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OOLITIC STONES.– continued. = . - ==#| - - § - # *:::::a r of Co. P Col #: ## i 5 Where used -- --- r etor in ent Part- our- - -- - --- - ol. o: o: #: i # F 3 # # -: == s =3 # # 3: lb. oz. s, d. s. d. Baru Lodgew. v. Jen-Chiefly carbon-Cream. 116 0012 to 96 ft. 0 6 - - Restoration of Hill, Combe kins, Esq., ate of lime, in cube. Henry vii.'s Down, near Combe oolitic grains. Thick- chapel, twenty Bath. So- Grove est bed, ears since. mersetshire. House, 43 ft. Kennet and Bath. Avon Canal, and other works. Bath Bayn-Thomas Chiefly carbon-Cream. 123 00. Up to 10 0 7 1 11 Laycock Abbey, Ton Quarry, Strong, of ate of lime, in tons. longleat, BoBox, near Box, near moderately fine Thick- wood, south Chippenham. Chippen- oolitic grains, est bed, - front of wilham. withfragments 5 ft. ton House, of shells (wea- Windsor Casther bed). tle, &c. Bath Wade Chiefly carbon-Cream. 122 10,120 to 125 0 6 || 1 10 Buckingham (Daewe's Brown, ate of lime, in st. Se- New Palace; Quanay), Esq., oolitic ains veral St. James's Monkton Monkton of moderate beds,the Square, Bath. Farleigh, Farleigh. size. deepest near Bath. about 4ft. 2 in. thick. Chanmore, - - Carbonate of Light 134 4 of large 0 7 || - - Cathedral of near Doult- lime, with a brown. size. Wells, Glasing, Wilt- few oolitic The tonbury Abshire. grains, and an thickest bey, &c. abundance of beds will small shells, work commonly in 20 in. fragments, often crystalline. Havdon, near John Archer Carbonate of Brownish ||133 714 ft. x3 ft. 0 8 || 2 4 Lincoln CatheGrantham, Houblon, lime, with ooli- cream. x4 ft. dral, Boston Lincoln- Esq., near tic grains,often Church, Granshire. Bishop's crystalline. tham Church. Stortford. Newark Church, and most of the churches in theneighbourhood, and in the lower part of Lincolnshire; Culver. thorpe House, Belvoir Castle, - sc. Ketton, in Lord North-Oolitic grains of Dark 128 5Up to 100 l 9 3 4 Cambridge, BedRutland- wick. moderate size, cream ... beds ford, Bury St. shire, near slightly ce- colour. vary Edmund's, Stamford. mented by car- very Stamford, Lonbonate of lime. much : don, &c.; one 3 ft. many of the 6in. ancient and thick, modern buildcalled ; at Camrag. bridge; also in the modern works of Peterborough and Ely Cathedral, and at St. Dunstan's New Church, in London. Poorland Messrs.wes-loolitic carbon-whitish - - Any prac- 1 4 || 2 3 various public (Taape ton. ate of lime, brown. ticable buildings in Quanry), with a few size. London. Island of fragments of Portland. shells

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OOLITIC STONES — continued. : .. o * = 3 Name of #5; * ; arry, and Proprietor of Component Parts Colour. = 3. #5, Withere used. wfiere situated. narry. of Stone. Too- 3 E. *3 : #5 25 2 #2 *# ## £3* lb. oz. s. d. s. d. Pontland Messrs. Wes-Oolitic carbon-Whitish - - Any prac- I 44 || 2 3 Various public (KiNg BAR- ton. ate of lime, brown. ticable buildings in Row East with a few size. London. END QUAR. fragments of Ry) adjoining shells. WAY croft, Island of Portland. Portland Messrs.wes-Oolitic carbon-whitish 134 10|Any prac- 1 4 || 2 3 Various public (VERN- ton. ate of lime, brown. top ticable buildings in STREET with a few bed. size. London. QUARRY), sragments of Island of shells. Portland. Portland Messrs. Wes-Oolitic carbon-Whitish - - Any prac- I 4A 2 3 Various public (CAstle's ton. ate of lime, brown. ticable buildings in QUARRY), with a few size. London. Island of fragments of Portland. shells. Portland The Crown, Oolitic carbon-Whitish ||135 8 All prac. 1 44 2 3 Goldsmiths' (WAvckofti on lease to ate of lime, brown. | top ticable Hall, Reform §o. Messrs. with dissemi- bed. size. Club is ouse, Island of Stewards nated frag- and other pubPortland. and Co. neuts os lic buildings in shells. London. PontLAND The Crown," Oolitic carbon-Whitish - - A. prac- 1 4 || 2 2 Various public (MAG Gott on lease to ate of lime, brown. ticable buildings in QUARRY). Messrs. with fragments size. London. Stewards of shells. and Co. PontiAxo Messrs. Oolitic carbon-Whitish 126 13|Any prac- 1 44 2 3 Several public (Gosling's Stewards ate of lime, brown. Roach ticable buildings in QUARRY). awl Co. with fragments size. Indon. of shells. Oolitic carbonPortland Messrs. ate of lime, Whitish ||147 10 A. prac- 1 4 || 2 3 St. Paul's Ca(Ghove Stewards with numerous brown. best ticable thedral, and seQUARRY Co. fragments of bed. size. veral churches Bow ERs). shells. 145 9 in London, carf. built during the reign of Queen Anne. Portland Messrs. (to wove Stewards Oolitic carbon-Whitish - - Any prac- 1 4 || 2 0 |St.Paul's Cathe. QUARRY, and Co. ate of lime, brown. ticable dral, and many Red Chorr), with a few size. churches in fragments of London, of shells. Queen Anne's reign. Of the Portland stones, it is to be observed generally, that the dirt bed is full of fossil roots, trunks, and branches of trees, in the position of their former growth. The top cap is a white, hard, and closely compacted limestone. The skull cap is irregular in texture, and is a well-compacted limestone. The roach beds are always incorporated with the freestone beds, that invariably lie below them, and are full of cavities formed by the moulds of shells and the like. The top bed is the best stone, the bottom one ill cemented, and will not stand the weather. A middle or curf bed occurs only in the southernmost quarries on the east cliff; it is soft to the north, and hard to the south. The good workable stone in the east cliff quarries is generally less in depth than in the same bed in the west cliff quarries, but the east cliff stone is harder, more especially to the south of the island. The stone, even in the same quarries, varies considerably. That which contains flints will not stand the weather. The bottom bed on the west clist is not a durable stone, though sold as a good stone in the London market. The best stone is in the northeastern part of the island; the worst in the south-western part. The annual consumption of the whole of the quarries in the island is equal to an area of one acre of the good workable stone, or about 24,000 tons. The entire area unworked is about 2000 acres. There are 56 quarries in the island, and about 240 quarrymen employed, of which number Messrs. Stewards employ usually about 138.

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1665. The following very useful enumeration of the stones used in buildings of the island, arranged under that head, and divided into the sorts of stone employed in them, we add, verbatim, from the Report which we have so much used. The heads are under SANDsroNE buildings, LIMEstone buildings, and MAGNESIAN LIMEstone buildings

SANDSTONE Bui LDINGs.

Bakewell, Derbyshire. The houses generally are of sandstone, and in fair condition. A new bank now erecting of sandstone from Bakewell Edge. Bakewell Church (14th century), of a sandstone of the vicinity, very much decomposed. BARNARD CAstle, Durham (14th century). Circular keep, apparently of Stenton stone, in excellent condition. In modern works, the Joint Stock Bank and Market-house of Stenton stone, in good condition. Belprit New Church, Derbyshire. Built 1o years since, of sandstone from Hungerhill, in an incipient state (in parts) of decomposition. BLANDroad Pakish Chukch, Dorsetshire (1769). Of a green siliceous fine-grained sandstone, the dressings being of a stone similar to the Portland oolite; the former much decomposed; the latter in very good condition. Town Hall, about 80 years old, of stone similar to the Portland oolite, in good condition. BRANcepeth Castle, Durham. Of ancient date, of sandstone of the vicinity; recently restored extensively; older parts in various states of decomposition. Briavel's, Sr., Castle, Glocestershire. In ruins (13th or 14th century). Entrance gateway (the chief remains of the castle) built of red sandstone, decomposed. Bristol, CAthen RAL (13th and 14th centuries). Built of red sandstone and a yellow limestone (magnesian *) strangely intermixed; the red sandstone in all cases decomposed, the limestone more rarely decayed; the tracery, &c. of the windows, which are of the limestone, are in good condition; but the pinnacles and other dressings, which are of the same material, are much decomposed. The east end of the cathedral is a remarkable instance of the decay and preservation of the two stones employed. Norman gateway, west of the cathedral (the upper part of the 15th century); the Norman archway and its enrichments, which are of a very florid character, built of yellow limestone (magnesian 2), in excellent condition. BYLAND Abbey (12th century). In part of a siliceous grit (principally in the interior), and in part (chiefly on the exterior) of a compact oolite, from the Wass quarries in the vicinity. The west front, which is of the oolite, is in perfect condition, even in the dog's-teeth and other florid decorations of the doorways, &c. This building is covered generally with lichens. CARLisle. Ancient buildings: Cathedral (13th century), of red sandstone, in various states of decomposition. Modern buildings: Many of red sandstone, more or less in a state of decomposition. Castle. Howard, Yorkshire. Built generally of a siliceous fine-grained sandstone from the park; generally in good condition, but in some parts, such as the parapets, cupolas, and chimney shafts, much decomposed. The pilasters of the north front from a quarry at Appleton; in good condition, except where subjected to alternations of wet and dry, as in the plinths, where there are signs of decomposition. The stables are of Appleton stone, and in good condition. Chatsworth House, Derbyshire. Original house built of Bell Crop sandstone from Bakewell Edge, not in very good condition, particularly in the lower parts of the building. In the recent additions the same stone is employed, together with that of Bailey Moor and Lindrop Hill. Chepstow CASTLE, Monmouthshire (11th and 12th centuries, with additions of the 14th century). Of mountain limestone and old red sandstone; the former in good condition; the latter decomposed. , Dressings of doors, windows, archways, and quoins are for the most part of magnesian limestone, in perfect condition; the remainder is of red sandstone, and is generally much decomposed. Chapel (of the 12th century); mouldings and carvings of the windows, &c., which are of magnesian limestone, are in perfect condition. Coxwold Church, Yorkshire (15th century). Generally of fine siliceous grit of the vicinity, and in part of a calcareous nature. Tower in good condition; porch decomposed ; lichens abundant on the north side. DERby. St. Peter's Church (13th century), of the variegated coarse sandstone of the vicinity, similar to that of Little Eaton. The whole in bad condition; but the red stones less so than the grey or white, St. Almund's Church (of the 14th century), of a coarse sandstone of the vicinity, in a very decomposed state, to the obliteration of the mouldings and other details; it has lately been scraped and painted, to preserve it from further destruction. All Saints Church (tower of the 15th century), of sandstone, similar to that of Duffield Bank, partly in fair condition, and partly much decomposed, particularly the great western entrance. The body of the church, built 1 10 years since, of sandstone, in part decomposing. Modern buildings: Town Hall, of sandstone from Morley Moor, built a few years since, in very good condition. Dunha M. Cathedral. (11th and 12th centuries). Of a sandstone of the vicinity, elected indiscriminately, and in all stages of decomposition; few stones are quite perfect. CASTLE (of the 11th century). Of similar stone, and in a similar state. Easby Abbey, Yorkshire (13th and 14th centuries). Of sandstone of the vicinity; mouldings and carvings decomposed and in part obliterated. Walls built very rudely, and in various states of decomposition; some parts, however, maintain their original surface. Eccleston Abbey, Yorkshire (13th century). Of stone similar to that of the Stenton quarry. The mouldings and other decorations, such even as the dog's-teeth enrichments, are in perfect condition. E, unburgh. Ancient buildings: Holyrood Chapel (12th century), of sandstone from the vicinity, in part much decomposed; in other parts, such as the west door, almost perfect. The palace (built in the 16th and 17th centuries) of similar stone, generally in good condition, the older parts being slightly decomposed. The oldest part of the Tron Church (1641), of sandstone, much decomposed. A house on the Castle Hill (1591), of sandstone, only slightly decomposed. Modern buildings, wholly erected of sandstones from the Cragleith, Red Hall, Humbie, and Binnie quarries, for the most from the first-mentioned quarry. None of them exhibit any appearance of decomposition, with the exception of ferruginous stains, which are produced upon some stones. Among the oldest is the Registry Office, which is of Cragleith stone, and built above sixty years since; it is in a perfect state. Fountain's Abbey, Yorkshire (11th and 12th centuries, with additions of the 16th century). Of coarse sandstone of the vicinity, generally in bad condition, partieularly the west front, which is much decomposed. The nave and transept, which are the earliest portions of the building, are the best preserved. Fountain's HALL, Yorkshire (1677). Of sandstone of the vicinity, and magnesian limestone in the dressings. The whole in fair condition. Forest of DEAN, Gloucestershire. Park End new church, built fifteen years since, of sandstone, similar to that of Colford. No appearance of decomposition.

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