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allude to the laws of Athens, where death was the punishment of adultery." But how is this fignificant obfervation made out? Why, who can poffibly object any thing to the contrary? Does not Paufanias relate that Draco, the lawgiver to the Athenians, granted impunity to any person that took revenge upon an adulterer? And was it not alfo the inftitution of Solon, that if any one took an adulterer in the fact, he might ufe him as he pleafed? Thefe things are very true: and to see what a good memory, and found judgment in conjunction, can atchieve! though Homer's date is not determined down to a fingle year, yet it is pretty generally agreed that he lived above three hundred years before Draco and Solon: and that, it feems, has made him feem to allude to the very laws, which these two legiflators propounded above three hundred years after. If this inference be not fomething like an anachronism or prolepfis, I will look once more into my lexicons for the true meaning of the words. It appears to me, that fomebody befides Mars and Venus has been caught in a net by this epifode: and I could call in other inftances, to confirm what treacherous tackle this net-work is, if not cautiously handled.
How juft notwithstanding, I have been in detecting the anachronisms of my author, and in defending him for the ufe of them, our late editor feems to think, they fhould rather have flept in obfcurity and the having difcovered them is fneered at, as a fort of wrong-headed fagacity.
The numerous corrections which I have made of the poet's text in my SHAKSPEARE Reftored, and which the publick have been fo kind to think well
of, are, in the appendix of Mr. Pope's laft edition, flightingly called various readings, gueffes, &c. He confeffes to have inferted as many of them as he judged of any the leaft advantage to the poet; but fays, that the whole amounted to about twentyfive words; and pretends to have annexed a complete lift of the reft, which were not worth his embracing. Whoever has read my book will, at one glance, fee how in both these points varacity is flrained, fo an injury may be done. etfi obeffe non pote, tamen cogitat.
Another expedient to make my work appear a trifling nature, has been an attempt to depreciate literal criticifm. To this end, and to pay a fervile compliment to Mr. Pope, an anonymous writer has like a Scotch pedlar in wit, unbraced his pack`on. the fubject. But, that his virulence might not feem to be levelled fingly at me, he has done me the honour to join Dr. Bentley in the libel, I was in hopes we fhould have been both abufed with fmartness of fatire at least, though not with folidity of argument; that it might have been worth fome reply in defence of the science attacked. I may fairly say of this author, as Falstaff does of Poins: Hang him, baboon! his wit is as thick as Tewksbury mustard; there is no more conceit in him, than is in a MALLET. If it be not a prophanation to fet the opinion of the divine Longinus against fuch a fcribbler, he tells us exprefsly, That to make a judgment upon words (and writings) is the moft confummate fruit of much experience." ท τον λογων κρισις πολλής έσι πείρας τελευταίον επιγενημα,
4 David Mallet. See his poem Of Verbal Criticism, Vol. I of his works, 12mo. 1759. REED.
Whenever words are depraved, the fenfe of course must be corrupted; and thence the reader is betrayed into a false meaning.
If the Latin and Greek languages have received the greatest advantages imaginable from the labours of the editors and criticks of the two laft ages, by whofe aid and affiftance the grammarians have been enabled to write infinitely better in that art than even the preceding grammarians, who wrote when those tongues flourished as living languages; should account it a particular happiness, that, by the faint effay I have made in this work, a path might be chalked out for abler hands, by which to derive the fame advantages to our own tongue; a tongue, which, though it wants none of the fundamental qualities of an univerfal language, yet, as a noble writer fays, lifps and ftammers as in its cradle; and has produced little more towards its polifhing than complaints of its barbarity.
Having now run through all thofe points, which I intended fhould make any part of this differtation, and having in my former edition made publick acknowledgments of the affiftances lent me, I fhall conclude with a brief account of the methods taken in this.
It was thought proper, in order to reduce the bulk and price of the impreffion, that the notes, wherever they would admit of it, might be abridged for which reafon I have curtailed a great quantity of fuch, in which explanations were too prolix, or authorities in fupport of an emendation too numerous: and many I have entirely expunged, which were judged rather verbofe and declamatory (and fo notes merely of oftentation) than neceffary and inftructive.
The few literal errors which have escaped notice for want of revifals, in the former edition, are here reformed; and the pointing of innumerable paffages is regulated with all the accuracy I am capable of,
I fhall decline making any further declaration of the pains I have taken upon my author, because it was my duty, as his editor, to publish him with my best care and judgment; and because I am fenfible, all fuch declarations are conftrued to be laying a fort of debt on the publick, As the former edition has been received with much indulgence, I ought to make my acknowledgments to the town for their favourable opinion of it; and I fhall always be proud to think that encouragement the best payment I can hope to receive from my poor ftudies.
SIR THOMAS HANMER'S
WHAT the publick is here to expect is a true
and correct edition of Shakspeare's works, cleared from the corruptions with which they have hitherto abounded. One of the great admirers of this incomparable author hath made it the amusement. of his leifure hours for many years paft to look over his writings with a careful eye, to note the
obfcurities and abfurdities introduced into the text, and according to the beft of his judgment to restore the genuine fense and purity of it. In this he propofed nothing to himself, but his private fatisfaction in making his own copy as perfect as he could: but, as the emendations multiplied upon his hands, other gentlemen, equally fond of the author, defired to see them, and fome were so kind as to give their affiftance, by communicating their obfervations and conjectures upon difficult paffages which had occurred to them. Thus by degrees the work growing more confiderable than was at firft expected, they who had the opportunity of looking into it, too partial perhaps in their judgment, thought it worth being made publick; and he, who hath with difficulty yielded to their perfuafions, is far from defiring to reflect upon the late editors for the omiffions and defects which they left to be fupplied by others who fhould follow them in the fame province. On the contrary, he thinks the world much obliged to them for the progrefs they made in weeding out fo great a number of blunders and miftakes as they have done; and probably he who hath carried on the work might never have thought of fuch an undertaking, if he had not found a confiderable part fo done to his hands.
From what caufes it proceeded that the works of this author, in the first publication of them, were more injured and abused than perhaps any that ever paffed the prefs, hath been fufficiently explained in the preface to Mr. Pope's edition, which is here fubjoined, and there needs no more to be faid upon that fubject. This only the reader is