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HANDRAIL.

Extra sinking to rail, for iron balusters - - - per foot run fixed 032 Extra sinking to rail, in ramp or wreath - - - •l Mahogany moulded cap, wrought by hand, each - - •495 Mahogany moulded cap, turned and mitred, each - - •4 Mahogany scroll, each - - - - - 1-8 Making and fixing each joint with joint screw - - “231 Making model and fixing iron balusters - - - 2-095 Making model and fixing iron columns to curtail, each - 2-142 Preparing and fixing deal bar balusters, each - - *04 Preparing and fixing deal bar balusters, dovetailed to steps - -056

Every half rail is measured two-thirds of a whole one; and all rails are measured 3 inches beyond the springing of every wreath or circular part. All cylinders used in rails, glued up in thicknesses, to be paid for extra

The following have not been before computed: – FRENch CAs EMENT FRAMEs. Plain solid frames, oak sunk sills, weathered and throated for 1} inch French casements, quarters not exceeding 4 by 3 - per foot super fixed 043

Ditto, for 2-inch French casements, quarters 4 by 4 - ‘O57 Deal-cased frames, oak sunk sills, with wainscot stiles and

beads, for 2-inch French casements - - - ‘OS6 Circular head, measured square - - - - -258 Circular circular head, curve inch to a foot - - -727 If with mahogany stiles and beads, add on the wainscot - -021 If any of the above are for 24-inch sashes or casements, add

on the deal - - - - - - -014 If any on the wainscot - - - - - •021 If any on the mahogany - - - - - ‘O28 Extra grooves or beads, add - - - - per foot run “Old

Circular on plan, flat sweep, once and a half the straight.
Quirk on plan, double.

SAsHEs AND FRAMEs, fitted and hung.
Deal cased frames, oak sunk sills, 13-inch ovolo sashes, single

hung brass pulleys, best white lines, and iron weights - per foot super. 086 Ditto, double hung - - - - - - -100 Ditto, double hung, circular head, measured square - - -257 Ditto, circular on plan, flat sweep - - - - -143 Deal cased frames, oak sunk sills, 2-inch ovolo sashes, single hung,

brass pulleys, best white lines, and iron weights - - -100 Ditto, double hung - - - - - - -107 Ditto, double hung, circular head, measured square - - -272 Ditto, double hung, circular on plan, flat sweep - - -157 Circular circular head, inch to the foot - - - -770

Deal cased frames, oak sunk sills, wainscot pulley pieces and beads, 11-inch wainscot astragal sashes, brass axle pulleys, single

hung with patent lines - - - - - ‘121 Ditto, double hung - - - - - - -143 Deal cased frames, oak sunk sills, wainscoat pulley pieces and beads, 13-inch wainscot astragal sashes, brass axle pulleys with patent lines, circular on plan, flat sweep - - - -172 Circular circular head, inch to the foot - - - -866 Deal cased frames, oak sunk sills, wainscot pulley pieces and beads, 2-inch wainscot astragal sashes, brass axle pulleys, double hung with patent lines - - - - - -143 Ditto, circular head, measured square - - - - -342 Ditto, circular on plan, flat sweep - - - - *214 Circular circular head, inch to the foot - - - -909 Deal cased frames, oak sunk sills, mahogany pulley pieces and beads, 11-inch Spanish mahogany astragal sashes, brass pulleys and patent lines, single hung - - - - -157 Ditto, double hung - - - - - - -171 Ditto, circular head, measured square - - - - -371 Ditto, circular on plan, flat sweep - - - - .257 Circular circular head, inch to the foot - - - •98

Deal cased frames, oak sunk sills, mahogany pulley pieces and

SAsHEs AND FRAMEs.
beads, 2-inch Spanish mahogany astragal sashes, brass pulleys

and patent lines - - - per foot super. 178 Ditto, circular head, measured square - - - - -399 Ditto, circular on plan, flat sweep - - - - •272 Deal cased frames, oak sunk sills, mahogany pulley pieces and

beads, 21-inch Spanish mahogany astragal sashes, brass axle

pulleys and patent lines - - - - - •243 Ditto, circular on plan, flat sweep - - - - "315 Circular circular head inch to the foot - - - 1 -123 If Honduras mahogany, deduct from the straight - - ‘O29 If Honduras mahogany, deduct from the circular - - ‘043 If lamb's tongue, or other modern modelled bar, add on the

astragal - - - - - - - "Ol 4

VENETIAN AND PALLADIAN SAsHEs AND FRAMEs, fitted and hung. Venetian deal cased frames, oak sunk sills, 11 inch ovolo sashes, brass pulleys, double hung with best flax line and iron weights, per foot super. 111

Ditto, with 2-inch sashes - - - - - -129 Ditto, circular on plan, flat sweep - - - - -172 Palladian head, measured square - - - - ‘286 Circular Palladian head, measured square - - - ‘866

Venetian deal cased frames, wainscot pulley pieces and beads,
13-inch wainscot astragal sashes, brass pulleys and patent lines,

double hung - - - - - - 157 Ditto, with 2-inch sashes - - - - - •l 72 Ditto, circular on plan, flat sweep - - - - *2OO Ditto, Palladian head, measured square - - - ":342 Circular Palladian head, measured square - - - '952 If any of the above are in 21-inch wainscot, add on the 2-inch

straight - - - - - - - "Ol 4 Ditto, on the circular - - - - - - *028 Ditto, on the circular circular - - - - •043 If in Spanish mahogany, add on similar article in straight wainsco "O43 Ditto, on the circular - - - - - - • 114 If lamb's tongue, add on the astragal - - - - ‘OO7 When any of the above sashes are with a bevelled bar up to the

rebate, add on the astragal - - - - - "Ol 4

FRENcH CASEMENTs, fitted and hung.

11-inch deal ovolo - - - - - - per foot super. O57 2-inch deal ovolo - - - - - - -064 21-inch deal ovolo - - - - - - -O71 15-inch wainscot - - - - - - ‘O78 2-inch wainscot - - - - - - ‘086 21-inch wainscot - - - - - - • IOO 1}-inch Honduras mahogany - - - - - ‘O86 2-inch Honduras mahogany - - - - - -100 21-inch Honduras mahogany - - - - - *114 11-inch Spanish mahogany - - - - - "100 2-inch Spanish mahogany - - - - - *114 2-inch Spanish mahogany - - - - - • 129 If with margin lights, add on the deal - - - - -018 If with margin lights, add on the wainscot - - - ‘O29 If with margin lights, add on the mahogany - - - ‘O36 If in two heights, add - - - -021 If in two heights add, on the wainscot - - - - ‘O29 If in two heights, add on the mahogany - - "O43

Circular on the plan, flat sweep, once and a half the straight, and
exceeding inch to the foot, double.

If astragal and hollow lamb's tongue, or other modern bar, add- "Ol 4
If with bevelled bars up to the rebate, add on the astragal and

hollow - - - - - - - ‘OO7
Extra rebated edges, grooves, or beads, in deal - - - per foot run '014
Extra rebated edges, grooves, or beads, in wainscot - - -021
Extra rebated edges, grooves, or beads, in mahogany - - •028

SKYLIGHTs, fixed. 13-inch deal ovolo - - - - - - per foot super. 043

Skylights.
2-inch deal ovolo - - - - - - per foot super. 050
2-inch oak ovolo - - - - - - ‘O71
If astragal and ovolo, ad - - - - - '007

DADo.
3-inch deal, keyed - - - - - - per foot super. 043
1-inch deal keyed - - - - - - ‘O50
Raking and scribed to steps, add - - - - ‘Ol2
If ploughed and tongued, add - - - - - -007
If feather-tongued, add - - - - - "Ol2
Circular on plan, flat sweep - - - - - •143
Circular on plan, quirk sweep - - - - - ‘229
If 14-inch deal, add on the straight - - - - '007
If 13-inch deal, add on the circular - - - - ‘Olá
Narrow dado grounds - - - - - *018
Narrow dado grounds, circular flat swee - - - ‘O43

2369. We have now enumerated the principal articles of joinery in use. If further information be sought, and the reader have not the means of tracing the value in the way by which the constants already given have been obtained, he may refer to some of the price books, whereof we consider Skyring's to be as well digested as any of those that are annually published. 2370. SLATER. The work of the slater is measured and estimated by the square of 100 feet superficial. Of the different sorts of slate, and how much a given quantity of each will cover, we have already spoken in Chap. II. Sect. IX. (1798, et seq.) To measure slating, in addition to the nett measure of the work, 6 inches are allowed for all the eaves, and 4 inches by their length for hips; such allowance being made in the first-named case because the slates are there double, and in the latter case for the waste in cutting away the sides of the slates to fit. When rags or imperial slates are used an additional allowance of 9 inches is made for the eaves, because those slates run larger than the other sorts. 2371. MAson. Solid works, such as pilasters, cornices, coping, stringings, and other solid works, should be first measured to ascertain the cubic quantity of stone they contain as going from the banker to the building; and on this, work, as it may happen to be the plain work, sunk work, moulded or circular work, must be measured in superficial feet and separately valued. It is usual to allow a plain face to each joint, but no more than one should be taken to a 3-feet length. In staircases the flyers should be taken where splayed on the back, their full length and width by three fifths of the depth of the riser, to allow for waste in getting two of the steps from the same block of stone. The measurement for the winders seems to be most properly conducted by ascertaining the nett cubic contents of them, and then making the allowance for waste. Indeed this is a more proper and satisfactory mode for the flyers. The top of the treads are then taken on the superficies as plain work, and the fronts and ends of the risers as moulded work. In an open staircase, the under side of the flyers is measured as plain work; the under side of the winders as circular plain work; the rebates, cuttings out, pinnings in, &c., as they are found. Cylindrical work, such as of columns, after the cube quantity is ascertained, is measured as equal to plain work twice taken. In Portland dressings to chimneys, whereever edges appear, it is customary to add an inch to the dimensions for extra labour; to marble, of an inch; or to take the running dimensions of the edges. 2372. Paving slabs and stones under 2 inches thick are taken by superficial measure. Cornices are measured by obtaining their girt, and multiplying by their length for the quantity of moulded work in them. 2373. The following are a few constants of the chief articles of labour in mason's work, applicable, as before mentioned, in the carpenter's and joiner's works.

Plain work - - - - - per foot super. 166
Plain work, rubbed to face - * - - -18

Plain work, tooled - - - - *208
Sunk work - - - - - -222
Moulded work - - - - - *278
Moulded work, stopped - - - - -333
Gothic moulded work - - - - *445
Gothic moulded work, stopped - - - -528
Gothic moulded work, circular - - - *556
Circular plain work - - - - *264
Circular sunk plain work - - - “333
Circular moulded plain work - - - -361

Circular, plain moulded work, stopped - - •416

2374. FoundER. The proper mode of estimating cast iron is by the ton or cwt. Moulds for the castings, when out of the common course, are charged extra. Very often, too, cast iron pipes and gutters are, according to their sizes, charged by the yard. (See 1754, et seq.) 2375. SMITH and IRoNMongER. Wrought iron for chimney bars, iron ties, screw bolts, balusters with straps, area gratings, handrails and balusters, hook-and-eye hinges, brackets for shelves, chains for posts, wrought iron columns with caps and bases, fancy iron railing, casements, shutterbars, and the like, are charged by the pound, at various prices, according to the nature of the work. In the ironmonger's department nails and brads are charged by the hundred, though sold by weight, seldom exceeding 900 to the 1000. Screws, which take their names from their length, are charged by the dozen. Cast, and also wrought butts and screws, cast and wrought back flaps, butts and screws, side or H hinges, with screws, by the pair. All sorts of bolts with screws, of which the round part of the bolt determines the length, by the inch. H hinges and cross garnet hinges, by the pair. Other hinges and screws by the piece. Locks by the piece. Pulleys according to their diameters. On all ironmongery 20 per cent. is charged on the prime cost. (See 2253, et seq.) 2376. PLASTERER. The work of the plasterer is measured, generally, by the yard. The most usual way of measuring stucco partitions and walls is, to take the height from the upper edge of the ground to half way up the cornice, the extra price of the stucco making good for the deficiency of floated work under it. In ceilings and other work, the surface under the cornice is often taken, because there is no deficiency but in the setting, and that is compensated for by the labour in making good. Cornices are measured by the foot, and estimated according to the quantity of mouldings and enrichments they contain. Where there are more than four angles in a room, each extra one is charged at the price per foot run extra of the cornice. Stucco reveals are charged per foot run, and according to their width of 4 or 9 inches or more. Quirks, arrisses, and beads by the foot run, as are margins to raised panels, small plain mouldings, &c. In the case of enriched cornices and mouldings, and flowers to ceilings, they must be considered with reference to the size and quantity of ornament. For these, the papier maché ornaments, (see 2251.) which are much lighter, are coming now into very general use, and from the ease and security with which they are fixed, will, we have no doubt, within no very distant period, supersede all use of plaster ornaments. In subsection 2248 will be found some information useful in the investigation of the value of plasterers' work, and which might form the basis for a set of constants under that head. But we have not been able to obtain sufficient data for carrying them completely out; which, from the minor importance of this branch of building, is perhaps of no very great consequence. 2377. PLUMBER. The work of this artificer is charged by the cwt., to which is added the labour of laying the lead. Water pipes, rain-water pipes, and funnel pipes are charged by the foot, according to their diameter; so also are socket pipes for sinks, joints being separately paid for. Common lead pumps, with iron work, including bucket, sucker, &c., at so much each; the same with hydraulic and other pumps, according to their diameters. In the same manner are charged water-closets, basins, air traps, washers and plugs, spindle valves, stop-cocks, ball-cocks, &c. (See 2212, et seq.) 2378. GLAzIER. The work of the glazier is measured and estimated by the superficial foot, according to the quality of the glass used; it is always measured between the rebates. (See 2225, et seq.) 2379. PAINTER. In the measurement and estimation of painting, the superficial quantity is taken, allowing all edges, sinkings, and girths as they appear. When work is cut in on both edges it is taken by the foot run. The quantity of feet is reduced to yards, by which painting is charged for large quantities. In taking iron railing the two sides are measured as flat work; but if it be full of ornament, once and a half, or twice, is taken for each side. Sash frames are taken each, and sash squares by the dozen. On gilding we have already spoken in Sect. XII. (2267, et seq.) Cornices, reveals to windows and doors, strings, window sills, water trunks and gutters, handrails, newels, &c., are taken by the foot run. Many small articles by the piece. Plain and enriched cornices by the foot run, according to the quantity of work in them. Work done from a ladder is paid for extra. The price depends on the number of times over that the work is painted; and the labour is usually considered as one third of the price charged. Imitations of woods and marbles are also charged extra. 2380. PAPERHANGER. In common papers the price varies according to the colours or quantity of blocks used in printing it. Embossed and other papers are of higher prices. These, as well as lining paper, are charged by the piece, containing 63 feet super. The hanging is charged separate, and borders, mouldings, &c. by the yard run. (See 2278.)

CHAP. IV.

MEDIUM OF EXPRESSION.

SECT. I.
roit. AWiNG IN GEN ritAL.

2381. UNDER this section it is not our intention to enter into the refinements of the art, but merely to make the attempt of directing the student to the first principles of a faithful representation of ordinary and familiar objects, with all their imperfections; or, in other words, of transferring to a plane surface what the artist actually sees or conceives in his mind. This power is of vital importance to the architect, and without it he is unworthy the name. The practice, in these days, of employing draughtsmen to make drawings for competitions, is not less disgraceful to those who have recourse to such a practice, than to the committees and other bodies, who are, in nine cases out of ten, grievously misled and deceived by the practice. Every work in a competition should be strictly limited to lines in its representation, and without colour or shadow. It is not very long since that, in a great competition, we saw drawings shadowed in a way that must have had some other luminary than the sun to light them, unless he had changed for the moment the usual course in which he travels through the heavens, for the gratification of the luminous draughtsman who craved his special aid. We regret that architects generally do not throw aside the pernicious system. There are some few who have done so, and are indebted to the practice for the rank they hold. We shall here merely add, before entering on the subject, that in our opinion, the greatest curse that in these days has fallen on architecture, is the employment of draughtsmen, who with their trumpery colouring and violent effects mislead the silly men and common-place critics that usually decide upon the merits of their works. In the days of Jones, Wren, and Vanbrugh, this was fortunately not the case. We ourselves possess more than one drawing of Wren, which fully prove that the medium of expression for the workman in our own art was then simple, and wanted not such silly aids as those whereof we have been speaking. If proof be required, let the authorities, who ought better to direct these matters, make a pilgrimage to Oxford, and there examine the drawings of Wren, whose equal we cannot point to in the present age. Let them examine the way in which Inigo Jones went to work from the MS. notes on his copy of Palladio, now at Worcester College, and we may hope to see better days. The present mode is that of making a pretty picture; and he who makes the prettiest, provided he have a reasonable number of friends in a committee, is the lucky candidate. But we are wandering from the subject, and must return to that which heads the section. 2382. The usual mode of teaching drawing now in use is, as we conceive, among the most absurd and extravagant methods of imparting instruction that can be well conceived. The learner is usually first put to copying drawings or prints, on which he is occupied for a considerable time. How much more would he learn, and how much more quickly, by drawing at once from the figure or its parts; thus at once, for that the thing is quite possible, we know from experience, acquiring the power of transferring to a plane surface the representation of that which is placed before his eye? And here we deem it proper to apprise the reader that the representation of form is all that the architect requires. The power of doing this is no slight acquirement. Under perspective, we shall see in the following section, that for all geometrical solids the representation is dependent on mechanical means, of which every one may easily possess himself; and these may, if it be desirable, be shadowed truly by the methods given in Section III.; but the undulating form of the figure, and the infinite variety of a landscape, by changing the situation of the spectator, is more the matter now to be considered. As to the materials to be used for the purpose, a black lead pencil and some Indian ink or sepia are all that the architect can want. On them we shall not therefore stop to waste his and our own time. It is the practice of going further that has excited the observations with which we be 2383. We are fully aware of the impossibility by writing merely, without the aid of a master at the student's back, to teach any one the art of drawing. Much, nevertheless, may be imparted, namely, the mechanical means, assisted by a general knowledge of perspective, to place the different parts of a figure or landscape not so violently out of their proper places in the representation as to offend the eye. Here let us mention that our impression is, and we do not believe that any artist wii venture to contradict it, that he

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