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and were much given to the practice of architecture. Maffei, Muratori, and Tiraboschi have clearly proved that neither the Goths nor the Lombards introduced any particular style, but employed the architects whom they found in Italy. Fig. 143. is the west end

st. Michael, Pavia.

of the church of St. Michael, at Pavia, a work executed under the Lombards, and, therefore, here inserted as an example of style. The anxiety, however, of the Lombards to preserve the arts was not sufficient to prevent their increasing decay, which daily became more apparent. Not more than the Goths do they deserve the reproach for their treatment of and indifference to them. Besides fortifications and citadels for defence, they built palaces, baths, and temples, not only at Pavia, the seat of their empire, but at Turin, Milan, Spoleto, and Benevento. Hospitals under them began to be founded. The Queen Theodelinda, in particular, signalised her pious zeal in founding one at Monza, near Milan, her favourite residence, and endowing it in a most liberal manner. 28t. In the eighth century the influence of the popes on the fine arts began to be felt. John VI. and Gregory III., at the commencement of the eighth century, showed great soli: citude in their behalf. During this age the popes gained great temporal advantages, and their revenues enabled them to treat those advantages so as to do great good for Italy. In the ninth century Adrian I. signali ed himself in this passion to such an extent, that Nicholas V. placed on his monument the inscription, — Restituit mores, moenia, templa, Domos.

His works were many and admirable. Among
those of great use, he constructed porticoes
from the city to San Paolo and S. Lorenzo
fuori le Mură.
282. Before we advance to the age of
Charlemagne, it will be necessary to notice
the church of St. Vitalis, at Ravenna, which
we have reserved for this place on account of
the singularity of its construction. . It was
erected, as is usually believed, under the reign
of Justinian, in the sixth century. See Jig“.
144, and 145. The exterior walls are formed
in a regular octagon, whose diameter is 128".
Within this octagon is another concentric one.
54 fl. in diameter, from the eight piers where?'
(55 ft. in height) a hemispherical vault is
gathered over, and over this is a timber conical
roof. The peculiarity exhibited in the coor
struction of the cupola is, that the spandrel: **
filled in with earthen vases; and that round"

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exterior of its base semicircular headed windows are introduced, each of which is subdivided into two apertures of similar forms. Between every two piers hemicylindrical recesses are formed, each covered by a semidome, whose vertex is 48 ft. from the pavement, and each of them contains two windows subdivided into three spaces by two columns of the Corinthian order, supporting semicircular-headed arches. Between the piers and the external walls are two corridors, which surround the whole building, in two stories, one above the other, each covered by hemicylindrical vaulting. The upper corridor above the vault is covered with a sloping or leanto roof. We have before noticed the introduction of vases in the spandrels at the Circus of Caracalla; and we cannot help being struck with the similarity of construction in the instance above cited. It fully bears out the observation of Möller (Denkmahler der Deutschen Baukunst), “that, though beauty of proportion seems to have been unappreciated in these ages, and architecture was confined within a servile imitation of the earlier forms, the art of compounding cement, the proper selection of building materials, and an intimate acquaintance with the principles of solid construction with which the ancients were so conversant, were fully understood.” 283. The aera of Charlemagne, which opened after the middle of the eighth century and continued into the early part of the ninth, gave rise to many grand edifices dedicated to Christianity. This extraordinary man, rising to extensive dominion, did much towards restoring the arts and civilisation. “Meanwhile, in the south-east,” says an intelligent anonymous writer, “the decrepid Grecian empire, itself maintaining but a sickly existence, had nevertheless continued so far to stretch a protecting wing over them [the arts] that they never had there equally approached extinction. It seems probable that Charlemagne drew thence the architect and artisans who were capable of designing and building such a church as the cathedral of Aix-la-Chapelle, in Germany.” “If Charlemagne,” says Gibbon, “had fixed in Italy the seat of the Western empire, his genius would have aspired to restore, rather than violate, the works of the Caesars; but as policy confined the French monarch to the forests of Germany, his taste could be gratified only by destruction, and the new palace and church of Aix-la-Chapelle were decorated with the marbles of Ravenna and Rome." The fact is, that the Byzantine or Romanesque style continued, with various degrees of beauty, over the Continent, and in this country, till it was superseded by the introduction of the pointed style. Möller, from whom we extract fig. 146. which represents the portico of the Convent of Lorsch, situate about two and a half German miles from Darmstadt, considers it as all that remains of the first church built in the time of Charlemagne. The same learned author observes, that, on comparison with each other of the ancient churches of Germany, two leading differences are discoverable in their styles, of which all others are grades or combinations. The first, or earliest, whose origin is from the South, is, though in its later period much degenerated, of a highly finished character, distinguished by forms and decorations resembling those of Roman buildings, by flat roofs, by hemicylindrical vaults, and by great solidity of construction. The second and later style still preserves the semicircular forms; but * high pitched roof, more adapted to the seasons of a northern climate, begins to be substituted for the flat roof of the South, as at the cathedral of Worms on the west side, the western tower of the church at Gelnhausen, and in many other examples. 284. We are now approaching a period in which more light can be thrown on our subject than on that we have just quitted. In the ninth century, on, as it is said, the designs of a Greek artist, rose the cathedral of St. Mark at Venice, the largest of the Italian churches in the Byzantine style. Its plan is that of a Greek cross, whose arms are vaulted hemicylindrically, and, meeting in the centre of the building, terminate in four semicircular arches on the four sides of a square, about 42 ft. in length in each direction. From the anterior angles of the piers, pendentives gather over, as in St. Sophia, at Constantinople, and form a circle wherefrom rises a cylindrical wall or drum in which windows for lighting the interior are introduced. From this drum, the principal dome, which is hemispherical, springs. Longitudinally and transversely the church is separated by ranks of columns supporting semicircular arches. The aisles of the nave and choir, and those of the transepts, intersect each other in four places about the centre of the cross, over which intersections are small domes; so that on the roof are four smaller and one larger dome. In the exterior front towards the Piazza San Marco, the façade consists of two stories, in the centre of the lower one whereof is a large semicircularly arched entrance, on each side of which are two other smaller arched entrances of the same form. These have all plain archivolts springing from the upper of two orders of columns. On each flank of the façade is a smaller open arcade springing at each extremity from an upper of two orders of insulated columns. A gallery with a balustrade extends round the exterior of the church, in front whereof, in the centre, are the four famous bronze horses which once belonged to the arch of Nero. The second story towards the Piazza San Marco consists of a central semicircular aperture, with two blank semicircular arches on each side, not quite so high and wide. These five divisions are all crowned by canopy pediments of curves of contrary flexures, and ornamented with foliage. Between each two arches and at the angles a turret is introduced consisting of three stories of columns, and terminated by a pinnacle. The building has been considerably altered since its first construction; and, indeed, the ornaments last named point to a later age than the rest of the edifice, the general character of which has, nevertheless, been pre3. There is considerable similarity of plan between this church and that of St. phia. 285. Very much partaking the character of composition of St. Mark, but dissimilar in general plan, is the church of St. Anthony at Padua, which has six domes over the nave, transepts, centre, and choir. It is, moreover, distinguished by two slender towers or minarets, which impart to it the air of a Saracenic edifice. 286. The Italian architecture in the Byzantine or Romanesque style preserved a very different sort of character from that of the same date in Germany and other parts of Europe. Thus, –taking the cathedrals of Pisa and Worms, whose respective periods of construction are very close together, — the former is separated into its nave and aisles by columns with Corinthian capitals, reminding one very much of the early Christian basilica; in the latter, the separation of the nave from the aisles is by square piers. The cathedral at Pisa, with its baptistery, campanile, and the campo santo or cemetery, are a group of buildings of more curiosity than any four edifices in the world, and the more so from being so strongly marked with the distinguishing features of the Byzantine and Romanesque styles. The cathedral (fig. 147.), whose architect was Buschetto of Dulichio, a Greek, was built in the beginning in the 11th century. It consists of a nave, with two aisles on each side of it, transepts, and choir. Its

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Fig. 146. polarico or nonscri.

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the wall to the back of the recess is 311 ft., the width of the nave and four side aisles

- 106 ft. 6 in., the length of the

*N/~ transept 237 ft. 4 in., and its * N width, with its side aisles,

- 58 ft. The centre nave is 41 ft. wide, and has twentyfour Corinthian columns, twelve on each side, all of marble, 24 ft. 10 in. high, and full 2 ft. 3 in. in diameter. From the capitals of these columns arches spring, and over them is another order of columns, smaller and more numerous, from the circumstance of one being inserted over the centre of an intercolumniation below, and from their accompanying two openings under arches nearly equal to the width of such intercolumniations. These form an upper gallery, or triforium, anciently appropriated to the use of females. The four aisles have also isolated columns of the Corinthian order, but smaller, and raised on high plinths, in order to make them range with the others. The transepts have each a nave and two side aisles, with isolated columns, the same size as those of the other. The soffit of the great nave and of the transepts is of wood, gilt, but the smaller ones are groined. The height of the great nave is 91 ft., that of the transepts about 84 ft., and that of the aisles, 35 ft. In the centre nave are four piers, on which rest four large arches, supporting an elliptical cupola. The church is lighted by windows above the second order of the interior. The edifice is surrounded by steps. The extreme width of the western front, measured above the plinth moulding, is 116 ft., and the height from the pavement to the apex of the roof is 112 ft. 3 in. The façade has five stories, the first whereof consists of seven arches, supported by six Corinthian columns and two pilasters, the middle arch being larger than the others: the second has twenty-one arches, supported by twenty columns and two pilasters; the third is singular, from the façade contracting where the two aisles finish, and forming two lateral inclined planes, whence in the middle are columns with arches on them as below. The columns which are in the two inclined planes gradually diminish in height: the fifth story is the same, and forms a triangular pediment, the columns and arches as they approach the angles becoming more diminutive. The two exterior sides have two orders of pilasters, one over the other. The roof of the nave is supported, externally, by a wall decorated with columns, and arches resting on their capitals. The whole of the building is covered with lead. The drum of the cupola is externally ornamented with eighty-eight columns connected by arches, over which are pediments in marble, forming a species of crowns. The principal point of difference in these cathedrals from the old basilicae, in imitation whereof they were doubtless built, is in the addition of the transepts, by which a cruciform plan was given to these edifices. The style of the building in question is much lighter than most of the * of the period. But, whatever the taste

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Fig. 147. ri.rvatiox of catarakat. At pie A.

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and style, the architect of it was a very skilful mechanic. One of his epitaphs, at Pisa, we subjoin, in proof of what we have stated, Quod vix mille boum possent juga juncta movere, Et quod vix potuit per mare ferre ratis, Buschetti nisu, quoderat mirabile visu, Dena puellarum turba levavit onus.

287. In Germany, the 10th and 11th centuries afford some edifices very important in the history of the art. Such are the cathedrals of Spire, Worms, Mayence, and others, still in existence to testify their extraordinary solidity and magnificence. In that country, as Möller remarks, there was a great disparity between its several provinces, as respected their degrees of civilisation. On the banks of the Rhine, and in the south, cities were established when those parts became subject to the Romans, and there the arts of peace and the Christian religion took root, and flourished; whilst, in the north and east, paganism was still in existence. Christianity, indeed, and civilisation gradually and generally extended from the southern and western parts. The clergy, we know from history, themselves directed the building of churches and convents. The buildings, therefore, of these parts are of great importance in the history of architecture. The leading forms of these churches, as well as of those that were built about the same period in France and England, are founded upon the ancient basilicae; that is, they were long parallelograms with side aisles, and transepts which represent the arms of the cross, over whose intersection with the nave there is frequently a louvre. The choir and chancel terminate semicircularly on the plan. The semicircle prevails in the vaultings and over openings. The naveis lofty, frequently covered with groined vaulting, sometimes with flat timber covering; the gables are of small inclination. In the upper parts small short columns are frequently introduced. The prevailing feature in the exterior is horizontality, by which it is distinguished from the style which came into use in the 13th century. The profiles of the mouldings are, almost without exception, of Roman origin; the impost mouldings under the arches are, in this respect, peculiarly striking; and among the parts the Attic base constantly appears. The Roman basilicae were always covered with flat horizontal ceilings; those of the churches we are speaking of are mostly vaulted. Hence the necessity of substituting pillars or piers for the insulated columns, which had only to carry wooden roofs. There are, however, a few churches remaining, which preserve the ancient type, as a church at Ratisbon, and the conventual churches of Paulinzell and Schwarzach. Fig. 148, shows the plan, and fig. 149, a sketch of one bay in a

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longitudinal section of the north side of the nave of the cathedral at Worms, which was commenced in the year 996, and consei crated in 1016. It is one of the most ancient of the German churches, and one of the most instructive. On our examination of it, recently, we were astonished at its state of preservation. The plan, it will be seen, is strongly distinguished by the cross: the square piers are alternately decorated with half columns; and the chancel, at the east end, terminates with a semicircle. The western end of the church, which is octagonal, appears more modern than the rest, inasmuch as the pointed arch appears in it. Fig. 150. is the general appearance of the building. 288. Parts of the cathedral at Mentz are more ancient than any part of that at Worms; hence it may be studied with advantage, as containing a view of the styles of several centuries. The south-eastern gate of the cathedral is given by Möller in his work (Plate VI.). 289. Whittington, a highly talented author, of whom the world was deprived at a very early age (Historical Survey of the Eccle: siastical Antiquities of France, 4to. Lond. 1809), observes, that the buildings in France of the 9th and loth centuries were imi

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