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come ?"

KEIGHTLEY's view of the grammar, would be the editor, in his appended scholia, comments on the
reverse of what is plainly intended. “Say what above expressions thus:
doth concern your coming,
" without an interroga-

K@rov membrum : kóuna incisio. In oratione cola
tion, means,
• What bears on your visit ? ” This

sunt ubi sensus perfectus est, commata ubi imperfectus; is sense; but, I apprehend, clearly not what perfecta enim oratio membris constat, imperfecta comShakespeare meant. He meant, “Why are you matibus. Sunt enim commata velut juncturæ in brachiis,

"what does your visit relate to?” The cola vera ipsa brachia.” order is, "What doth your coming concern?” I may add that Scaliger has a whole chapter of Not "quod attinet ad,” but “ad quod attinet?” three closely printed pages on the above words.

In almost all the other cases, MR. KEIGHTLEY'S (Poetices, lib. iv. c. 25.) construction requires us to understand, “Say is 2. Commaticus. Osee (Hosea) commaticus so and 90” to be equivalent in grammar as well est, et quasi per sententias loquens.” (Præf. in as meaning to “Say if so and so is”; which I duod. proph. ad Paulam et Eustochium.) The conceive is untenable. The passage from Hamlet meaning is evidently abrupt, sententious—a style must be even more strained. The question, "What of short sentences. Again, he thus speaks of from our brother ?” is quite simple; but it is very Theotimus, Bishop of Scythia :-"In morem far from simple, according to usage, to make “Say dialogorum et veteris eloquentiæ breves, commawhat from him”

mean (grammatically) “Say ticosque tractatus edidit." (Catal. Script. Eccl.) what” (news has come)" from him.”

Robert Stephan, in his Latin Thesaurus, gives When a connecting conjunction does appear, as

“ brevis" as the meaning of commaticus, adding in the second passage from the Two Gentlemen of as examples "hymnus commaticus(Sidon. iv. Verona, no doubt MR. KEIGHTLEY's construction 3),“ pronunciatio commatica" (Cael. Rhod. xxyii. is much less unnatural. “Tell me, whither were 7). Liddell and Scott give, as the meaning of I best,” may stand for “whither I were.” But the Greek word, “consisting of single or short the direct question is much the most obvious, and clauses." nothing at all is gained by superseding it. In all 3. Commatice.-I rather think that this word these cases the two parts of the sentence are in occurs somewhere in St. Jerome's Epistles, though simple apposition.

LYTTELTON. I am not sure. But the passage of which your

correspondent is in search will be found in that
father's Commentary on St. Matthew, in his ex-

position of the 25th chapter, the parable of the

ten virgins. It is as follows: (2nd S. iii. 188; 4th S. ii. 392, 452.)

“Prudentem semper admoneo lectorem, ut non super

stitiosis acquiescat interpretationibus, et quæ commatice, The three words comma, commaticus, and com

pro fingentium dicuntur arbitrio; sed considera priora, matice, occur more than once in St. Jerome. Let media, et sequentia, et nectat sibi universa quæ scripta me give the references :

The meaning is obvious. Contextual, in opposi1. Comma. —“A supradicto versu, usque ad finem tion to fragmentary criticism, is what he recomlibri parvam comma, quod remanet, prosa oratione con


HORATIUS BONAR. texitur."-Præf. in Lib, Job.

Edinburgh. Again :“ Nemo cum prophetas versibus viderit esse descriptos,

OLD PAPER. metro eos existimet apud Hebræos ligari, et aliquid simile

(4th S. ii. 396, 475.) babere de psalmis et operibus Salomonis; sed quod in Demosthene et in Tullio solet fieri, ut per cola scribantur I beg to tender my best thanks to HERMENet Commata.” - Præf. in transl. Esaiæ, ad Paulam et

TRUDE for her kind suggestion about gold beaters' Eustochium.

skin. Perhaps I am fastidious, but I confess I have Marianus Victorius Reatinus, the editor of the a feeling against gold beaters' skin, as I have been edition I use (Antwerp, 1578), thus gives the told that it is the skin of the men who beat gold. "Argument" of the above preface: "Postquam However, I shall not forget a good hint, although explicavit prophetas per cola, commataque, non I am indebted to the Editor for a private letter on metro describi,” &c. Again, that father writes: the same subject. The MSS. of which I spoke “Legite igitur et hunc juxta translationem nos- are not of any great historical value, although tram ;

lam per cola scriptus et commata, mani- they are worth preserving. They are mostly diafestiorem legentibus sensum tribuit.”—Præf. in ries kept by some of my ancestors and their conEzechielem.) I may say that these "prefaces nexions both in America and in London, from are not those prefixed to the different books ex- 1767 to 1780, which was the period of the ropounded, but gathered together in the third volutionary war, when the colonies were lost to volume of my edition, among his epistles. The the mother country. Fortunately the most im

portant diary, kept by a governor of one of the your correspondent's friend referred. See, for New England provinces, is in the best preservation example, in Burton's Anatomy of Melancholy, first and needs no repair. In the others, I wish the published in 1621:-entries had more often been less personal, and “It may be not she that is so fair, but her coats; or that they had more fully referred to the great put another in her clothes, and she will seem all out as events which were then passing. A few years fair.”—p. 596 of Tegg's reprint, 1867. before this time, the mob in one of the large cities Again on the same page : broke into the governor's house and destroyed

" She hath a deformed crooked carcass under a fine a quantity of interesting historical collections, coat.” amongst which was the diary of Colonel Goffe,

And has S. REDMOND forgotten Gen. iii. 21 ?the regicide, which he kept during the time he was a fugitive in Connecticut and other places.

“Unto Adam also and to his wife the Lord God made

coats of skins, and clothed them." Of late years these valuable collections have been eagerly asked for by Americans, who have been

Of course on that occasion a woman must have loth to believe that such was their fate. But had a coat. from books printed soon after, and from contem

In Scottish literature the word is also used in porary MS. sources, it is very easy to prove so dis- this way, as in the title of an old song, the music agreeable a fact. What remains of a date so near

of which is in the Skene MS. (a well-known and that period it is the more necessary to take care

ancient compilation), part 6, the 8th tune :of. What is lost is gone; what remains may


“ Kilt thy coat, Magge, kilt thy coatie." preserved. I have been experimenting on one or

JAMES MASON. two of the leaves by painting them over with a

London. warm and rather weak solution of isinglass put on with a broad camel-hair brush. I found it There is here no difficulty. Whatever be the necessary to hold them up in a suspended position ultimate etymology of the word, which is the to dry and harden at once before the fire, and French cotte, Italian cotta, German kutte, it imthen do the other side ; for though they were plies a covering.

There is no reason for rerotten and loose enough in texture when dry, they stricting it to male dress, except that it is now were ten times worse when wet. If they were customary to do so. We still apply it widely laid down on a flat surface to dry of themselves, when we speak of a coat of plaster, or of a pony they were in danger of adhering, and it was of having a rough coat. In early English it is much course very difficult to detach them without in- more frequently applied to male than to female jury. In short, as far as I have gone, I have attire. The following are a few examples of the found it best to do one side and immediately dry latter use :it, by which an increased amount of strength has “ This was her cote, and her mantele." been given to the paper, and then take the second

Chaucer, Rom, of the Rose, 459. side in the same way. It might be feared that “ And she hadd on a cote of grene."-Ibid. 573. this process would damage the writing and make it “How Heyne hath a new cote, and his wife another." run. This fear made me cautious. I do not, how

Piers Plowman, A. v. 91. ever, see any indications of running or blurr on “I have put off my coat ; how shall I put it on ? " those pages which I have so treated. Of course

The Bible (Authorised Version),

Sol. Song, v. 3. modern writing would not stand it, but in old writing there appears to be very little to run.

“The cote-hardie was also worn by the ladies in this This process may answer in certain cases, though

reign | Edw. III.].British Costume, p. 133. it is not so efficient as the one kindly pointed out

The first, second, and fourth examples are given to me by the Editor, nor so complete as that men

in that excellent book entitled The Bible Wordtioned by HERMENTRUDE, if it were not for sacri- Book. The word gown is, on the other hand, very ficing those unhappy men alluded to above. frequently used of male attire, as in Chaucer.


So also in Piers Plowman, ed. Wright, p. 259.

And Stow says, anno 1507 :

"The Duke of Buckingham wore a gowne wrought of COAT, A NAME FOR THE DRESS OF WOMEN: needle-work, and set upon cloth of tissue, furred with IS IT PROPER ?

sables, the which goune was valued at 15001." (4th S. ii. 486.)

We still have gounsmen in plenty.

WALTER W. SKE:T. In reply to S. REDMOND, coat (root Esthonian,

1, Cintra Terrace, Cambridge. kattan, to cover, to clothe) does not appear to be applied in modern times to women's dress, though In the will of Jane Aske, of London, widow, petticoat (French, petite cotte, little coat) is com- 1666, is the following bequest: “Vnto my daugh'mon enough. But in old writers it is frequently ter in Law Anne Aske afore-named, my morning used in the same sense as in the passage to which coate." At an earlier date the ladies seem have

He was

worn shirts, and the gentlemen petticoats. Thomas The original grant or confirmation, in Heralds' Denys of Southwell, co. Bedford, Esq., 1551, gives College, is contained in a small parchmentto Humphrey Coppley “My otter skynes cote, and covered book in Cooke's own handwriting, the rea shirte for his wife”; and Elizabeth Simpson of ference to which is F. 13, fol. 34. The entry Wimbledon, 1590, leaves to Father Heathe “my is as follows: “Wyllm Noye, of St. Burien in husbandes winter petticote." T. C. PARIS. Cornwall.”

MEMOR also says (2nd S. vii. 35): – Formerly coat was used indiscriminately for the . No representatire of the Attorney-General in the male dress of either sex. This morning I have hap- line exists ; but his grandfather, William Noye, left a pened upon two instances of the

use of coat as ap- line continued in the neighbourhood of St. Buryan till

numerous family of sons, whose descendants in the male plied to feminine attire in The Book of the Kright very lately, when the last of them emigrated to America.” of La Tour Landry (E. E. T. S.):

Memor says (4th S. i. 615) his authority for for ye haue but half youre hodes and cotes furred with ermyn or menuer, and y wol do beter to her, from the incumbent of St. Buryan.” Now the

this statement was a communication received for y wolle furre her gowne, coleres, sleues, and cotes, the here outwarde.”-p. 30.

incumbent of St. Buryan, from 1817 to 1864, was “After ye sawe the ymage of oure ladi that in her honde the late Hon. and Rev. H. R. Stanhope. MEMOR'S helde a cote and a smocke.

And that oure ladi statement appearing in 1859, it is reasonable to wolde haue you saued for a cote and a smocke that ye gaue to too pore women in the worshipe of God and her." suppose that it was made on the authority of - pp. 49, 50.

Mr. Stanhope. How far, then, was that gentleChaucer, Nonne Prest his Tale (1.16), has

man in a position to be an authority ?

never at St. Buryan but once in his life. “ Hir dyete was accordant to hir cote,”

Mr. Stanhope's curates, however, may have where it may be doubted, however, if cote is not supplied MEMOR with information. They were cot, cottage rather than coat ; though Mr. Morris the Rev. W. Houghton, now Vicar of Manaccan, glosses it coat. Women still claim the word in and the Rev. J. Tonkin of St. Buryan. Mr. their petticoat.

JOHN ADDIS, JUN. Houghton informs me that he never corresponded Rustington, Littlehampton, Sussex.

with any one relating to Attorney-General Noy's

family; and Mr. Tonkin says he does not rememIn the West, the word coats, or cwoats, is com

ber having at any time made any communication monly used to exprees the lower garments of on the subject of Noy, nor does he know of Mr. C. W. BINGHAM. Stanhope having done so.

W. N.

42, Sutherland Square, Walworth. Scaliger and Ménage think coat corrupted from the Latin crocota, Greek kpokwtós, which Gesner says was “ Vestis muliebris crocei coloris.”

TAILOR STORIES AND JOKES: NINE TAILORS (Vide Richardson's Dictionary.)

R. F. W. S.

(4th S. ii. 437.)

The joke about the tailors is very old. The NOY AND YOYES.

Italians have it, and so have the Germans. In (2nd S. vii. 35.)

Silesia the button-makers (Knöpfmacher) are the

fractionary parts of humanity instead of the tailors. In “N. & Q.," MEMOR says:

It is said there, that "twelve button-makers make “ The arms borne by the Attorney-General were granted

a man.” In Alsatia, when two peasants fall out, (or as I believe confirmed) to his grandfather. William one will say to the other, “You're no man, you're Nop or Noyes’ (sic in Register of the College of Arms) in only a German tailor.” In Germany the number 1592."

In Hanover, twelve tailors make a man. This statement is repeated by MEMOR in 4th S. In the high Eifel, they say “ thirteen tailors," i. 390. The only book in Heralds College con- and sometimes “thirteen tailors and a mastiff dog," taining an entry in the name of Noy or Noyes an addition that makes explanation more difficult. is marked fol. 45. It is an imperfect modern In the Moselle district of Prussia the following

story is related as the key to the mystery :-Nine copy of Cooke's original grants; and, as an au- tailors (I will stick to our number) were working thority on heraldic matters, is considered worth- together in a warm room; the season was midless by the Lancaster Herald, who could only winter, and without were intense cold, sleet, and account for the entry by supposing the copyist snow. A poor ill-clothed tramp knocked at the incapable of reading the original. This idea is workshop-door and solicited alms, saying he had strengthened by the fact of St. Burian being walked many a mile, and was faint with cold and spelt“St. Bruin."

hunger. The kind-hearted tailors not only shared





their meals with him, but sent him away with a The origin of this saying has been already disfew groschens in his pocket, which caused the cussed in “N. & Q." (1st S. vi. 390, 563, and grateful wanderer to exclaim, " God bless you! vii. 165, 557.) It will be seen by the first of these you have made a man of me!Hence, the Ger- references that the idea of its having been derived mans say, originated the saying. The story is from the number of strokes upon the bell anrational, true to nature, and may be a fact. At nouncing the death of a man is not new. The any rate

, it is more to the purpose than the derivation of tailors from tellers or tail is ingenious, fanciful idea of the Rev. W. S. Blackley, M.A., but how shall we account for the existence of a quoted in “N. & Q." at the above reference. As similar saying in Brittany and Normandy, and connected with this subject, Orator Henley's perhaps elsewhere. (1st S. vii. 557.) Is it not witticism may be quoted, that a tailor was not a more likely that it has taken its origin from man, because we are told that “no man putteth the custom so common among the poor, of apprena new piece on an old garment"; " which,” said ticing their weakly and deformed children to this Henley, “tailors do every day.” This “ argu- trade, especially in the rural districts, where there mentum ad hominem" is one with which few is no great choice of employment. The ablecommentators will coincide.

bodied labourer and robust country lass look down When Foote printed his The Tailors : a tragedy upon these frail specimens of humanity, and the for warm weathernow better known as Quadru- saying has become a standard joke with them. peds_his title-page motto was, “Hail! sacred

E. M'C. nine"; from whence taken I know not. The pro- Guernsey. verb or saying “thirteen to the dozen,” is by the Italians connected with a tailor whose misadventure figures in an old Venetian story, said to be an

CROSS-LEGGED EFFIGIES AND THE CRUSADERS historical fact. In Duncombe's British Theatre (3rd S. viii. 312; 4th S. ii. 392, 446, 535.) – If may be found a farce, by H. Millner, on the sub-ANGLO-Scotus had quoted in extenso the passage ject, called Thirteen to the Dozen ; or, the Tailor in Barbour to which he refers (lib. xx. 585), he of Venice. It was acted at one of the minor the- would have shown that the tomb in St. Bride's atres, and had a long run. Mr. Buckstone (then kirk at Douglas was undoubtedly that of the just coming out) was the tailor. Unless the old Good Sir James. The poet, after describing his joke can be explained by the German story, it death, goes on to say — appears to me a very senseless one.

A tailor is as

“ And the banys honourabilly manly, intelligent, and respectable as is a trades

In till the kirk of Douglas war man of any other class. Many examples can be

Erdyt with dull and mechill car,

Thyer Archibald sune girt syne given of tailors whose after-career has been emi

Of Albastre baith fair and fine, nent and distinguished. The late Francis Place,

Ordaine a tomb sa richly the political writer and reviewer, was a tailor

As it behowt to swa worthy." to the end of his days; Dignum, the famous singer The fourth line is evidently corrupt, the sune and clever comediản, was in early life a tailor; and syne making evident nonsense. It should and so was President Johnson. The list could be

probably stand increased to a great extent. From tailors the transit is easy to

“ Sir Archibald his son girt syne,"

goose.” Doctor Johnson is at fault here in his Dictionary. as we know that Sir Archibald rebuilt the church We have first,“goose, plural geese"; then follow in 1390. the definitions of the bird, and of a

tailor's It is perfectly true that it is also the tomb of smoothing iron." No other plural is given. The Sir James de Laudonia, father of the Black Knight plural of the smoothing iron is however not of Liddesdale, for the simple reason that he is geese,” " but" gooses." No tailor would


“I no other person than the Good Sir James himself. have two geese”; the phrase would be “I have ANGLO-Scotus has totally misunderstood the

STEPHEN JACKSON. reference to Salisbury Cathedral. No one denies

that many of the cross-legged monuments are * After the production of the Sadler's Wells panto- those of Crusaders; but the question is, was the mime Mother Goose, worsted stockings, or rather "socks," attitude adopted because they were so ? Although were sold, called gooses—they were so named from being it is described as cross-legged, it certainly never the same colour as the goose's feet, or, perhaps, the stock conveyed to my mind any idea of the Holy Cross, ings of the heroine. In this case was evidently which might be so much more reverently indithe proper name. A“pair of geese" would have astonished a hosier! Such a demand would have been more

cated in many ways. suitable for a shop in "the Poultry." I once purchased

As crossing the feet is a common action when " a pair of gooses.” The name is now, I suppose, num- sitting, it would, in the case of an erect or recumbered amongst “ the things that were."

bent figure, be no inappropriate way to expressing symbolically that the person represented was en

two gooses.'

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titled-sedere in judicio. It would appear that gesting the possibility of the recovery of his sight. the fashion of these cross-legged figures went out This letter, which is probably not extant, was before the last of the Crusades.

doubtless written in Latin; as Milton's noble GEORGE VERE IRVING. reply to it, as also his previous acknowledgment ARCHBISHOP King's MONUMENT (4th S. ii. 415.) of the portrait and eulogy, were written in that I am sorry to inform your correspondent C. S. K. “lingua communis eruditorum." These two letthat there is not any monument over the grave of ters, with their translations, are given by SymArchbishop King in the old churchyard of Donny

mons in his Life of Milton, 8vo, 1810, p. 375. brook, nor any memorial of him in the present The latter letter (the fifteenth of Milton's Latin parish church. But, strange as this neglect of the epistles) has been translated by Richardson and memory of so bright an ornament of the Irish Hayley, and is given, in the version of the latter, church may appear, it is not singular, as the fol- by the Rev, H. J. Todd in his Some Account of lowing paragraph will suffice to prove :

the Life and Writings of John Milton, 8vo, 1828,

“Archbishop King died May 8, 1729, and was buried p. 146.
in the churchyard of Donnybrook (on the north side, as

he had directed]; but no monument or other memorial of
him can now be found there. Archbishop Magee (whose

WESTMINSTER HALL (4t! S. ii. 418, 500.)—To grandson is the newly appointed Bishop of Peterborough] the list of works giving an account of this building yard of Rathfarnham, likewise not far from Dublin. His logia, which are very interesting as to the early died August 19, 1831, and was buried in the old church should be added the papers printed in the Archæotomb stands exactly in the centre of the ancient church;


W. P. but as no inscription has been placed on it, the spot will ere long be forgotten. This treatment appears somewhat MOTHER OF ANTHONY GREY (4th S. i. 341.)—I strange in connexion with two of the ablest and greatest of the archbishops of Dublin. It ought, one would think,

am obliged to your correspondent for his informato be corrected ; and yet perhaps Sir William Jones' plan tion. When the clue is given, there is abundis the wisest : «The best monument that can be erected ance of corroborative evidence. The marriage of to a man of literary talents is a good edition of his George Grey and Margaret Salvin appears in the works.'"

pedigree in Surtees's Durham; and the will of In the parish register of Donnybrook this con- Gerard Salvin, wherein he mentions his sons-incise entry appears :

law George Grey and Robert Rookby, is given in “Buried, Archbishop King, May 10th, 1729.”

Wills and Inventories, vol. i. 345 (Surtees Society). If C. S. K. desires further information regard

E. H. A. ing this distinguished prelate, let me refer him

Thomas BAKER (4th S. ii. 390.)-His copy of to sundry volumes of "N. &'Q.,” and to Brief Walker's Sufferings of the Clergy was in possesSketches of the Parishes of Booterstown and Donny- sion of the Rev. W. N. Darnell

, B.D., Rector of brook, pp. 73, 164 (Dublin, 1861).

Stanhope, and sold at the sale in 1865.
A memorial window, even after the lapse of

E. H. A. nearly a century and a half, would not be inap- CLIMACTERICAL YEAR (4th S. ii. 486.)—I beg to propriate. The idea was entertained some years refer JEAN LE TROUVEUR to an article of mine in since, but was not carried out; and it is a matter 200 S. iv. 148. Inside the south wall of the which, I think, may fairly claim the attention of chancel of the church of Sidbury, Devon, there is the present rector of Donnybrook. If properly a small brass bearing the following inscription:undertaken it could not prove a failure.

MILTON AND PAILARAS (4th S. ü. 466.) -
Leonard Philaras was a learned Athenian, who ΔΕΥΤΕΡΟΠΡΩΤΩ."
resided at the court of Paris as ambassador from

On reading this, the question naturally arises : the Duke of Parma. In testimony of his admira- When, or at what age, did the defunct die? My tion for Milton's defence of the Commonwealth, query soon elicited two painstaking answers; he transmitted his portrait to its author, accom- notwithstanding which, the writers both arrived panied by a panegyrical epistle. This may have

at different conclusions,

P. HUTCHINSON, been in Greek, but I am not aware that it is

to England, with the chief, if not the sole, object of people," according to the Emperor Augustus. visiting Milton—then in a state of total blindness. In a letter of William Camden, Clarenceux KingOn his return to Paris, it occurred to him that his at-Arms, to Sir Robt. Cotton (at the Brit. Mus., friend might derive benefit from the advice and Cott. MS. Julius Cæsar, iii. fol. 17), informing treatment of the celebrated surgeon and oculist him of the queen's restoration to health, he says: Thevenot; and he accordingly wrote to Milton, “hir myndê altogether averted from Phisiq in inviting him to describe his symptoms, and sug- this hir clymactericall Yeare.” Were this letter

“ 1650.

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