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Augustine, who is generally supposed to favour the contrary. doctrine, makes that just remark, Qui fecit nos sine nobis, non salvabit nos sine nobis : “He that made us without ourselves, will not save us without ourselves.” He will not save us, unless we “save ourselves from this untoward generation:" unless we ourselves “fight the good fight of faith, and lay hold on eternal life :” unless we "agonize to enter in at the strait gate,” deny ourselves, and take up our cross daily," and labour, by every possible means, to “make our own calling and election sure.”
8. “Labour” then, brethren, “not for the meat that perisheth, but for that which endureth to everlasting life.” Say with our blessedLord, though in a somewhat different sense, “My Father worketh hitherto, and I work." In consideration that he still worketh in you, be never “weary of well-doing.” Go on, in virtue of the grace of God, preventing, accompanying, and following you, in the work of faith, in the patience of hope, and the labour of love.” “Be yo steadfast and unmoveable; always abounding in the work of the Lord.” And “the God of peace, who brought again from the dead the great Shepherd of his sheep, (Jesus) make you perfect in every good work to do his will, working in you what is well pleasing in his sight, through Jesus Christ; to whom be glory for ever and Ever!"
A CALL TO BACKSLIDERS.
" Will the Lord absent himself for ever? And will lie be no more ein
treated ? • Is his mercy clean gone for ever? And is his promise come utterly
to an end for evermore ?”—Psalm lxxvii. 7, 8.
1. PRESUMPTION is one grand snare of the Devil, in which many of the children of men are taken. - They so presume upon the mercy of God, as utterly to forget his justice. Although he has expressly declared, “Without holiness, no man shall see the Lord," yet they flatter themselves, that, in the end, God will be better than his word. They imagine they may live and die in their sins, and, nevertheless, "escape the damnation of hell."
2. But although there are many that are destroyed by presumption, there are still more that perish by despair. I mean, by want of
hope ; by thinking it impossible that they should escape destruction: Having many times fought against their spiritual enemies, and always been overcome, they lay down their arms; they no more contend, as they have no hope of victory. Knowing, by melancholy experience, that they have no power of themselves to help themselves, and having no expectation that God will help them, they lie down under their burden. They no longer strive; for they suppose it is impossible they should attain.
3. In this case, as in a thousand others, “the heart knoweth its own bitterness, but a stranger intermeddleth not with his grief.” It is not easy for those to know it, who never felt it. For “who knoweth the things of a man, but the spirit of a man that is in him?" Who knoweth, unless by his own experience, what this sort of toounded spirit means? Of consequence, there are few that know how to sympathize with them that are under this sore temptation. There are few that have duly considered the case ; few that are not deceived by appearances.
They see men go on in a course of sin, and take it for granted, it is out of mere presumption : whereas, in reality, it is from the quite contrary principle; it is out of mere despair. Either they have no hope at all: and while that is the case, they do not strive at all: or they have some intervals of hope, and while that lasts, strive for the mastery. But that hope soon fails : they then cease to strive, and are taken captive of Satan at his will.
4. This is frequently the case with those that began to run well, but soon tired in the heavenly road; with those in particular, who once "saw the glory of God in the face of Jesus Christ ;" but afterwards grieved his Holy Spirit, and made shipwreck of the faith, Indeed, many of these rush into sin, as a horse into the battle. They sin with so high a hand, as utterly to quench the Holy Spirit of God; so that he gives them up to their own heart's lusts, and lets them follow their own imaginations. And those who are thus given up may be quite stupid, without either fear or sorrow, or care ; utterly easy and unconcerned about God, or heaven, or hell; to which the god of this world contributes not a little, by blinding and hardening their hearts. But still, even these would not be so careless, were it not for despair. The grand reason why they have no sorrow or care, is because they have no hope. They verily believe, they have so provoked God, that he will be no more entreated.”
5. And yet we need not utterly give up even these. We have known some, even of the careless ones, whom God has visited again, and restored to their first love. But we may have much more hope for those backsliders who are not careless, who are still uneasy : those who fain would escape out of the snare of the Devil, but think it is impossible. They are fully convinced they cannnot save themselves, and believe God will not save them. They believe he has irrevocably "shut up his loving-kindness, in displeasure.” They fortify themselves in believing this, by abundance of reasons. And unless those reasons are clearly removed, they cannot hope for any deliverance.
It is in order to relieve those hopeless, helpless souls, that I propose, with God's assistance,
1. To inquire, What the chief of those reasons are, some or other of which induce so many backsliders to cast away hope; to suppose that God hath forgotten to be gracious. And,
II. To give a clear and full answer to each of these reasons.
I. I am, first, to inquire, What the chief of those reasons are, which induce so many backsliders to think that God hath forgotten to be gracious. I do not say all the reasons: for innumerable are those which either their own evil hearts, or that old serpent will suggest: but the chief of them; those that are most plausible, and, therefore, most common.
1. The first argument which induces many backsliders to believe that “the Lord will be no more entreated,” is drawn from the very reason of the thing : “if, say they, a man rebel against an earthly prince, many times he dies for the first offence; he pays his life for the first transgression. Yet, possibly, if the crime be extenuated by some favourable circumstances, or if strong intercession be made for him, his life may be given him. But if, after a full and free parulon, he were guilty of rebelling a second time, who would dare to intercede for him! He must expect no farther mercy. Now if one rebelling against an earthly king, after he has been freely pardoned once, cannot with any colour of reason hope to be forgiven a secondtime; what must be the case of him, that, after having been freely pardoned for rebelling against the great King of heaven and earth, rebels against him again? What can be expected, but that “vengeance will come upon him to the uttermost !'”
II. 1. This argument, drawn from reason, they enforce by several passages of Scripture. One of the strongest of these, is that which occurs in the first Epistle of St. John, v. 16 : “ If any man see his brother sin a sin which is not'unto death, he shall ask, and God shall give him life for them that sin not unto death. There is a sin unto death.. I do not say that he shall pray for it.”.
Hence they argue, “Certainly, I do not say that he shall pray for it, is equivalent with, I say he shall not pray for it
. So the Apostle supposes him that has committed this sin, to be in a desperate state indeed! So desperate, that we may not even pray for his forgiveness; we may not ask life for him; and what may we more reasonably suppose to be a sin unto death, than a wilsul rebellion after a full and free pardon ?"
2. “ Consider, Secondly,” say they, “Those terrible passages in the Epistle to the Hebrews, one of which occurs in the sixth chapter, the other in the tenth. To begin with the latter : "If we sin wilfully, after we have received the knowledge of the truth, there remaineth no other sacrifice for sin ; but a certain fearful looking for of judgment and fiery indignation which shall devour the adversaries. He that despised Moses' Law died without mercy: of how much sorer punishment, suppose ye, shall he be thought worthy, who hath trodden under foot the Son of God, counted the blood of the core
nant, wherewith he was sanctified, an unholy thing, and done despite to the Spirit of grace ? For we know him that hath said, Vengeance is mine : I will recompense, saith the Lord. It is a fearful thing to fall into the hands of the living God !' ver. 26-31. Now is it not here expressly declared by the Holy Ghost, that our case is desperate ? Is it not declared, that if after we have received the knowledge of the truth, after we have experimentally known it, we sin wilfully,' which we have undoubtedly done, and that over and over,
there remaineth no other sacrifice for sin, but a certain fearful looking for of judgment and fiery indignation, which shall devour the adversaries ? »
3. And is not that passage in chapter vi. exactly parallel with this ? “It is impossible for those that were once enlightened, and have tasted of the heavenly gift, and were made partakers of the Holy Ghost-if they fall away, (literally, and have fallen away,) to renew them again unto repentance : seeing they crucify to themselves the Son of God afresh, and put him to an open shame.” ver. 4-6.
4. It is true, some are of opinion, that those words, it is impossible, are not to be taken literally, as denoting absolute impossibility, but a very great difficulty. But it does not appear that we have any suflicient reason to depart from the literal meaning, as it neither implies any absurdity, nor contradicts any other scriptures. Does not this then, say they, cut off all hope, seeing we bave, undoubtedly, “ tasted of that heavenly gift, and been made partakers of the Holy Ghost ?" How is it possible to renew us again to repentance, to an entire change both of heart and life ? Seeing we have crucified to ourselves the Son of God afresh, and put him to an open shame!
5. A yet more dreadful passage, if possible, than this, is that in the twelfth chapter of St. Matthew. “All manner of sin and blasphemy shall be forgiven unto men: but the blasphemy against the Holy Ghost shall not be forgiven unto men : And whosoever speaketh a word against the Son of Man, it shall be forgiven him. But whosoever speaketh against the Holy Ghost, it shall not be forgiven him, neither in this world, nor in the world to come.” ver. 31, 32. Exactly parallel to these are the words of our Lord, which are recited by St. Mark: “Verily I say unto you, all sins shall be forgiven unto the sons of men, and blasphemies wherewith soever they blaspheme. But he that shall blaspheme against the Holy Ghost shall never be forgiven, but is in danger of eternal damnation.” ch. iï. 28, 29.
6. It has been the judgment of some, that all these passages point at one and the same sin; that not only the words of our Lord, but those of St. John, concerning the sin unto death, and those of St. Paul, concerning "crucifying to themselves the Son of God afresh, treading under foot the Son of God, and doing despite to the Spirit of grace;" all refer to the blasphemy against the Holy Ghost, the only sin that shall never be forgiven. Whether they do or not, it must be allowed that this blasphemy is absolutely unpardonable; and that, consequently, for those who have been guilty of this, God “ will be - no more entreated.”
7. To confirm those arguments drawn from Reason and Scripturc, they appeal to matter of fact. They ask, "Is it not a fact, that those who fall away from justifying grace, who make shipwreck of the faith, that faith whereof cometh present salvation, perish without mercy ? Ilow much less can any of those escape, who fall away from sanctifying grace! Who make shipwreck of that faith, whereby they are cleansed from all pollution of flesh and spirit? Has there ever been an instance of one or the other of these being renewed again to repentance ? It there be any instances of that, one would be inclined to believe that thought of our poet not to be extravagant,
“Even Judas struggles his despair to quell,
Hope alınost blossoms in the shades of hell." ?
III. These are the pr ncipal arguments drawn from Reason, from Scrip'ure, and from Fact, whereby backsliders are wont to justify themselves, in casting away hope : in supposing that God hath utterly “shut up his loving-kindness in displeasure.” I have proposed them in their full strength, that we may form the better judgment concerning them, and try whether each of them may not receive a clear, full, satisfactory answer.
1. I begin with that argument which is taken from the nature of the thing, “If a man rebel against an earthly prince, he may possibly be forgiven the first time. But if, after a full and free pardon, he should rebel again, there is no hope of obtaining a second pardon : he must expect to die without mercy. Now if he that rebels again against an earthly king, can look for no second pardon, how can he look for mercy, who rebels a second time against the great King of heaven and earth ?”
2. I answer: This argument drawn from the analogy between carthly and heavenly things, is plausible, but it is not solid : and that for this plain reason : Analogy has no place here : there can be no analogy or proportion between the mercy of any of the children of unen, and that of the Most High God. “ Unto whom will ye liken me, saith the Lord ?" Unto whom either in heaven or earth? Who, “what is he among the gods, that shall be compared unto the Lord ?" “I have said, Ye are gods,” saith the Psalmist, speaking to supreme magistrates. Such is your dignity and power, compared to that of common men. But what are they to the God of heaven? As a bubble upon the wave. What is their power in comparison to his power? What is their mercy compared to his mercy! Hence that comfortable word, “I am God and not man, therefore the house of Israel is not consumed.” Because he is God and not man, “ theretore his compassions fail not." None then can inser, that because an earthly king will not pardon one that rebels against him a second time, therefore the King of heaven will not! Yea, he will; not until seven times only, or until seventy times seven. -Nay, were your rebellions multiplied as the stars of heaven, were they more in number than the hairs of your head: yet, "return unto the Lord, and he will