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Telford, T. Reports on the Holyhead Roads, Harbour, Bridges, &c. Folio, with plates. London, 1822. Vicat. Description du Pont Suspendu construit sur la Dordogne à Argental, 4to, plates. Paris, 1830. Ware, S. Treatise on the Properties of Arches, and their Abutment Piers. London 1809. Wiebeking, Le Chevalier. Architecture Hydraulique fondée sur la Théorie et la Pratique. 4 vols. 4to. Atlas vol. of plates. Munich, 1814–1824.

X. ELEMENTARY AND PRACTICAL WoRKs. Alberti, Leo Bapt. Libri de Re AEdificatoria. Decem folio, 1st edit. Florence, 1485 Reprinted in 4to. Paris, 1512. Translated into Italian by Pietro Lauro. Small 4to. Venice, 1546. Translated into Italian by Cosimo Bartoli. Folio. Florence, 1556. Translated into English by Leoni. Folio. London, 1726–1755; and Bologna,

1782. Androuet du Cerceau. Livre d'Architecture. Folio, 50 plates. Paris, 1662. Antoine, J. Traité d'Architecture. 4to. plates. Treves, 1768. Aviler, d', C. A. Cours d'Architecture. 4to. Paris, 1760. Barlow, P. Treatise on the Strength of Timber, Cast Iron, Malleable Iron, and other Materials, &c. 8vo. London, 1837. Barozzi, Vignola di. CEuvres complètes. Folio. Paris, 1823. Ordini d'Architettura Civile, 4to. 44 plates. Milano, 1814. Bartholomew, Alfred. Specifications for Practical Architecture, preceded by an Essay on the Decline of Excellence in the Structure, and in the Science of Modern English Buildings. Large 8vo. 160 illustrations. London, 1840. This is one of the most valuable works to the English practical architect that has ever appeared. Blondel, J. F. Cours d'Architecture. 9 tom. 8vo. 300 plates. Paris, 1771–1777. Borgnis, J. A. Traité Elémentaire de Construction appliquée à l'Architecture Civile. 2 tom. 4to. 30 plates. Paris, 1823. Bruyere, L. Etudes relatives à l'Art des Constructions. Folio. Paris, 1823. Bullet. Architecture Pratique. 8vo. plates. Paris, 1774. By Mazois. Paris, 1824. Calderari, C. Opere di Architettura. 2 tom. folio, 90 plates. Vicenza, 1800. Chambers. Treatise on the Decorative Part of Civil Architecture, with Essay on Grecian Architecture, and other Additions by Joseph Gwilt. 2 vols. imp. 8vo. 66 plates. London, 1823. Clerc, S. Le Treatise on Architecture, translated by Chambers. 2 vols. 8vo, and vol. ~ of plates. London, 1732. Detournelle. Recueil d'Architecture. Folio, 60 plates. Paris, 1805. Douliot, J. P. Traité special de Coupe des Pierres. 2 tom. 4to. Paris, 1825. Durand, J. N. L. Leçons d'Architecture. 2 tom. 4to, plates. Paris, 1819. Partie Graphique des Cours d'Architecture. 4to. 34 plates. Paris, 1821. Elmes, J. On Dilapidations. 8vo. London, 1829. Evelyn's, J., Ancient and Modern Architecture. Folio. London, 1680. Parallel of Ancient and Modern Architecture: translated from R. Freart. Folio, plates. London, 1723. Farraday, Prof. On the practical Prevention of Dry Rot in Timber. 8vo. London, 1856. Felibien, M. Principes de l'Architecture, de la Sculpture, et de la Peinture, 4to, plates. Paris, 1697. Frezier. Théorie et la Pratique de la Coupe des Pierres et des Bois, 3 vols. 4to. plates. Paris, 1757. Fourneau, H. Art du Trait de Charpenterie. 4 vols. folio, 87 plates. Paris, 1820. Gauthey, E. M. Dissertation sur les Dégradations survenues aux Piliers du Döme du Panthéon, et sur les Moyens d'y remedier, 4to. plates. Paris, 1798. Goldman, Architecture of, by L. C. Sturms; the text in the German language. 1714. Gwilt, Joseph. Sciography; or Examples of Shadows, with Rules for their Projection, for the Use of Architectural Draughtsmen, and other Artists. 8vo. 24 plates. London, 1824.

Rudiments of Architecture, Practical and Theoretical. Royal 8vo. plates. London, 1826.

Halfpenny, W. Architecture delineated. 4to. 45 plates. London, 1749.

Art of Sound Building. Folio. London, 1725.

Higgins, R. Art of composing and applying Calcareous Cements, and of preparing Quicklime. 8vo. London, 1780.

Inman, W. On Ventilation, Warming, and the Transmission of Sound; with notes.
London, 1836.
Krafft, J. C. Recueil d'Architecture Civile, contenant les Plans, Coupes, et Elévations
des Châteaux, Maisons de Campagne, et Habitations Rurales, &c. Folio, 121 plates.
Paris, 1812.
Traité sur l'Art de la Charpenterie; Plans, Coupes, et Elévations, de diverses
Productions. Folio. Paris, 1820.
Laugier, P. Essai sur l'Architecture. 8vo. Paris, 1755.
Ledoux, E. N. L'Architecture considerée sous le Rapport de l'Art, des Moeurs, et
de la Legislation. Imperial folio, plates. Paris, 1789.
L’Eveillé, C. J. Considérations sur les Frontons. 4to. Paris, 1824.
Le Grand Essai sur l'Histoire Générale de l'Architecture. 8vo. Paris, 1819.
This is the text to Durand's Paralléle.
Lorme, Philibert de. CEuvres d'Architecture. Folio, 2 vols. in 1. Paris, 1626;
Rouen, 1648.
The first edition, the Treatise on Architecture, in 9 books, was published in Paris, 1567.
The tenth book on Carpentry, entitled, “ Nouvelles Inventions pour bien Bâtir et à
petit Frais,” was published in folio. Paris, 1561–1568 and 1576.
Loudon, J. C. Architectural Magazine. 5 vols. 8vo. London, 1838.
Malton, T. Complete Treatise on Perspective. Folio, 2 vols. London, 1778.
, J. Young Painter's Maulstick. 4to. plates. London, 1806.
Mandar. Etude d'Architecture Civile ; ou Plans, Elévations, Coupes, et Détails neces-
saires pour élever, distribuer, et décorer une Maison et ses Dependances. Imperial
folio, 122 plates. Paris, 1830.
Manetti, G. A. Studio degli Ordini d'Architettura. Folio, 25 plates. Firenze, 1808.
Mesauge, M. Traité de Charpenterie et des Bois de toutes Espèces. 2 tom. Paris,
1753. -
Mitford, N. Principles of Design in Architecture traced in Observations on Buildings
(published anonymously). 8vo. London, 1819.
Nicholson, P. Principles of Architecture. 8vo. 3 vols. plates. London, 1836.
Architectural Dictionary. 2 vols. 4to, London, 1819.
Carpenter and Joiner's Assistant. 4to. London, 1815.
Carpenter's new Guide. 4to. London, 1819.
Practical Treatise on the Art of Masonry and Stone-cutting. 8vo. London,

1832. Noble, J. Professional Practice of Architects, and that of Measuring Surveyors, and Reference to Builders. 8vo. London, 1836. Normand, C. Nouveau Parallèle des Ordres d'Architecture des Grecs, des Romains, et des Auteurs modernes. Folio, 63 plates. Paris, 1819. Nosban. Manuel du Menuisier. 2 tom. 12mo. plates. Paris, 1827. Pasley, Col. C. W. On Limes, Calcareous Cements, Mortars, Stuccoes, Concrete, and Puzzolanas, &c. 8vo. Londom, 1838. Patte, P. Mémoire d'Architecture. 4to. Paris, 1769. Perrault, C. Ordonnance des Cinq Espèces de Colonnes. Folio. Paris, 1683. Pozzo, Andrea. Prospettiva di Pittori, &c. 2 vols. fol. 218 plates. Roma, 1717–1737. Price, F. British Carpenter. 4to. plates. London, 1753. , R. On Reversionary Payments; by Morgan. 2 vols. 8vo. London, 1803. Rondelet, J. Traité Théorique et Pratique de l'Art de Bâtir. 5 tom. 4to. and fol. vol. of 207 plates. Paris, 1835. Mémoire Historique sur le Dôme du Panthéon François. 4to. plates. Paris, 1814. Mémoire sur la Réconstruction de la Coupole de la Halle au Blé de Paris. 4to. plates. Paris. Scamozzi, V. L'Idea dell’ Architettura Universale. 2 vols. fol. Venet. 1615. Serlio, Seb., Architettura di. 4to. Venet, 1567. Simonin. Traité Elémentaire de la Coupe des Pierres. 4to. Paris, 1792. Sturm, L. C. Prodromus Architecturæ Goldmanniæ. Oblong folio. Nuremberg, 1714. Tredgold, T. Elementary Principles of Carpentry, by Peter Barlow. 4to. 5o plates. London, 1840. Toussaint, C. J. Traité de Géometrie et d'Architecture Théorique et Pratique simplifié. 4 vols. 4to. Paris, 1811-12. Turnbull, W. Essay on Construction of Cast Iron Beams. 8vo, London, 1833. . Vitruve, traduit par C. Perrault. Folio, plates. Paris, 1684. Vitruvii de Architectura notis Variorum a J. de Laet. Folio. Amst. 1649. Vitruvio, l'Architettura di, tradotta ed comentata da B. Galiani. Folio. Siena, 1790. Vitruvio, trad. et coment. da Barbaro. Folio, wood-cuts. Venezia, 1556. Vitruvius, Architecture of translated by J. Gwilt. Imperial 8vo. London, 1826.

Wiebeking, le Chevalier de. Architecture Civile, Théorique, et Pratique, enrichi de l'Histoire descriptive des Edifices anciennes et modernes les plus remarquables. 7 vols. 4to., 260 plates, large folio. Munich, 1823.

XI. ORNAMENrs. Albertolli. Corso Elementare di Ornamenti Architettonici. Folio, 28 plates. Milan, 1805. Architectural Ornaments. A Collection of Capitals, Friezes, Roses, Entablatures, Mouldings, &c. drawn on Stone from the Antique. 100 plates. London, 1824. Beauvallet, P. N. Fragmens d'Architecture, Sculpture, et Peinture dans le Style Antique. Paris, 1804. Choix des Monumens les plus remarquables des Anciens Egyptiens, des Persans, des Grecs, des Volsques, des Etrusques, et des Romains, consistans en Statues, Bas-Reliefs, et Vases. 2 tom. fol. 244 plates. Rome, 1788. Colette, J. Livre de divers Ornemens pour Plafonds, Cintres, Surbaissées, Galeries. Folio, 10 plates. Paris. Columbani, P. Capitals, Friezes, and Cornices, &c. 4to. Fowler, W. Collection of Mosaic, Roman and Norman tesselated Pavements and ancient stained Glass discovered in different parts of England. Elephant folio size. Published at various times. Gli Ornati delle Pareti ed i Pavimenti delle Stanze dell' Antica Pompeia. Atlas folio, 21 plates. Napoli, 1796. Jalembier, C. A. Principes d'Ornemens pour l'Architecture. 40 plates. Paris. Jombert, C. A. Repertoire des Artistes; ou Recueil de Compositions d'Architecture et d'Ornemens, antiques et modernes, de tout Espèce, par divers Auteurs. 2 vols. folio. Paris, 1765. Le Noir, A. Nouvelle Collection d'Arabesques propres à la Décoration des Appartemens dessinées à Rome par L. Poussin. 4to. Paris. Le Pautre. CEuvres d'Architecture; contenant les Frises, Feuillages, Montans ou Pilastres, Grotesques, Moresques, Parmeaux, Placarts, Trumeaux, Lansbris, Amortissemens, Plafonds, et généralement tout ce qui concerne l'Ornement. 3 tom. folio. Paris, 1751. Moreau, C. Fragmens, et Ornemens d'Architecture dessinés à Rome d'après L'Antique, formant un Supplément à l'OEuvre d'Architecture de Desgodetz. Large folio, 36 plates. Paris. Normand, C. Nouveau Recueil en divers Genres d'Ornemens, et autres Objets propres à la Décoration. Folio, 46 plates, Paris, 1803. Percier, C. et P. F. L. Fontaine. Recueil de Décorations Intérieures, comprenant tout ce qui a rapport à l'Ameublement. Folio, 72 plates. Paris, 1812. Pergolesi. Ornaments. Large folio, 30 plates. 1777. Piroli, T. Monumens Antiques du Musée Napoleon. 4 tom. 4to., 40 plates. Paris, 1804. Recueil d'Arabesques; contenant les Loges du Vatican, gravées d'après Raphael et grand Nombre d'autres Compositions du même Goût dans le Style Antique. Large folio, Paris, 1802. Tatham, C. H. Grecian and Roman Ornaments. Folio, 101 plates. London, 1825. Volpato. Engravings of the Ornaments of the Vatican. Vulliamy, L. Examples of Ornamental Sculpture in Architecture, containing 4o plates, imp. folio. London, 1828.

Ancurra Ave. (Gr. Apxeiv, to govern, and Lat. Trabs, a beam.) The lower of the three principal members of the entablature of an order, being, as its name imports, the chief beam employed in it, and resting immediately on the columns. It is sometimes called Epistylium, from erı, upon, and orvAos, a column. The height of the architrave varied in the different orders, as also in different examples of the same order. See GreciAN ARchrrecruRe, page 58. in the work ; and, for its usual proportion, the orders from Sect. 5. to Sect. 7. Chap. I. Book III. ARchrrr Ave CoRNice. An entablature consisting of an architrave and cornice only, without the interposition of a frieze. It is never used with columns or pilasters, unless through want of height. It is, however, allowable. See p. 748. ARchrrr Ave or A Doon or WINdow. A collection of members and mouldings round either, used for the decoration of the aperture. The upper part, or lintel, is called the traverse, and the sides the jambs. See ANTEPAGMENTA. AachIvoir. (Lat. Arcus volutus.) The ornamental band of mouldings round the voussoirs, or arch-stones of an arch, which terminates horizontally upon the impost. It is decorated, as to the members, analogously with the architrave, which, in arcades, it may be said to represent. It differs in the different orders. See p. 721.

ARCHIvoLTUM. In mediaeval architecture, an arched receptacle for filth. A cesspool or common Sewer. AachwAY. An aperture in a building covered with a vault. Usually an arched passage or gate wide enough for carriages to pass. ARcus EcclesiAE. In mediaeval architecture, the arch dividing the nave of the church from the choir or chancel. ARcus PREsBYTERII. In mediaeval architecture, the arch over the tribune marking the boundaries of its recess. Arcus ToRALIs. In mediaeval architecture, the lattice separating the choir from the nave in a basilica. AREA. In Architecture, a small court or place, often sunk below the general surface of the ground, before windows in the basement story. It is also used to denote a small court even level with the ground. AREA. In Geometry, the superficial content of any figure. See Section on MENsukaTIoN, p. 372. ARENA. The central space in a Roman amphitheatre, wherein the gladiators fought. See AMPHITHEATRE. ARGELIUs. See ARCHITECTs, list of 19. ARITHMETIC and ALGERRA. See Book II. Chap. I. Sect. 1. ARMoURY. An apartment destined to the reception of instruments of war. ARNoLFo. See ARCHITECTs, list of 125. ARoNADE. Embattled; a junction of several lines forming indentations like the upward boundary of an embattled wall, except that the middle of every raised part is terminated by the convex arch of a circle, which arch does not extend to the length of that part. ARRIs (probably abbreviated from the Ital, a risega, at the projection, or from the Sax. apıran, to arise). The intersection or line on which two surfaces of a body forming an exterior angle meet each other. It is a term much used by all workmen concerned in building, as the arris of a stone, of a piece of wood, or any other body. Though, in common language, the edge of a body implies the same as arris, yet, in building, the word edge is restrained to those two surfaces of a rectangular parallelopipedal body on which the length and thickness may be measured, as in boards, planks, doors, shutters, and other framed joinery. ARRIs FILLET. A slight piece of timber of a triangular section, used in raising the slates against chimney shafts, or against a wall that cuts obliquely across the roof, and in forming gutters at the upper ends and sides of those kinds of skylights of which the planes coincide with those of the roof. When the arris fillet is used to raise the slates at the eaves of a building, it is then called the eaves' board, eaves' lath, or eaves' catch. ARRIs GUTTER. A wooden gutter of this V form fixed to the eaves of a building. ARsENAL. A public establishment for the deposition of arms and warlike stores. ARTIFICER. (Lat. Ars and Facio.) A person who works with his hands in the manufacture of anything. He is a person of intellectual acquirements, independent of mere operation by hand, which place him above the artisan, whose knowledge is limited to the general rules of his trade. AsARotum. In ancient architecture, a species of painted pavement used by the Romans before the invention of Mosaic work. Ash. The Fraxinus of botanists. See TIMBER, Sect. on, p. 486. AsHELFY. See ARchitECTs, list of 189. AshLAR or AshLER. (Ital. Asciare, to chip.) Common or free-stones as brought from the quarry of different lengths and thicknesses. Also the facing given to square stones on the front of a building. When the work is smoothed or rubbed so as to take out the marks of the tools by which the stones were cut, it is called plain ashlar. Tooled ashlar is understood to be that whereof the surface is wrought in a regular manner, like parallel flutes, and placed perpendicularly in the building. But when the surfaces of the stones are cut with a broad tool without care or regularity, the work is said to be random-tooled. When wrought with a narrow tool, it is said to be chiselled or boasted, and when the surface is cut with a very narrow tool, the ashlar is said to be pointed. When the stones project from the joints, the ashlar is said to be rusticated, in which the faces may have a smooth or broken surface. In superior work, neither pointed, chiselled, nor random-tooled work are employed. In some parts of the country herring-bone ashlar and herring-bone random-tooled ashlar are used. See Masonry, p. 518, et seq. AsHLERING. In carpentry, the short upright quartering fixed in garrets about two feet six inches or three feet high from the floor, being between the rafters and the floor in : to make the room more convenient by cutting off the acute angle formed by the ratters. Aspect. (Lat. Aspicio.) The quarter of the heavens to which the front of a building faces. Thus a front to the north is said to have a north aspect.

Asphal ruM. A bituminous substance found in various places and used as a building material. See Book II. Chap. II. Sect. 12. AssEMBLAGE. The joining or uniting several pieces together, or the union of them when so joined. Carpenters and joiners have many modes of accomplishing this, as by framing, mortise and tenon, dovetailing, &c. See PRACTICAL CARFENTRY AND Join ERY, p. 538, et seq. AssFMBLAGE or THE ORDERs. The placing of columns upon one another in the several ranges. See ORDERs UroN ORDERs, Book III. Chap. I. Sect. 11. AsrRAGAL. (Gr. Arrpayaxos, a die, or huckle bone.) A small moulding of a semicircular profile. Some have said that the French call it talon, and the Italians tondino, but this is a mistake, for the term is properly applied only to the ring separating the capital from the column. The astragal is occasionally cut into representations of beads and berries. A similar sort of moulding, though not developed in its profile as is the astragal, is used to separate the faces of the architrave. ArlANTIDEs. See CARYATIDEs. Arrium. In ancient Roman architecture, a court surrounded by porticoes in the interior part of Roman houses. According to Scaliger it is derived from the Greek atopios, exposed to the air. By some it has been considered the same apartment as the vestibule, and Aulus Gellius intimates that in his time the two words were confounded. See, however, more on this head in the section on Roman Architecture in the body of the work, p. 100. Arric, or ATT1c ORDER. (Gr. Atrixos, Athenian; facetiously, we supposed, derived, in the seventh edit. of Encyc. Brit art. ARCHITECTURE, from äreixov, without a wall, which, if true, would transform all objects into attic things if detached from a wall.) A low order of architecture, commonly used over a principal order, never with columns, but usually with antae or small pilasters. It is employed to decorate the façade of a story of small height, terminating the upper part of a building; and it doubtless derives its name from its resemblance in proportional height and concealed roof to some of the buildings of Greece. Pliny thus describes it after speaking of the other orders: “Praeter has sunt quae vocantur Atticae columnae quaternis angulis pari laterum intervallo.”. We, however, find no examples of square pillars in the remains of ancient art, though almost all the triumphal arches exhihit specimens of pilastral attics, having no capitals save the cornice breaking round them. In modern architecture the proportions of the attic order have never been subject to fixed rules, and their good effect is entirely dependent on the taste and feeling of the architect. Arric BAsk. The base of a column consisting of an upper and lower torus, a scotia and fillets between them. It is thus described by Vitruvius, “it must be so subdivided that the upper part be one third of the thickness of the column, and that the remainder be assigned for the height of the plinth. Excluding the plinth, divide the height into four parts, one whereof is to be given to the upper torus; then divide the remaining three parts into two equal parts, one will be the height of the lower torus, and the other the height of the scotia with its fillets. Arric SroRY. A term frequently applied to the upper story of a house when the ceiling is square with the sides to distinguish it from garrets. See Book III. Chap. I. Sect. 13. ATTRIBUTEs. In decorative architecture, are certain symbols given to figures, or disposed as ornaments on a building, to indicate a distinguishing character: as a lyre, bow, or arrow to Apollo; a club to Hercules; a trident to Neptune; a spear to Pallas, &c. AUGER. A carpenter's and joiner's tool for boring large holes. It consists of a wooden handle terminated at the bottom with steel. The more modern augers are pointed and sharpened like a centre bit, the extremity of one of the edges being made to cut the wood clean at the circumference, and the other to cut and take away the core, the whole length of the radius. Av1ARY. (Lat. Avis.) A house or apartment set apart for keeping and breeding birds. Avrrus, St. See ARchitects, list of 58. AULA. (Lat.) In ancient Roman architecture, a court or hall. AwNING. (Fr. Aulne.) Any covering intended as a screen from the sun or protection from the rain. AxE. (Sax. eax.) A tool with a long wooden handle and a cutting edge situate in a plane passing longitudinally through the handle. It is used for hewing timber by cutting it vertically, the edge being employed in forming horizontal surfaces. The axe differs from the joiner's hatchet by being much larger, and by its being used with only one hand. - Axes of various sizes, depending upon the quality of the material, are used by stone-cutters and bricklayers. Axis. The spindle or centre of any rotative motion. In a sphere a line passing through the centre is the axis.

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