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on ancient remains. The whole height, according to the measuring unit which we have adopted from Vignola, is 16 modules and 3 parts.

2557. Palladio makes the height of his Tuscan column 6 diameters, and diminishes the shaft one fourth of a diameter. The height of the base and capital are each half a diameter. He provides no pedestal, but, instead thereof, places the base of the column on a zocalo or lofty plinth, whose height is equal to the diameter of the column. He leaves the intercolumniation unsettled, merely hinting that as the architraves are of timber, they, the intercolumniations may be wide. The whole height by him assigned to the order is 9 diameters and three quarters of the column. The whole height according to our scale is 19 modules and 6 parts.

2558. Serlio makes the column of the order 5 diameters exclusive of base and capital, each of which are half a diameter in height, and his diminution is one quarter of the diameter. He gives half a diameter to the height of the architrave, and an equal height to the frieze and to the cornice. His pedestal is with a plinth and base, a die, and cymatium, the whole being a third of the height of the column. He gives no rules for the intercolumniations, though in book 4. he inserts a diagram wherein intercolumns appear, merely saying that they are equal to 3 diameters. The total height according to our measure is 19 modules and 3 parts.

2559. Scamozzi makes the shaft of his column 6 diameters, and diminishes it one fourth part of its diameter. The heights of the base and capital are each half a diameter. To the entablature he assigns for height one fourth of the height of the column, including its base and capital, less half its diameter. He places a sort of triglyph in the frieze, which arises from a misconception of the text of Vitruvius. The height of his pedestal is a fourth part of that of the column, with base and capital, less half a diameter. The whole height in our measure is 21 modules and 9 parts.

Sect. IV.
The DoRIC ORDER.

2560. The Doric order of the moderns is of two sorts: mutular and denticular, the former is represented in fig. 879. A is a plan of the sofite of the corona; B, a plan of the

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Fig. 879. capital; and C, a plan of the base. In the frieze the channelled projections are called triglyphs, and the spaces between them metopa, which should in breadth be equal to their height, which is that of the frieze. The shaft is usually channelled with twenty flutes. Over the triglyphs are distributed mutules or modillions, and another peculiarity is the introduction of gutta or drops, which decorate the sofite of the cornice and the feet of the triglyphs.

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# Daviler, speaking of the two Doric entablatures given by Vignola, admires the elegance of their composition, and scarcely knows which of them to select as the most beautiful. “The first" (or denticular), hereafter immediately subjoined, says Chambers, following that author, “which is entirely antique, is the lightest, and consequently properest for interior decoration or objects intended for near inspection; the other, composed by Vignola himself from various fragments of antiquity, being bolder, and consisting of larger parts, seems better calculated for outside works and places where the point of view is either distant or unlimited. On polygonal plans, however, the mutule cornice must be avoided, because the sofites of the angular mutules would form irregular and very disagreeable figures: neither should it be employed in concaves of small dimensions, for the same reason; nor in places where frequent breaks are requisite, it being extremely difficult, often impossible, to prevent the mutules from penetrating and mutilating each other in various unsightly manners; and wherever this cornice is used on a convex surface, the sides of the mutules must be made parallel, for it would be both disagreeable and unnatural to see them broader, and consequently heavier in front than where they spring out of the mutule band.” We have elsewhere observed that there is very great difficulty in distributing the parts of the Doric entablature, on account of the intervals between the centres of the triglyphs, which necessarily confine the composer to intercolumniations divisible by two modules and a half, thus producing spaces which are often too wide or too narrow for his purposes.

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2562. In fig. 880, the entablature of the mutular Doric order is given to a larger scale than that of the preceding figure; and we subjoin, as in the Tuscan order, –

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TABLE or PARTs of THE ENTABLATURE or THE MUTULAR DoRIC.

Heights of Projections. Mouldings whereof the Parts are composed. *'''" c£, Module. of a Module. | Fillet of the corona - - - l 34 Cyma - - - - - 3. 31 Fillet - - - - - | 31 Cyma reversa - - - - l 30: Corona - - - - 3} 30 | Cornice A, Cyma reversa - - - l 29: 18 parts. Mutule - - - - 3 28} | Drip - - - - | 28 Gutta of the mutule - - - } 26 Echinus, or quarter round - - 2 13} | Fillet - - - - - } 11 Capital of the triglyph - - 2 11 Frieze B, { Triglyph - - - - 18 10] | 18 parts. Metope - - - - 18 10 | Listel - - - - - 2 12 Architrave C, Capital of the guttae - - - ! 11! 12 parts Guttae - - - - 1! 11! 2 parts. First fascia - - - - 6 10] Second fascia - - - - 4 IO D is the plan of a triglyph to double the scale. E is the plan of the round or square guttae. F is the elevation of the triglyph and its guttae. - - –––.

2563. To obviate the difficulties mentioned in 2561. relative to the triglyphs, they have often been omitted and the entablature left plain, as in the Coliseum at Rome, the colonmades of St. Peter's of the Vatican, and in many other buildings. This, says Chambers, is an easy expedient; but as it robs the order of its principal characteristic distinction, the remedy is a desperate one, and should only be employed as a last resource.

2564. The Doric order was used by the ancients in temples dedicated to Minerva, to Mars, and to Hercules. In modern buildings, Serlio (lib. iv. c. 6.) recommends it in churches dedicated to saints remarkable by their suffering for the Christian faith. Le Clerc suggests its use for military buildings. “It may,” says Chambers, “be employed in the houses of generals, or other martial men, in mausoleums erected to their memory, or in triumphal bridges and arches built to celebrate their victories.”

2665. As the difference between the mutular and denticular Doric lies entirely in the entablature, we give in the following table the whole of the details of the order,

observing, that from the capitals downwards, the measures assigned to them are the same for each. Fig. 881. represents the entablature of the denticular Doric and its parts, which, with those of the capital, base, and pedestal, are in fig. 882, given to a larger

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scale, as we have before represented the parts of the Tuscan order.

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The general table is

Heights in "£" Members composing the Order. Parts of a M'm Module. Axis of Column. ENTABLATURE. Fillet of corona - - l 54 Cavetto - - - 3 sl Fillet - - - - | 26 Cyma reversa - - - l: 30 Corona - - - | 4 28] A, Cornice, Drip - - - - ! 27, 18 parts. Fillet - - - - | ! 25 Gutta under the corona - | } 24! Dentil - - - 3 15 Fillet - - - - } 13 Cyma reversa - - - 2 12, Capital of triglyph - - 2 11 B, Frieze, Triglyph - - - 18 10] 18 parts. { Metope - - - 18 10

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Heights in Projections in Members composing the Order. Parts of a s' Module. Axis of Column.

Listel - - - - 2 11: C, Architrave, J. Capital of gutt - - - 3 11 10 parts. Guttae - - - - 1} 11 Fascia - - - - 10 10

CoLUMN.

| Listel - - - - } 15]

Cyma reversa - - - - 1 15]

Band - - - - - 2] 14

- Echinus or quarter round - - 2} 13?

''. Three annulets - - - 1} 11} parts. Neck of capital - - - 4 10 (Ovolo - - - I 12

Astragal {#illet - - - | 11}

{Congé - - - 1} 10

SHAFT of THE Column, 14 modules.

| Apophyge or congé - - - 2 12

Fillet - - - - - # 14

# : Astragal - - - - 13 143 parts. Torus - - - - 4. 17 Plinth - - - - 6 17

PEDESTAL.

Listel - - - - } 23

F, Cornice, £ •- - - - l #

6 parts. illet - - - - - } # P Corona - - - - 2} 21

Cyma reversa - - - - 1} 18]

DIE of THE PEDESTAL, 4 modules.

Congé - - - - 1 17
Fillet - - - - - | 18

G, Base, Astragal - - - - 1 183
10 parts. Inverted cyma - - - 2 19
Second plinth - - - 2} 21
'irst plinth - - - - 4. 21}

2566. Vitruvius, with more clearness than in the others, describes the Doric order. In order to set out its proportions, he tells us (book iii. chap. iii.), though not giving a direct rule, that its pedestal is composed of three parts, the cymatium or cornice, the die, and the base; and that the base and cimatium are composed of many mouldings, whose individual proportions however he does not give. He assigns no particular base to the Doric order; but, nevertheless, places under half a diameter in height the attic base, whose members are the plinth, small fillet, scotia, and the upper torus with its superior and inferior fillets, together with the apophyge of the column. He gives to the projection of the base a fifth part of the diameter of the column. The height of the shaft he makes of 6 diameters, and its dimunition a sixth part of the diameter. The capital's height he makes equal to half a diameter, and calls the neck the frieze of the column. To the architrave he assigns the height of one half diameter of the column, and to the frieze 50 parts of his module (semidiameter divided into 30 parts), including the fascia, forming the capital of the triglyphs. His cornice consists of 30 parts of the module, and its projection 40. The whole height which he gives to the order is, in the measure here adopted, 17 modules and 20 parts.

2567. Palladio makes the Doric pedestal rather less than 24 diameters of the column, dividing it into three parts, the base, die, and cymatium. To the die he assigns nearly a diameter and one third of the column. To the cymatium a little more than one third of the diameter. He uses the attic base to the order, but, for the sake of carrying off the water, turns the plinth into an inverted cavetto (guscio), ending in the projection of the

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