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WILLIAM of SENs. See ARCHITECTs, list of 100. WILLIAM or WYKFHAM. See ARCHITECrs, list of 141. WIND-REAM. An obsolete name for a Collar-BEAM. WINDLAss or WINDLAcE. A machine for raising weights, in which a rope or chain is wound about a cylindrical body moved by levers; also a handle by which anything is turned. WINDow. An aperture in a wall for the transmission of light to an apartment. See Book III. Chap. I. Sect. 20. WINE CELLAR. The apartment on the basement story, under ground, for stowing wine. The most important point in its construction is its being kept at a cool equal temperature. See BINNs. WIRE. A small flexible bar of metal, elongated by means of a machine called a drawbench. WITH. (Sax.) The partition between two chimney flues. See CHIMNEY. Wood. (Sax.) A fibrous material much used in building, and formed into shape by edge tools. The different sorts in use form the subject of Sect. 4. Chap. II. Book II. WooD BRIcks. Blocks of wood cut to the form and size of bricks, inserted in the interior walls as holds for the joinery. WoRKING DRA wings. See Book II. Chap. IV. Sect. 4. Worton, SIR HENRY. See ARchitects, list of 251. WREATHED Columns. Those which are twisted in the form of a screw, also very appropriately called contorted columns. WREN. See ARchitects, list of 264.

X. XENonochium. (Gr. Eevos, a guest, and Aexouai, to receive.) A name given by the ancients to a building for the reception of strangers. Xystus. (Gr.) In ancient architecture, a spacious portico, wherein the athletae exercised

themselves during winter. The Romans called, on the contrary, their hypathral walks xysti, which walks were by the Greeks called reptópopubes.

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ZAx. An instrument used for cutting slates.

ZigzAG MoULDING. An ornament used in Gothic architecture. See p. 174.

ZINC. A metal now much used in building. See Book II. Chap. II. Sect. 7.

Zocco. (It.) The same as Socle, which see.

ZorhoRus. The same as FRIEzE, which see.

Zoth EcA. A small room or alcove, which might be added to, or separated from, the room to which it adjoined.

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ABATToIRs, 2932, et seq. Ought to be esta-
blished in large towns, 2932. Erected
first at Paris, 2933, 2934. Those of
Menilmontant and Montmartre, 2934.
That of Menilmontant described, 2935,
Abbreviation, method of, in composition,
Aberdeen, Lord, his opinion on the pointed
arch, 300.
Aberystwith Castle, 402.
Abury, circles of stones, 16, 17.40.
Act for better regulation of buildings in
London, called “Building Act,” Ap-
pendix, page 819, et seq.
Act for regulating chimney sweepers and
chimneys, Appendix, page 853, et seq.
Adam, architect, temp. George III., 518.
Adam, Robert, an architect, temp. George
III., 517. His work, ib.
Adams, Bernard, an architect, temp. Eliza-
beth, 442.
Adams, Robert, an architect, temp. Eliza-
beth, 440.
Adelphi, in the Strand, by Adam, 517.
Adi, temple of, at Ellora, 26.
Admiralty, designed by Ripley, 507.
Admiralty, in London, 2886. In Paris,
Adrian I., Pope, arts under, 281.
Adze, a carpenter's tool, 2003.
AEsthetics, in architecture, 2493.
Ayopal, or Fora, of the Greeks, 173.
Agricola, architecture under, in Britain,
Agrigentum, temples of Peace and Concord,
Air drains, what, and use of 1886.
Air vessel in pumps, 2223.
Aix-la-Chapelle, cathedral and palace of
Alae of a Roman house, 249. 253.
Alatrium, Cyclopean remains at, 32.
Alberti, Leo Bat., 324. Account of his
book, De Re AEdificatoria, 325. His works,
Alcala, church and college of the Jesuits at,
Alcala, college and church of 367.
Alcala, palace of 368.
Alcantara in Spain, bridge at, 193.
Alcazars of Segovia and Seville, 128.

Alcinous, house of, illustrative of Greek
architecture, 138. Described, generally,
Aldrich, dean of Christchurch, his works
and skill as an architect, 490.
Alfred, king, his care of buildings of his
time, 386.
Alhambra, ornamental detail of 125. When
founded, 127. Description of 127.
All Saints', York, parochial church of 421.
All Souls' College, Oxford, some part by
Hawksmoor, 499.
Amberley Castle, built by Rede, bishop of
Chichester, 413. -
Ambresbury House, Wilts, by Webb on
Jones's designs, 465.
Amiens, cathedral at, 310. 314, 315. Com-
parison of with Salisbury Cathedral, 315.
Ammanati, Bartol., his works, 331. His
work La Città, ib.
Amphitheatre at Capua, 193.
Amphitheatres described. Those of Alba,
at Otricoli, on the banks of the Gari-
gliano, Puzzuoli, Capua, Verona, Pola,
Arles, Saintes, Autun, Nismes, and Nice,
228. Coliseum described, with plan, sec-
tion, and elevation, 192. 228, 229. First
used by the Etruscans, 232. That at
Nismes, dimensions of 233.
Ampthill, Beds., 423. 426.
Ampthill, drawings relating to, 440.
Amsterdam, exchange at, 2939.
Amsterdam, town hall at, 2897.
Anastasius II., architecture under, 271.
Angle of vision, in perspective, how to se-
lect, 2444, et seq.
Angle ribs for square domes, 2064.
Angle tie, what, 2009.
Anglo-Saxon architecture, 383, et seq.
Characteristics of 390.
Anglo-Saxon buildings enumerated, 389.
Anglo-Saxon columns, 390. Arches, ib.
Capitals, ib. Windows, ib. Walls, ib.
Cielings and roofs, ib. Ornaments, ib.
and 397. Plans, ib. Towers, ib.
Anglo-Saxon style, three aeras of 391.
Annex, of Friburg, an early German archi-
tect, 365.
Annuities. See Compound Interest.
Annuities, tables relating to, Appendix, p.
879, et seq.
Annulet, 2532.
Annunziata, choir of church of, at Florence,

Anson, Lord, house for, in St. James's
Square, by Stuart, 516.
Antae, 2671.
Antefixae, in a Roman house, 247.
Antoine, architect of the Mint at Paris,
Antonine column, 2603.
Antoninus and Faustina, Corinthian temple
of, at Rome, 211.
Antwerp, town hall at, 2897.
Apodyterium of the Roman baths, 235.
Apollo Dindymaeus, Ionic temple of near
Miletus, 153.
Apollo Epicurius, temple of, in Arcadia,
Apotheca of a Roman house, 253.
Apron-piece in stairs, 2026.
Aqueducts, earliest, of Rome, 223. That
of Appius Claudius and Aqua Appia,
ib. That of Quintus Martius, Aqua
Julia, Aqua Tepula, Virginia, Aqua
Claudia, ib. Cubic feet of water sup-
plied to Rome, ib. That at Metz, ib.
Castella in, 225. Venter in, ib. In-
jured, 238.
Aqueducts of the Greeks, 174.
Arabian architecture, its appearance after
the seventh century, 118. Decline of,
Arabian domestic architecture exemplified
in a house at Algiers, 130.
Araeostyle Intercolumniation, 2605. 2608,
2609. 2613.
Aranjuez, royal pleasure house of at, 371.
Arc, complement of 1037. Supplement of
1038. Sine of 1039. Versed sine of
1040. Tangent of 1041. Cosine of
1042. Cotangent of 1043. Cosecant of
Arcades and arches, 2617, et seq.
Arcades. Theory of equality between
weights and supports, 2618, 2619. 2626.
Tuscan, 2621, 2622. Doric, ib. 2623.
Ionic, ib. 2624. Corinthian, ib. 2625.
Generally in respect of the theory, 2622.
Chambers' law for regulating, 2626.
Ratios between the solid and void parts,
2627. Tuscan, with pedestals, 2628.
Doric, with pedestals, 2629. Ionic, with
pedestals, 2630. Corinthian, with pedes-
tals, 2631. Imposts and archivolts of,
2632. Vignola's rules in, 2633. Pal-
ladio's rules in, 2634. Columns used in,
2635. Scamozzi's rules in, ib. Their
internal decorations, ib. At Massimi
palace, ib. Late Mews at Charing Cross,
ib. By Serlio, 2636. At Caprarola, 2637.
At the Belvedere garden, Rome, 2638.
By Palladio, 2639. By Vignola, for
Borghese family, at Mondragone, 2640.
At Basilica, Vicenza, 2641.
Arcades above Arcades, 2653, et seq. Best
mode of disposing according to Cham-
bers, 2654, et seq. According to Scamozzi,
2655. In the Carità at Venice, ib. and
2656. In Palazzo Thiene, ib. Balus-
trades of 2657. Doric above Tuscan,

2658, 2659. Ionic above Doric, 2660,
2661. Corinthian above Ionic, 2662.
Of the Basilica at Vicenza, 2663. Con-
fined by the ancients to theatres and
amphitheatres, 2664.
Arcadius, architecture under, 271.
Arch, elliptical, to draw and find the joints,
Arch, flat, in masonry, to draw the joints
without the centre, 1932.
Arch flat, to draw and find the joints, 1932.
Arch, introduction of effected great change
in the art, 266.
Arch, no trace of in the ruins of Babylon,
45. In Egypt, at Saccara, 75.
Arch of Claudius Drusus, niches at, 2776.
Arch of Constantine, 262. 2547.
Arch of the Goldsmiths at Rome, 195.
Arch of Janus, niches at, 2775.
Arch of Severus at Rome, 264.
Arch of Titus, 2547. Of Septimus Severus,
Arch of Titus at Rome, 264.
Arch rampant, pointed, to draw and find
the joints, 1943.
Arch unknown in Grecian architecture,
Archer, pupil of Vanbrugh, 498.
Arches, Arabian, species most employed,
129. At Bussorah, 131.
Arches, equilibrium of history, 1353–
1363. Observations on friction, and me-
thods of estimating, 1864–1389. Ob-
servations on the way in which areh
stones support each other, 1390–1397.
Geometrical application of foregoing,
1398, 1399. Experiments on sur-
mounted arches, 1400. Application of
the principles to the pointed arch, 1401.
The same to a surmounted catenarean
arch, 1402–1406. Application of the
principles to surbased arches, 1407.
Thrusts of arches: cassinoid, cycloid,
and ellipsis, 1408–1412. Raking arches,
1413–1416. Arch with a level extra-
dos, 1417–1421. Different application
of principles in the last case, 1422. 1431.
Arches whose voussoirs increase towards
the springing, 1432–1441. Mode in
which an arch fails, 1442. Compound
vaulting, 1443. Groined vaulting, 1444
-1458. Application of principles of
groined vaulting, 1459–1463. Model
of a coved vault, principles applied to,
1464–1477. Spherical vaulting, prin-
ciples applied to, 1478–1493. Adhesive
power of mortar and plaster upon stones
and bricks, 1494–1499.
Arches, inverted, in foundations, 1885.
Arches, to make working drawings for, and
describe moulds of voussoirs, 1959–1966.
Elliptical, cutting through a wall ob-
liquely to bevels and moulds of 1967–
1970. In sloping walls, to make working
drawings for, 1971, 1972. An abridged
method of doing the last, 1973, 1974.
Oblique, whereof the front slopes and

rear are perpendicular to the axis, 1976
—1979. Semicircular-headed, in a mass
of masonry battering on an oblique
plane, 1980-1983. On the quoin of a
sloping wall to find the moulds, 1984
–1987. In round towers or circular
walls, 1988–1990. Oblique in a round
sloping tower intersecting a semicircular
arch within it, 1991-1994.
Architects of France, attached to Venetian
in preference to Roman school, 358.
Architectural design, maxims in, 2502.
Bounding lines of buildings not sources
of beauty considered geometrically, 2503.
Architecture, as a fine art, dependent on
expression, 2492. Its end, ib. Genius
in, what, ib. Tastein, what, ib. AEsthe-
tics in, 2493. Considered in respect of
rules of art, 2494. Fitness in the basis
of proportion, 2496–2499. Fitness de-
pendent on equilibrium, 2500. Stability,
source of fitness in, ib. Maxims relating
to fitness, 2502. Bounding lines of
buildings, 2503. Interiors of buildings,
beauty of 2504. Types in, 2507. Styles
in, all dependent on fitness, 2508. Unity
and harmony in, 2509. Symmetry in, ib.
Colour in, 2511. Polychromatic, 2512.
Decoration of 2513–2522.
Architecture of England from James I. to
Anne, 451, et seq. Its character, 451.
IDeficient in picturesque beauty, 451.
Architecture of England said by Walpole
to have resumed her rights under George
II., 506.
Architecture of England under George I.,
499, et seq. Under George II., 506, et seq.
Under George III., 514, et seq.
Architecture of the Greeks in its decline,
Architecture of Mexico, 109, et seq.
Architecture not a fine art until founded on
rules of proportion, 1.
Architecture not confined to a single type, 1.
Architecture, pointed. See “Pointed Ar-
Architrave, to form, in joinery, 2196.
Archivolts of arcades, 2632.
Area given, method of enclosing in any
regular polygon, 1518-1524.
Arena of an amphitheatre, 228. 230, 231.
Arena of the Roman Circus, 240.
Argentino theatre at Rome, 2958.
Argos, gate and chief tower of Cyclopean,
Arithmetic and algebra, introduction, 522,
523. Signs + and —, 524–526. Mul-
tiplication of simple quantities, 527–
531. Whole numbers in respect to their
factors, 532, 533. Division of simple
quantities, 534–539. The properties
of integers as respects their divisors, 540
–548. Fractions, 549–554. Properties
of fractions, 555–557. Addition and
subtraction of fractions, 558–560. Mul-
tiplication and division of fractions, 561
–574. Square numbers, 575—582.

Square roots and the irrational numbers
that result from them, 583–592. Im-
possible or imaginary quantities, 593–
600. Cube roots, and the irrational
numbers that result from them, 601–
605. Of powers in general, 606–610.
Calculation of powers, 611-616. Roots
relatively to powers in general, 617–
620. The representation of powers by
fractional exponents, 620–625. Me-
thods of calculation, and their mutual
connection, 626–631. Logarithms, 632
–638. Logarithmic tables now used,
639–640. Method of expressing loga-
rithms, 641–654. The subtraction of
compound quantities, 655–658. The
multiplication of compound quantities,
659–661. The division of compound
quantities, 662–666. The resolution of
fractions into infinite series, 667-679.
The squares of compound quantities,
680–687. Extraction of roots of com-
pound quantities, 688–692. Calcu-
lation of irrational quantities, 693-698.
Of cubes, and the extraction of their
roots, 699–701. The higher powers of
compound quantities, 702–706. On
the transposition of letters, whereon the
last rule rests, 707–711. The expres-
sion of irrational powers by infinite
series, 712-718. Resolution of negative
powers, 719–726. Arithmetical ratio,
727–731. Arithmetical proportion, 732
–734. Arithmetical progression, 735
–742. Summation of arithmetical pro-
gressions, 743–748. Geometrical ratio,
749–751. Greatest common divisor,
752–753. Geometrical proportion,754
–762. Compound relations, 763—773.
Geometrical progression, 774–782. In-
finite decimal fractions, 783–796. Cal-
culation of interest, 797-810. Solu-
tion of problems, 811–815. Resolution
of simple equations, or of the first de-
gree, 816–824. Resolution of two or
more equations of the first degree, 825
–832. Resolution of pure quadratic
equations, 833–841. Resolution of
mixed equations of the second degree,
842—848. Resolution of complete equa-
tions of the third degree, 849–860.
Decimals, 861–867. Duodecimals, 868
—872. Table of squares, cubes, and
roots of numbers up to 1000.
Arithmetical progression, 735-742. Sum-
mation of 743–748.
Arithmetical proportion, 732–734.
gression, 735-742.
Arithmetical ratio, 727–731.
Armarium of a Roman house, 253.
Arriaga, Luigi, a Spanish architect, 368.
Arris of a piece of stuff, 2125.
Arroyo Guiseppe, an architect of Spain,
Arts in England have never thoroughly
taken root, 437. Flourished while in
the hands of the clergy, ib.


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