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echinus, with a vertical from D, the extremity of the cyma reversa. On the point of
intersection, with a radius equal to one part, describe a circle. Its vertical diameter is
called the cathetus, and forms the diagonal of a square, whose sides are to be bisected, and
through the points of bisection (see I, fig. 885.) the axes 1, 3 and 2, 4 are to be drawn,
each being divided into 6 equal parts. The points thus found will serve for drawing the
exterior part of the volute. Thus, placing the point of the compasses in the point 1, with
the radius 1 D, the quadrant DA is described. With the radius 2A another quadrant may
be described, and so on. Similarly, the subdivisions below the points used for the outer
lines of the volute serve for the inner lines. The total height of the volute is 16 parts of
a module, whereof 9 are above the horizontal from E, and 7 below it.
2577. Vitruvius, according to some authors, has not given any fixed measures to the
pedestal of this order. Daniel Barbaro, however, his commentator, seems to think other-
wise; and, on this head, we shall therefore follow him. The height of the pedestal is made
nearly a third part (including its base and cymatium) of the height of the column. To
the base of the column he assigns half a diameter, and to the shaft itself nearly 8 diameters,
its surface being cut into 24 flutes, separated by fillets from each other. His method of
describing the volute is not now thoroughly understood; and it is, perhaps, of little
importance to trouble ourselves to decypher his directions, seeing that the mode of forming
it is derived from mathematical principles, as well understood now as in the days of the
author. The architrave he leaves without any fixed dimensions, merely saying that it must
be larger or smaller according to the size of the edifice. He prescribes, however, that the
architrave, frieze, and cornice should together be somewhat less than a sixth part of the
height of the column, with its base and capital. The total height he makes the order,
according to our measures, is 25 modules and nearly 9 parts.
2578. Palladio gives to the pedestal 2 diameters and nearly two thirds of the height of
the column. He adopts the attic, though without rejecting the Ionic base, and makes it
half a diameter high, adding to it a small bead, which he comprises in the height of the
shaft, which he makes 8 diameters in height. To the architrave, frieze, and cornice, taken
together, he assigns a little less than one fifth of the height of the column, including its
base and capital, and makes the projection of the cornice equal to its height. The total
height of the order, in our measures, is, according to him, 27 modules and nearly 8 parts.
2579. Serlio, in this order more than any of the others, varies from Vitruvius. To the
pedestal he gives, including base, die, and cymatium, a little more than a third part of the
height of the column, with its base and capital. To the shaft of the column he gives
7 diameters, and diminishes it a sixth part of its diameter. His capital is that of Vitruvius,
as far as we can understand that master. His mode of constructing the volute differs from
other authors. His directions are, that having found the cathetus, which passes through
the centre of the eye, it must be divided into eight parts, from the abacus, downwards, one
whereof is to be the size of the eye of the volute, four remain above the eye, and three
below that part comprised below the eye. The cathetus is then divided into six parts,
properly numbered by figures from 1 to 6. With one point of the compasses in 1, and
the other extended to the fillet of the volute, he describes a semicircle, and so on with
semicircles consecutively from 2 to 6, which will ultimately fall into the eye of the volute.
We cannot speak in high terms of Serlio's method, and therefore have thought it unne-
cessary to accompany the description with a figure. It is rather a clumsy method, and we
fear, if exhibited in a figure, would not satisfy our readers of its elegance. The height of
his architrave, frieze, and cornice together is a little & - - *
less than a fourth part of the height of the column,
including the base and capital. The whole height of
his order, in our measures, is 25 modules and 6 parts.
2580. Scamozzi directs that the pedestal shall be
with its base and cornice two diameters and a half of
the column. He uses the attic base, and, like Pal-
ladio, gives an astragal above the upper torus. To the
shaft of the column he assigns a height of little less
than 8 diameters, and makes its diminution a sixth
part of the diameter. He adopts the angular capital,
something like the example of that in the temple of
Fortuna Virilis. The height of his architrave, frieze,
and cornice is a little less than a fifth part of the
height of the column, with its base and capital. The
total height of his order, in our measures, is 26 mo-
dules.
2581. The principal examples of the Grecian Ionic
are in the temples of Minerva Polias, of Erectheus,
and the aqueduct of Hadrian, at Athens; in the
temple of Minerva Polias at Priene; of Bacchus at

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Teos; of Apollo Didymaeus at Miletus; and of the small temple on the Ilyssus, near Athens, whereof in fig. 887. the profile is given, and below, a table of the heights and projections of the parts. It is to be observed, that in the Grecian Ionic volute the fillet of the spiral is continued along the face of the abacus, whilst in the Roman examples it rises from behind the ovolo. Some of the Athenian examples exhibit a neck below the echinus, decorated with flowers and plants. The entablatures of the early Ionic are usually very simple. The architrave has often only one fascia, the frieze is generally plain, and the cornice is composed of few parts. In Book I. Chap. II. (153, et seq.) we have already examined the parts of the Grecian Ionic, and thereto refer the reader.

TABLE of THE PARTs of THE GRECLAN Ion IC IN THE TEMPLE on THE ILYssus.

Heights in Projections in Members composing the Order. £ M'. mals. Axis of Column. | ENTABLATURE. Fillet - - - - - restored. restored. Cyma recta - - - - restored. restored. Fillet - - - - - restored. restored. Cornice, sup- | Echinus - - - - 2-040 34-440 posed height | Corona - - - - 6*240 33-960 18:33 parts. Drip - - - - - 4-680 Cyma reversa - - - - 2-700 20-520 Fillet - - - - - O-720 Echinus - - - - 1 260 18-360 Frieze - - - - 29-901 17:400 | Fillet - - - - - 1-920 30.520 Architrave, Echinus - - - - 2.520 20-100 38-66 parts. Bead - - - - - 1 200 17880 Fascia -" - - - 27-600 17-160 CoLUMN. | Echinus - - - - 2-040 19.860 Fillets, or beads of volutes - - 1 -0.50 Channel - - - - 7-320 Fillets, or beads of volutes - - 1-050 | Capital, 19:32 | Channel - - - - 0-600 parts. Cathetus - - - - - - 17-550 | Echinus - - - - 4-650 18-960 Bead - - - - - 1-080 17:250 Fillet - - - - - 0-450 15.720 | Congé - - - - 1 O80 * . above 15-360 Shaft - - - - -|17mod 7.11of: £ Apophyge - - - - 1-080 Fillet - - - - - O-450 18-960 Bead - - - - - 1:080 19-320 - Horizontally fluted torus - - 6-120 22:500 *::" |#: - - - - || 0:450 22:500 parts. Scotia - - - - 6'000 21 ‘840 Fillet - - - - 0-450 23-640 Torus - - - - 5-760 24:960 Plinth - - - - 11-880 26'520 The height from the top of the echinus to the centre of the eye of the volute is 15.72 parts. Total projection of the volute from axis of column, 27.90. The flutes are elliptical on the plan (see fig. 887.), and the distance between axes of columns, 6 modules 3:24 parts. |

SECT. VI.
ThE CORINTHIAN ORDER.

2582. For the Corinthian order, we must seek examples rather in Rome than in any part of Greece. The portico at Athens, and the arch of Hadrian at Athens, do not furnish us with specimens of art comparable with the three columns in the Campo Vaccino, belonging, as is generally supposed, to the temple of Jupiter Stator. Those in the temple near Mylassa, and the Incantata, as it is called, at Salonica, do not satisfy the artist, as compared with the examples in the remains of the temple of Mars Ultor at Rome, the temple of Vesta at Tivoli, and others, for which the reader may refer to Desgodetz.

2583. The reader is again here reminded that the module or semidiameter is to be

Fig. 888. divided into eighteen parts. In fig. 888. is a representation of the Corinthian order, whose measures are given in the following table : —

Heights in £ Members composing the Order. '" ":: u | - - Module. ENTABLATURE. Fillet of cornice - - - l 53 Cyma recta - - - 5 53 Fillet - - - - # 48 | Cyma reversa - - - 1} 45} | Corona - - - - 5 46 Cima reversa - - - - 1| 45} | A, cornice, Modillion - - - - 6 44; | 38 parts. Fillet (remainder of modillion band) - l 28} Ovolo - - - - 4 28 | Bead - - - - l 25 i Fillet - - - - ! 24! | Dentils - - - - 6 24 | Fillet - - - - - | 20 f Hollow or congé - - - 3 19?

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- Heights in *''
Members composing the Order. '" '':"
- Module.
B, - Frieze, 1 mod. 7 parts high - - - - - 15
Fillet - - - - - 1 20
Cyma reversa - - - - 4 193
Bead - - - - - 1 17
C, architrave, First fascia - - - - 7 16}
27 parts. Cyma reversa - - - - 2 16]
Second fascia - - - - 6 15]
Bead - - - - 1 15;
Third fascia - - - - 5 15
CoLUMN.
- diagonally 36,
Echinus - - - - 2
Fillet - - - - i lion plan 33,
Lower member of abacus - - 3
D, capital, Inverted echinus of the bell - - 2 223 |
42 parts. Large volutes - - - - 6 31}
Upper small leaves - - - 4 |
Large leaves - - - - 12 at top, 24]
Lower leaves - - - 12 at top, 204
Astragal - - - - 2 18
Fillet - - - - l 17
Shaft, Congé - - - - 2}
17 modules Upper part - - - - - - 15
13 part. Shaft { Lower part - - - || - - 18 |
Apophyge - - - - 2 20
Fillet - - - - 1} 21;
Torus - - - - 3 22
Fillet - - - - ! |
Scotia - - - - 1} 20 |
Fillet - - - - ! 21?
E, base, Two beads - - - - l 22
143 parts. Fillet - - - - ! 21?
Scotia - - - - 1} 211
Fillet - - - - # 23
Torus - - - - 4 25
Plinth - - - - 6 25
PEDESTAL.
Fillet - - - - $ 33;
Cyma reversa - - - 11 33}
Corona - - - - 3 32
F, Cornice, Throat - - - - 1} sol
143 parts. Bead - - - - l 263
Fillet - - - - # 25: -
Frieze - - - - 5 25 |
Bead - - - - 1} 26:
Fillet - - - - # 26]
Die Congé - - - - 1} 25
* Die - - - - - 87 25
911 parts. £et - - - - # 25
Congé - - - - # 26}
Bead - - - - 1} 27
Inverted cyma reversa - - 3 26
# ' ' '. - - - - l 30;
part: Torus - - - - 3 32}
Plinth - - - - 6 S2

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2584. Fig. 889, shows the details of the entablature, &c. and also the profile and front of the Corinthian modillion to a larger scale. On the profile is shown the caisson or sunk panel on the sofite of the corona. The height is six parts, and the projection sixteen. As seen in the figure, a distance equal to three parts and a half is taken for the height of the smaller volute, and on this distance a scale of sixteen equal parts is made; the figure shows the dimensions to be given to the small squares, whose angles serve as centres to describe the curves. Having drawn the line AB, it is divided into four equal parts by lines perpendicular to it, which, meeting vertical lines from A and B, give the points, which serve as centres for striking the curve of the modillions. The acanthus leaf which supports it, as well as the curves which form the profile of the roses in the caisson, are also struck by compasses.

2285. In fig. 890., which exhibits the method of drawing the Corinthian capital, one half of the plan shows the capital in plan, and the other half of it laid down diagonally. Having drawn the axis of the plan correspondent to the axis of the elevation of the capital, with a radius equal to two modules, describe a circle, which divide into sixteen equal parts. Their lines of division will each correspond to the centre of each leaf. The vase of the capital is determined by a circle whose radius is 143 parts. The figure shows the circles which bound the leaves upwards on the vase.

2586. The elevation shows the heights ;:" are carried the projections of the plan.

z 2

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