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P. 39. 16. Any ftrange beast there makes a man ;] I cannot but think this latire very just upon our countrymen : who have been always very ready to make denisons of the whole tribe of the Pitheci, and compliment them with the Donun Civitatis, as appears by the names in use. Thus Monkey, which, the Etymologists tell us, comes from Monkin, Monikin, homunculus. Baboon, from Babe, the termination denoting addition and increment, a large Babe. Mantygre ipeaks its orignal, And when they have brought their firnames with them from their native country, as Ape, the common people have as it were christened them by the addition of Jack-an-Ape.
Ibid.) Notwithitanding all this parade of learning, I be. lieve nobody but Mr. Warburton would have thought of this latire upon our countrymen; which is a mere blundering conceit of his own : it is neither just in itself, nor has he the least ground for it from the text. Nay, I will undertake that it may be deduced as fairly from any passage in the Divine Legation ; as from this of Shakespeare, rightly underftood,
The satire, is levelled at their extravagant curiosity; not their adopting the tribe of the pitbeci, or monkeys : to which, moreover, this fish, as Trinculo calls Caliban, could not very properly be referred.
As for his instances of the donum civitatis ; as, in order to fhew his reading, he calls it; let monkey be derived from the Teutonic, MON: They are not the English only, who derive the name of this animal from thence; (if they indeed do :) the Italian mono, and the Spanish munneca, are from the fame fountain; and it is probable, that our monkey is derived from this last. If baboon comes (as Skinner' says, it perhaps may) from BABE; the French babouin, and the Italian babbuino procede from thence too; and there is no reason for any reflection on the English, particularly, on that account.
As for his mantygre, which, he says, speaks its original; it does so, but in a language, which Mr. Warburton feems not to understand; MANTICORA (which we corruptly call mantygre) is an Indian word; whether original with them,
or derived in part from the Arabic, as some, or the Teutonic, as others hold, does not concern the present question : the Greeks and Romans both adopted it; and whether we borrowed it from these or the Indians, we are not answerable for the propriety of its derivation.
I wonder Mr. Warburton, when his hand was in, did not complete his donum civitatis ; and that after he had christened his ape, (a strange expression, by the way, for a clergyman!) he did not derive it from aPA, as little children call it, before they can pronounce PAPA.
CAN, OF CRIT.* Ibid. makes a man.] That is, makes a man's fortune. So in Midsummer-Night's Dream--we are all made men. JOHNS.
P. 40. D. 14. Have we devils bere im falvages and men of Inde ? —your four legs ;] All this is a pleasant ridicule of Maundeville's relations in his voyages, who pretended to have traveled, “ Thro' an enchanted vale, clepen the Vale of Devils, which vale (says he) is alle fulle of develes, and hathe bene alle weys; and men seyn there, that it is on of the entrees of helle.' The same author likewise, in his account of the falvages and men of Inde, has transcribed, as of his own knowledge, all the fables Pliny, concerning men with long ears, one eye, one foot, without heads, &c.
WARB.* P. 41. 1. 15. His forward voice now is to speak well of his friend.] The facetious Author of Hudibras seems to have had this pastage in his eye, in one part of his description of Fame.
Two trumpets she doth sound at once,
The one sounds vilely, th' other well. THIOB.* L. 16.] For spatter read utter.
Rev. & Cap. L. 30. Moon-calf ?] It was imagined that the moon had an ill influence on the infant's understanding. Hence ideots were called moon-calves?
WARB. Ibid.] I do not know what authority Mr. Warburton has for asserting that ideots were called moon-calves; but Shakespeare gives him none here. Stephano was act yet enougla
acquainted with Caliban, to judge what influence the moon might have on his understanding ; but he gives him the name of moon-calf from his ill-shaped figure. Moon-calf, partus lunaris–Datur et Teut. MonkalbMola, seu caro-informis, &c. Skinner.
CANONS. * P. 43. 1. 2. I afraid of him? a very shallow monster.) It is to be observ'd, Trinculo is not charg’d with any fear of Caliban ; and therefore this seems to come in abruptly ; but in this consists the true humour. His own consciousness, that he had been terribly afraid of him, after the fright was over,
drew out this brag. This seems to be one of SbakeSpeare's fine touches of nature : for that Trinculo had been horribly frighten'd at the monster, and shook with fear of him, while he lay under his gaberdine, is plain, from what Caliban says, while he is lying there? Thou doft me yet but little harm; thou wilt anon, I know by thy trembling.
THEOB. L. 6. Kiss thy foot.] A sneer upon the Papifts for kissing the Pope's pantofle.
GRAY. L. 30. Young scamels from the rock.] I can no where else meet with such a word as scamel, which has possess’d all the editions. Shakespeare must certainly either have wrote jhamois (as Mr. Warburton and I have both conjectur'd) i. e. young kids : or sea-malls. The sea-mall, or sea-mew (according to Willoughby,) is that bird, which is call’d larus cinereus minor ; feeds upon fish, and frequents the banks of lakes. It is not impossible, but our Poet might here intend this bird. Or, again, (and which comes near to fcamel, in the traces of the letters) Ray tells us of another bird, calld the fannel
, (the same with the tinnunculus, among the Latins, and xeszpis amongst the Greeks ;) of the bawk species. It is no matter which of the three readings we embrace, so we take a word fignifying the name of something in nature.
THEOB.* Ibid.] We should read shamois, is e. young kids.
Wars, Ibid.] This word has puzzled the commentators. Mr. Holt, who wrote notes upon this play, obferves that limpets
are in some places called schams; therefore I have suffered scamels to stand.
JOHNSON. Ibid.] Theobald substitutes samois for scamels ; which laft word, he says, has possessed all the editions. I am inclined to retain scamels : for in an old will, dated 1593, I find the bequest of “ a bed of scammel-colour,”. i. e. of the colour of an animal so called, whose skin was then in use for dress or furniture. This, at least, shews the existence of the word at that time, and in Shakespeare's sense.
5. Least busy when I do it.] This reading, I presume, to be Mr. Pope's; for I do not find it authoriz’d by the copies : The two first folio's read ;
Moft busy leaft, when I do it. 'Tis true, this reading is corrupt; but the corruption is fo very little remov'd from the truth of the text, (busy-less) that I can't afford to think well of my own sagacity for having discover'd it.
THEOB. P. 46. L. 17. Of every creature's beft.] Alluding to the picture of Venus by Apelles.
JOHNSON. P. 48. 1. 8. Surpriz'd witbal.] Read, surpriz'd with all.
CAPELL.* L. 14. Servant-monster.] The part of Caliban has been esteem'd a signal instance of the copioufness of SbakeSpeare's invention; and that he had shewn an extent of genius, in creating a person which was not in nature. And for this, as well as his other magical and ideal characters, a just admiration has been paid him. I can't help taking notice, on this occasion, of the virulence of Ben Jonson, who, the induction to his Bartlemeru Fair, has endeavour'd to throw dirt, not only at this single character, but at this whole play. “ If there be never a servant monster in the fair, who can help « it, (he says,) nor a nest of anticks ? He is loth to make « nature afraid in his plays, like those that beget tales, tem
pests, and such like drolleries, to mix his head with other “ mens heels.” Shakespeare, as the tradition runs, was the person who first brought Jonson upon the stage; and this is the stab we find given in requital for such a service, when his benefactor was retreated from the scene. A circumstance, that strangely aggravates the ingratitude. But this surly Tauciness was familiar with Ben ; when the public
were ever out of humour at his performances, he would revenge it on them, by being out of humour with those pieces which had beft pleased them. I'll only add, that his conduct in this was very contradictory to his cooler profelions, “ that if men would impartially look towards the << offices and functions of a Poet, they would easily conclude “ to themselves the impossibility of any man's being the good « Poet, without first being a good man.'
THEOB.* P. 50. 1. 18. What a pied ninny's this?] This line should certainly be given to Stephano. Pied ninny alludes to the striped coat worn by fools, of which Caliban could have no knowledge. Trinculo had before been reprimanded and threatened by Stephano for giving Caliban the lie, he is now supposed to repeat his offence. Upon which Stephano
What a pied ninny's this ?-thou scurvy patch! Caliban now seeing his master in the mood that he wished, instigates him to vengeance.
I do beseech thy greatness give him blows. JOHNSON P. 50.1. 26. I'll go further.] No farther, CAPELL. P. 55. 1. 13. Pro. Praise in departing. ] This is a sarcasm. They were praising the music and attendance of this visionary entertainment: but their commendations were too hafty, for the banquet was presently fnatched from them : so that the music was only a prelude to a mockery. Prospero therefore says, “ Stay your praises till you have ended your entertainment.
Praise in departing: The phrase alludes to the custom of guests praising their entertainment when they rise from the banquet.
WARB. L. 24. Eacb putter out of five for one. -] By chang. ing of to on, I think, I have set the text right; and will therefore now proceed to explain it. Mr. Warburton observed to me, that this was a fine piece of conceal’d fatire on the voyagers of that time, who had just discovered a new world; and, as was very natural, grew most extravagant in displaying the wonders of it. That, particularly, by each putter out of five for one, was meant the adventurers in the discovery of the West Indies, who had for the money they advanc'd and contributed, 20 per cent Dr. Thirlby did not a little affift this explanation by his concurrence, and by instructing me, that it was usual