erected by Henry VIII.

E. King.

nombres pairs en antagonisme et en les conciliant par les

impairs. Quatre signes expriment toujours l'absolu dans Lymington, Hants.

un ordre quelconque et s'expliquent par un cinquième. PORTUGUESE BIOGRAPHIES.

What separate

Ainsi la solution de toutes les questions magiques est celle Biographical Dictionaries are there of eminent

du pentagramme, et toutes les antinomies s'expliquent Portuguese characters, and of which of them have | Perhaps some of your readers may chance to

par l'harmonieuse unité.” French or English translations been published ?


have read the book, and could favour me with Starcross, ncar Exeter.

some explanation of this obscure paragraph.

OSPHAL. PRIMROSE: ASH-TREE. Somewhere I have read an authenticated account of a parish in which

THE “ T Man." Will some veteran novelthe primrose was never known to grow wild. Can reader help me to the title of a set of tales, one of any of your readers state the part where such a which bore this quaint designation ? To the

best singular phenomenon exists ? Also, where the of my recollection, no author's name was affixed ash-tree cannot be made to last longer than a year to the work, which consisted of detached stories

JAMES WATSON. of various lengths, after the manner of Tales of a Sunninghill.

Traveller, Highways and Byeways, &c. &c., and QUOTATIONS.—Where do the following passages may (for aught I know) have been published occur?

about the same period. But in the early days, “Where is thy horn of battle, that but blown,

when the well-thumbed copy of “The T Man Brought every chief of Afric from his throne, (from a watering-place library) procured me so Brought every spear of Afric from the wall,

much entertainment, I took small note of the Brought every charger barded from the stall."

“whens” or even the "wheres ” of publication. “Immortal gods, I crave no pelf;

I have therefore no data of the kind to go by or I pray for no man but myself ; Grant I may never prove so fond,

to give. I can only so far refresh the memories To trust man on his oath or bond.”

which I hope may refresh mine, as to state that [Shakspeare, Timon of Athens, Act I. Scene 2.]

the T Man was a thriving grocer in the city of “ They who heard the war-notes wild

London, besides being an ardent admirer of the Hoped that one day the pibroch's strain

younger Pitt. The story culminated in that great Should play before the hero's child,

minister's obtaining a pardon for the handsome While he should lead the tartan train.”

young sailor beloved by the T Man's daughter, JONATHAN BOUCHIER. whom “untoward circumstances ” had entangled “ THE Shrubs OF PARNASSUS." - I would feel in the mutiny at the Nore. much obliged for any information respecting the

NOELL RADECLIFFE. author of the following work. I can find no men

or two?

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to whose father Fletcher had been “chaplain,” Queries with answers.

Who were these Wingfields ? DANIEL DE Foe. At a banquet given to the

(3.) Christ's Bloodie Sweat is dedicated to Corporation by the Mayor of Halifax on Tuesday “William, Earle of Pembroke,” &c. (1613.) Can evening, one of the speakers, James Bowman, Esq., any one distinguish for me this member of the

ALEXANDER B. GROSART. J. P. and Borough Treasurer, in speaking of old Pembroke family? Halifax worthies, said that Daniel De Foe lived 15, St. Alban's Place, Blackburn. for some time in Halifax, and there, in a street [1. Ilketshall is a district in Wangford hundred, Sufcalled Cheapside, wrote his celebrated work Ro- folk, containing the parishes of St. Andrew, St. John, St. binson Crusoe. As the same assertion has been Lawrence, and St. Margaret. Davy (Suffolk MSS.) in publicly made before, and is, I believe, inserted his account of the parish, has no notice of Hugh Ashley, in one of the local histories, will you or any of the vicar of St. Margaret's. your readers be able to adduce any proof of the (2.) The Wingfields were lords of the manor of Wilby above assertion with respect to De Foe's having from the early part of the fifteenth century till the middle written his now celebrated work in Halifax ?

of the seventeenth. Sir Anthony Wingfield died on July J. WATSON.

30, 1638. Halifax,

(3.) William Herbert, third Earl of Pembroke, born in [There is no reason to doubt that Dr. Watson, the 1580 and died in 1630. “He was,” says Antony Wood, author of the History of Halifax (1775) is correct as to not only a great favourer of learned and ingenious men, one fact, stated on p. 471 of his work, namely, that Daniel but was himself learned, and endowed to admiration with Defoe resided for some time at the Rose and Crown, a poetical geny, as by those amorous and poetical aires Back Lane, in that town: how long we cannot say, but and poems of his composition doth evidently appear.” probably some portion of the latter part of the year 1712. There is a portrait and some account of the Earl in WalWatson, however, is obviously in error when he states pole's Royal and Noble Authors, ed. 1806, ii. 249 : consult that Defoe there wrote his poem Jure Divino, which was also Collins's Peerage, ed. 1812, iii. 123.] published in 1706, and equally so in stating that in Halifax he wrote his celebrated work Robinson Crusoe, entitled “Christian Thought embodied in Chris

ANCIENT USE OF THE Cross. — In an article which was not published until 1719.

tian Art” in the October number of St. Paul's Halifax is by no means alone in claiming to have been the birthplace of this work. Among other claimants of Magazine, it is stated that "it was by no means the honour is Gateshead in Durham; the Tower of Lon among the Egyptians only that the cross was a

sacred emblem before the time of Christ." Can don; a house in Harrow Alley, Whitechapel Market; and a cottage in the little village of Hartley in Kent. We other nations it was used, and of what it was the

any of your correspondents inform me by what have every reason to believe that Defoe wrote this famed


LUMEN. work in the study of his own house at Stoke Newington ; and we know that this is the conviction of our valued

[The cross was a symbol widely disseminated through correspondent Mr. William LEE.

the world long anterior to the introduction of Christianity; The only works Defoe is likely to have written in

but scarcely two authors are agreed either as to its origin Halifax are two pamphlets, A Seasonable Caution against derived from the phallus, which is the symbol of life and

or meaning. The crux ansata of Egypt is supposed to be the Insinuations of Papists and Jacobites in favour of the Pretender ; and, Hannibal at the Gates; or, the Progress prolific energy. The cross on the lintel of a subterranean of Jucobitism. With the Present Danger of the Pre- gate in the Pelasgic walls of Alatrium, in Latium, is like tender. We believe that the Rose and Crown at Halifax the former, a combination of Phalli, and, according to no longer exists. ]

Müller (Ancient Art, p. 627), was a kind of amulet to ward

off the "dreaded invidia" (the phallus being used for that JOSEPH FLETCHER, of Wilbie, Suffolk, author purpose at a later period). The Buddhist cross Swastika of The Perfect - cursed - blessed Man (1629.) – is composed of two letters, su and ti, or suti, which is the Having been fortunate enough to recover con- Pali form of the Sanskrit swasti (i. e. “it is well,” or “80 siderable new information on this old worthy, I be it ”): it is a symbol of resignation. In Persia and am anxious to pursue lines of inquiry opened up Assyria the cross is the abridged form of the feroher, or thereby. Toward this I shall be much obliged by emblem of the Deity. In Scandinavia the cross is the correspondents of “N. & Q.” communicating any- battle-axe of Thor. The cross is also a distinctive sign thing bearing on these points :

on several Mexican hieroglyphs. The Maltese cross has (1.) He married on May 10, 1610, Grace Ash- been found at Otusco, in Central America. Some of the ley, daughter of Hugh Ashley, Vicar of St. Mar- North American savages to this day tattoo their bodies garet's, Ilket's Hall. What Ashleys are these ? with crosses. In Sir Gardner Wilkinson's work on The and where is Ilket's Hall?

Shari, a tribe of Northern Arabia are represented with (2.) The Perfect-cursed-blessed Man is dedicated crosses on their robes-a device which he shows was in to Sir Anthony Wingfield, Knight-Baronet(1629), use among that people 1500 B.c. Vide Gent's Mag. vol. xv. pp. 78-80 (Third Series); Rossellini's Egypt, passim ; SIR WILLIAM CHAMBERS.—Can you give me Smith's Dictionary of the Bible, i. 364, art. “ Cross,” and any clue to the family or descendants of Sir Wilthe works cited by the writer, the Rev. F. W. Farrar, liam Chambers, architect? and had he a brother? M.A., Assistant Master of Harrow School.]


[By the lady to whom Sir William Chambers had been

united early in life he had four daughters and one son. There is a story, I forget where told, that Canning wrote the first five stanzas of this famous

The eldest of his daughters was married to a son of Sir squib, and that Pitt, coming into the room at Ralph Milbank, a gentleman of a most respectable family Wright's, 169, Piccadilly, where the Anti-Jacobin in the north of England ; the second to a Mr. Innis, a was edited, improvised the final stanza, which is West India merchant; the third was united to a Captain certainly the best :

Harward, an officer in the Guards; and the youngest to

a Colonel Cottin; and his son married a daughter of the “Sun, moon, and thou vain world, adieu ! That kings and priests are plotting in :

late Admiral Lord Rodney. No brother is noticed in A Here, doom'd to starve on water-gru

Memoir of the Life of Sir William Chambers, by Thomas el, never shall I see the U.

Hardwick, Esq., 1825.]
niversity of Gottingen!
-niversity of Gottingen!”

John CREMER.-Can you tell me where I shall I have a complete set of the Anti-Jacobin. “The find anything about Jolin Cremer, abbot of WestRovers," which contains this song, is commenced

minster circa 1310-15? or can any of your readers

OSPHAL. in No. 30, June 4, 1798. This sixth stanza does give me any information about bini ? not appear. Will any one inform me where it [Some account of Jolin Cremer, the alchymist, will be was first printed, and who is its author ?

found in The Lives of Alchemystical Philosophers (Lond.

MAKROCHEIR. 1815), page 15. He is commonly styled an abbot of [Our correspondent will find in our 2nd S. vi, 324 the Westminster, but his name is not to be found in the list statement to which he refers as to Pitt having written

of the abbots given by Dugdale and Neale. It appears the stanza in question ; and in the article two additional that he and Raymond Lully lodged together for some stanzas are printed. We cannot say when the stanza

time in the abbey of Westinioster.] first appeared in print, but in the earliest edition to which

ANONYMOUS.- Who was the author of Attic we have an opportunity of referring, viz. 12mo, 1799, and

Fragments, London, 1825, 8vo? The same person which, as it does not specify what edition it is, may rea

wrote The Modern Athens. A prefatory notice is sonably be presumed to be the first, the stanza will be added from Pen y clawdd. found. If our correspondent is anxious to identify the

THOMAS E. WINNINGTON, authorship of the various pieces, he would do well to consult the interesting articles upon them in the third vol. of

[By William Mudie.] our First Series by the late Mr. John Wilson CROKER, MR. MARKLAND, and Mr. Hawkins.]

Replies. GULE OF AUGUST.—The first day of August is

THOMSON'S “SEASONS." in some public records called “Gula Augusti”; and Edward I. summons the array to be at Car

(4th S. ii. 319.) lisle Le Lendemayn de la Gule Aust.” What is the origin and meaning of the term ?

In answer to MR. KEIGHTLEY, I would say, B. L. W.

first, that I should never think of objecting to

such slight emendations as he here proposes, if [The Gule of August, or Lammas-day, one of the four required by grammar or good taste. Very difgreat pagan festivals, probably celebrated the realisation ferent were such as I formerly vituperated; such as of the first fruits of the earth. When Christianity was Bentley's on Milton, or (a flagrant example) those introduced, the day continued to be observed as a festival recently suggested in Gray's Elegy by the worthy on this account, and called Hlaf-mas, subsequently short- | Mr. R. E. Storer in his book on the Greek ened into Lammas. In Latin the name of the day is Testament. called “Festum Sancti Petri ad Vincula.

The particular question suggested seems to me Dr. Pettingal (Archeologia, ii, 67) derives Gule from very perplexing. It is undeniable that the senthe Celtic Wyl, or Gwyl, signifying a festival or holiday, tence beginning. "If brush'd” is ungrammatical, and explains “Gule of August ” to mean no more than and the" For" just below is illogical. the holiday of St. Peter ad Vincula in August. This is too ” would be just right. confirmed by Blount, who tells us that Lammas-day But I doubt MR. KEIGHTLEY's assertion, that (August 1), otherwise called the Gule, or Yule of August, the earlier editions have a colon after “spies.” I may be a corruption of the British word Gwyl Awst, sig- have what I take to be the earliest edition of the nifying the feast of August. Vide Brands Antiquities, Seasons, with the “ List of Subscribers,” which in and Ilampson, Medii Ævi Kalendarium.]

books of that period almost always marks, as 1

“ Oft

suppose, a first edition; without the name of to England the news of the victory of Waterloo printer and publisher, simply “London, MDccxxx. from the field, I entertain considerable doubts

Now this is two years earlier than the first whether his information could have enabled his edition mentioned in Watt’s Bibliotheca Britannica, employer to operate on the Stock Exchange, or and only two years later than the first separate conceal the news for any length of time. edition of the “Spring": and in this the two Mr. Roworth could hardly have left the field of above defects occur. The passage also is one battle till about eight o'clock on the evening of which the author altered very considerably, in the 18th. Ostend, his nearest port of embarcaother respects, in later editions.

tion, is some seventy-five miles distant, as the I have another copy of the Seasons, printed by crow flies; and owing to the encumbered state of A. Millar after the author's death, which was the roads, he had probably to make some détour found among the books of Mrs. Montagu, the to his right. Bluestocking, by a Mr. Montagu, given by him Now, in the Quarterly Review of June, 1845, to Lord Spencer, and by him to us. It had belonged p. 222, there is a most interesting narrative by the to George Lord Lyttelton, who had it inter- Knight of Kerry, by which it appears that at seven leaved, and noted in the fly-leaf that (underlined or half-past seven of the evening of the 18th he by him), “conformably to the will and intention of was in "Ghent, when Sir Pulteney Malcolm rethe author," he (Lord L.) had made several cor- quested him to proceed at once to England with rections, transpositions, and omissions. My ex- the information then in his possession.

The cellent ancestor did much more than this, for he Knight-who, it will be observed, had thus about put in a number of new lines and phrases of his fifty miles' start of Mr. Roworth—on reaching own; no doubt exemplifying abundantly the evil Ostend at once embarked in a man-of-war which tendency I have above spoken of.

Sir Pulteney had placed at his disposal. After Now in this book (which was never printed, all they had weighed they were overtaken by a genthe corrections, &c., being in MS., but which I d'arme in a boat, who'stated that news had been lent many years ago to Sir Harris Nicolas for an received that the Duke was driving the French at edition of l'homson which he meant to bring out, all points. The Knight states that they had rather but which I believe hen ever did) tha commenta- a slow passage to Deal, whence he posted to tor did not stumble at the “For," but he perceived London, and arrived at the Admiralty at halfthe fault before the line “If brush'd," and foisted past four P.M. on the 20th. The Ministers were in with a curative purpose the line "Now every then at the Houses of Parliament, to which he at bud expanding bursts to life.”

once proceeded. The Cabinet at once assembled I must add that I can by no means agree in the Chancellor's private room, when the Knight with MR. KEIGHTLEY as to the certainty of Mr. communicated his intelligence. This was at once Wright's emendation. It would probably do, forwarded to the Lord Mayor, and became though I have a clear feeling that, while to speak known on the Stock Exchange before the close of intransitively of " colonies extending" is perfectly business. right, “to extend a colony” or colonies, tran- Now, admitting that it is not unlikely that a sitively, is at least very awkward; and it can smuggling-boat might beat the royal vessel, and hardly be meant that “sons” and “colonies” are that Mr. Řoworth would have the advantage of the both nominatives and in apposition. On the other Rothschilds' unrivalled stud of horses distributed hand, I cannot conceive any one doubting that the along the line from the coast to London, and old reading is highly and intensely poetical, though lastly, that the Government information had to be I admit it is a question whether the trope is not transmitted from Westminster to the Mansion rather violent.

House, the question is, how long had the Roths"Suns" means climes, of which there are many childs to operate on the funds before it was made examples in Latin and in English : and it has known in the City, when it must at once have here a great significance, as the word “

stopped the transactions ?

RUSTICUS. colonies evidently alludes to the wings, &c., of bees or other insects glittering in the sun.


“ ST. CHRISTOPHER” CALLED “ OF 1423." word "on" is a trifle awkward, but by no means enough to condemn the passage. Of course the

(4th S. ii. 265, 313, 330.) allusion to bees is equally preserved either way. Tempora mutantur, etc.," and has it come to Hagley, Stourbridge.

LYTTELTON. this? Can it be true that A.D. 1868 has sounded

the knell of the far-famed “St. Christopher," and ROTHSCHILD AT THE BATTLE OF WATERLOO.

that in the columns of the most interesting me

dium of literature the saint's dethronement is de(4th S. ii. 283.)

liberately confirmed by such a heading as “called Although I concur with ELLCEE in believing of 1423" ? that Mr. Roworth was the first person who brought Shade of Heinecken forbid ! and yet, on second

with a press.

thoughts, you may as well save yourself the ability to urge another word upon the authenticity trouble, considering that three weeks have elapsed of the date of “St. Christopher, 1423." since the treason was proclaimed, and it yet

A. W. T. remains unpunished, or rather unquestioned.

Although but an outsider, I resolved to take At the Archæological Institute, in July, 1864, up a cudgel on behalf of the saint's claim to 1423, I ventured to ascribe the “St. Christopher" called and, if possible, to successfully refute MR. HOLT's “ of 1423” to Albrecht Dürer. That attribution “pestilent heresy” in asserting that the well- I still maintain; and it is circumstantially supknown impression in the Althorp library had been ported by a somewhat singular fact, which I will taken by means of printing ink and a printing presently mention. As is well known, “St. Chrispress. As you may readily imagine,

at once topher" formed a favourite subject with engravers sought those sound authorities on whose support on copper from the commencement of the art, I had been accustomed to implicitly rely. Great, soon after the invention of printing with movehowever, was my surprise when, on turning to able types, and was frequently represented by Ottley, I found an unqualified admission that the them. Amongst those artists was a devoted friend “St. Christopher” had evidently been printed and ardent admirer of Albrecht Dürer, whose

works he frequently copied or adapted. I allude Startled by this unexpected rebuff, I at once to Israel von Mecken. In Bartsch (vol. vi. p. 231, invoked the aid of the Althorp champion, the No. 91) will be found a description of his “St. doctor of doctors—Dibdin; but only to meet with Christopher,” which has this peculiarity, viz. another confession equally startling, viz. that the that, unlike any of those artists who had pre“St. Christopher” was printed with printing ink; viously engraved the saint on copper, he, in imitaand that, unable to wriggle out of such an awk- tion of his friend Dürer, who alone had then ward fact, he had tried to make the most of it by represented the subject on wood, added the two declaring it to be “the most ancient specimen hexameter verses found at the base of the “St. extant of the use of printing ink! Rather too bad Christopher” called “of 1423”—practically subof the doctor, knowing as he must have done that stituting the third person for the second. Thus, printing ink had never been heard of in 1423. for the legend on the woodcut, viz. : Still I felt one great resource was left to me in “ Cristoferi faciem die quacumq' tueris Mr. Noel Humphreys, our very latest authority; Illa nempe die morte mala non morieris." and buoyed up with the hope that, in his work Von Mecken engraved at least, I might still find means wherewith to

“ Christoferi sancti faciem quicunque tuetur keep Heinecken's laurels on his memory, I

Illa nempe die non morte morietur." eagerly sought the pages devoted by Mr. Humphreys to "St. Christopher"; but there I met

Bearing in mind that these are the only two with my quietus, as you will readily admit, when known representations of “St. Christopher" prior I tell you what I found — Noel Humphreys to 1500, with the Latin legend beneath them, loquitur :

as well as the friendship existing between Dürer

and Von Mecken-and the conclusion becomes “ The impression of the St. Christopher, although almost irresistible in favour of my attribution, dated 1433 [it is not, by the bye, but as times go that is borne out as it is by Jackson and Chatto (p. 47), a mere trifle], is printed in regular printing ink, and is wherein it is stated : not, therefore, one of the original impressions of the block, as the oleaginous printing ink was then unknown.”

“ In fact, the figure of the saint and that of the youth

ful Christ, whom he bears on his shoulders, are designed This statement completed my defeat, and, in

in such a style, that they would scarcely discredit Albert

Dürer himself." the language of the defunct Ring, “I threw up the sponge.” On coming to, however, I found

And it further confirms my declaration, that Mr. Humphreys possessed greater courage than I the date 1423 never was intended to represent the could muster; as, notwithstanding he disavowed period at which the wood-engraving was executed. the particular impression, he stuck to the “block,”

HENRY F. HOLT. by declaring that the impression was certainly

6, King's Road, Clapham Park. not taken at the time the block was executed ! and probably not till long after printing ink, then In answer to J. C. J., I beg leave to say that I unknown, had come into general use, when its have a fine clean copy of Jenson's Biblia sacra advantages, combined with those afforded by the Latina, cum Prologus Hieronymi, lit. goth. rubripress, caused many old blocks to be reprinted cated capitals, with large margins, remarkable too from, which had long been thrown aside. for the beauty of the type. Towards the end, at

I tried hard to be convinced by such reasoning ; the Apocalypse, stands, -—“Biblia impressa Venebut being obliged to give it up as a bad job, I tiis opera atq; impensa Nicolai Jenson, Gallici, now report the result to you, as well as my in- M.C.C.C.C.LXXVI." This is the first edition of the

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