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ceeded in magnitude all their other buildings. Their form on the plan (see fig. 106.) was rather more than a semicircle, and consisted of two parts; the armyh, scena, and rotao",

H- : r: -
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Fig. 106. riax or A grearx thratar.

cavea. The scena was at first merely a partition for the actors reaching quite across the stage, dressed with.boughs and leaves, but in after times was very differently and more expensively constructed. It had three principal gates, two on the sides and one in the centre; at which last the principal characters entered. The whole scene was divided into several parts, whereof the most remarkable were—the 8pov resov, brontacum, under the floor, where were deposited vessels full of stones and other materials for imitating the sound of thunder; the emurxāvuov, episcenium, a place on the top of the scene, in which were placed the machines for changing the various figures and prospects; the traparkivtov, parascenium, which served the actors as a dressing room; the trpookhviov, proscenium, or stage, on which the performers acted; the opxhortpa, orchestra, was the part in which the performers danced and sang, in the middle whereof was the Aoyewv or SvuéAm, pulpitum ; the virookhviov, hyposcenium, was a partition under the pulpitum, where the music was placed ; the koixov, cavea, was for the reception of the spectators, and consisted of two or three divisions of several seats, each rising above one another, the lowest division being appropriated to persons of rank and magistrates, the middle one to the commonalty, and the upper one to the women. Round the cavea porticoes were erected for shelter in rainy weather, the theatre of the Greeks having no roof or covering. The theatre was always dedicated to Bacchus and Venus, the deities of sports and pleasures; to the former, indeed, it is said they owe their origin: hence, the plays acted in them were called Atovvoruaxå, Dionysiaca, as belonging to Aiovvaos, or Bacchus. Every citizen shared by right in the public diversion and public debate; the theatre was therefore open to the whole community. 173. The Athenian a yopal, or fora, were numerous; but the two most celebrated were the old and new forum. The old forum was in the Ceramicus within the city. The assemblies of the people were held in it, but its principal use was as a market, in which to every trade was assigned a particular portion. 174. The supply of water at Athens was chiefly from wells, aqueducts being scarcely known there before the time of the Romans. Some of these wells were dug at the public expense, others by private persons. 175. The first gymnasia are said to have been erected in Lacedemonia, but were afterwards much improved and extended, and became common throughout Greece. The gymnasium consisted of a number of buildings united in one enclosure, whereto large numbers resorted for different purposes. In it the philosophers, rhetoricians, and professors of all the other sciences, delivered their lectures; in it also the wrestlers and dancers practised and exercised; all which, from its space, they were enabled to do without interfering with one another. The chief parts (fig. ...} following Vitruvius (lib. v. cap. 11.), are—A, the repurrvatov, peristylium, which included the opauptathpiov, sphaeristerium, and maxatarpa, palestra; 1, 2, 3, are the arroal, porticus, with b B, eteåpa, erhedra, where probably the scholars used to meet; 4, 4, is the double portico looking to the south; c, eqféalov, ephabeum, where the ephebi or youths exercised, or, as some say, where those that designed to exercise met and agreed what kind of exercise they should contend in, and what should be the victor's reward; D, is the coryceum ; z, the koviarăptov, conisterium, where the dust was kept for sprinkling those that had been anointed; F is the cold bath (frigida lavatio); c, the exalo- - = ***, *othesium, or place for anointing those that were about to wrestle; h, the frigidarium, or cold chamber; 1, passage to the propigneum, or furnace; L, the propigneum; M, the arched sudatio, for sweating; N, the laconicum ; o, the hot bath (calida laratio); 5, 7, the two porticoes described as out of the palaestra, of which 7 forms the rystus, and 6 a double portico; a a, the margines, or semitae of the xystus, to separate the spectators from the wrestlers; b b, the middle part excavated two steps, cc, down; Q Q, gardens; d d, walks; e e, stationes for seats; R R, Łórra, rysta, sometimes called reptăpoubes, for walking or exercises; s, the stadium, with raised seats round it. 176. The roofs of the edifices of Athens vary from 144 to 154 degrees in inclination, a subject which will be hereafter fully considered, when we come to investigate the principles of constructing roofs. In Rome, as will hereafter be seen, the inclination is much more. There is nothing to warrant us in a belief that the arch was known to the Greeks till after the age of Alexander. Indeed, the want of a name for it in a language so generally copious as the Greek, suffices to show that they were unacquainted with it. It was most probably in much earlier use in Italy. The words Soxos, afts, and Jaxis, are not used in a sense that signifies an arch until after the reign of the above-named monarch; nor is any description extant from which may be conceived the construction of an arch on scientific principles. 177. From the time of Pericles to that of Alexander, all the arts, and most especially that of architecture, seem to have attained a high state of perfection. Every moral and physical cause had concurred in so advancing them. But perfection, when once reached in the works of man, is only the commencement of their falling away from it. Liberty, the love of country, ambition in every department of life, had made Athens the focus of the arts and sciences: the defeat of the Persians at Marathon and other celebrated victories had brought peace to the whole of the states of Greece. In the space of time preceding the Peloponnesian war, there seems to have been, as it were, an explosion of every species of talent, and it was at this period that they set about rebuilding the temples and other edifices that the Persians had thrown down, of which a wise policy had preserved the ruins, so that the contemplation of desolation and misfortune afforded them an eloquent reminiscence of the peril in which they continually stood. It was indeed only after the flight of the general of Xerxes, and the victory gained by Themistocles, that a general restoration of their monuments and the rebuilding of Athens were set about. These were the true trophies of the battle of Salamis. About 335 years b.c. Alexander became master of Greece. Fired with every species of glory, and jealous of leaving to posterity monuments that should be unworthy of his greatness and fame, or other than proofs of the refinement of his taste, this prince gave a new impulse to genius by the exclusive choice that he made of the most skilful artists, and by the liberal rewards he bestowed upon them. The sacking of Corinth by the Romans in less than two centuries (about 146 B.c.) was the first disaster that the fine arts encountered in Greece; their overthrow there was soon afterwards completed by the country becoming a Roman province. At the former occurrence Polybius


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(cited by Strabo) says, that during the plunder the Roman soldiers were seen casting their dice on the celebrated picture of Bacchus by Aristides. Juvenal well describes such a scene (Satire xi. 100.) : —

Tunc rudis et Graias mirari nescius artes,

Urbibus eversis, praedarum in parte reperta
Magnorum artificam frangebat pocula miles.

The well-known story of the consul Mummius shows either that the higher ranks among the Roman citizens were not very much enlightened on the arts, or that he was a singular blockhead. We have now arrived at the period at which Greece was despoiled and Rome enriched, and must pursue the history of the art among the Romans; incidental to which a short digression will be necessary on Etruscan architecture.

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178. The inhabitants of Etruria, a country of Italy, now called Tuscany, are supposed to have been a colony from Greece. They certainly may have been a swarm from the original hive (see Druidical, Celtic, 13.; and Cyclopean Architecture, 32.) that passed through Greece in their way to Italy. The few remains of their buildings still existing show, from their construction, that they are coeval with the walls of Tiryns, Mycenae (figs. 9. and 10.), and other works of a very early age; and it is our own opinion that the wandering from that great central nation, of which we have already so much spoken, was as likely to conduct the Etrurians at once to the spot on which they settled, as to bring them through Greece to the place of their settlement. It is equally our opinion that, so far from the country whereof we now treat having received their arts from the Greeks, it is quite as possible, and even likely, that the Greeks may have received their arts from the Etruscans. The history of Etruria, if we consult the different writers who have mentioned it, is such a mass of contradiction and obscurity, that there is no sure guide for us. It seems to be a moving picture of constant emigration and re-emigration between the inhabitants of Greece and Italy. The only point upon which we can surely rest is, that there were many ancient relations between the two countries, and that in after times the dominion of the Etruscans extended to that part of Italy which, when it became occupied by Grecian colonies, took the name of Magna Graecia. The continual intercourse between the two countries lessens our surprise at the great similarity in their mythology, in their religious tenets, and in their early works of art. We are quite aware that the learned Lanzi was of opinion (Saggio di Lingua Etrusca), that the Etruscans were not the most ancient people of Italy. We are not about to dispute that point. He draws his conclusion from language; we draw our own from a comparison of the masonry employed in both nations, from the remains whereof we should, if there be a difference, assign the earliest date to that of Hetruria. This, to be sure, leaves open the question whether the country was preoccupied; one which, for our purpose, it is not necessary to settle. We have Winkelman and Guarnacci on our side, who from medals and coins arrived at the belief that among the Etruscans the arts were more advanced at a very early age than among the Greeks; and Dr. Clarke's reasoning tends to prove for them a Phoenician origin.

179. Great solidity of construction is the prominent feature in Etruscan architecture. Their cities were surrounded by walls consisting of enormous blocks of stone, and usually very high. Remains of them are still to be seen at Volterra (fig. 108.), Cortona, Fiesole (fig. 109.), &c. “Moenibus,” says Alberti (De Re AEdific. lib. vii. c. 2.) “veterum praesertim populi Etruriae quadratum eumdemdue wastissimum lapidem probavére.” In the walls of Cortona some of the stones are upwards of 22 Roman feet in length, and from 5 to 6 ft. high, and in them neither cramps nor cement appear to have been employed. The walls of Volterra are built after the same gigantic fashion. In the earliest *** *** * * specimens of walling, the blocks of stone were of an irregular polygonal form, and so disposed as that all their sides were in close contact with one another. Of this species is the wall at Cora, near Velletri. The gates were very simple, and built of stones of an oblong square form. The gate of Hercules, at Volterra, is an arch consisting of nineteen stones; a circumstance which, if its antiquity be allowed to be only of a moderately remote period, would go far to disprove all Lanzi's reasoning, for, as we have noticed in the preceding ar. ticle, the arch was unknown in Greece till after the time of Alexander. According to Gori (Museum Etruscum), vestiges of theatres have been discovered among the ruins of some of their cities. That they were acquainted with the method of conducting theatrical representations is evident from Livy, who mentions an occasion on which comedians were brought from Etruria to Rome, whose inhabitants at the time in question were only accustomed to the games of the circus. . The gladiatorial sports, which were afterwards so much the delight of the Romans, were also borrowed from the same people. They constructed their temples peripterally; the pediments of them were decorated with statues, quadrigae, and bassi lilievi, in terra cotta, many whereof were remaining in the time of Vitruvius and Pliny. Though it is supposed that the Etruscans made use of wood in the entablatures of their temples, it is not to be inferred that at even the earliest period they were unacquainted with the use of stone for their architraves and lintels, as is sufficiently proved in the Piscina of Volterra.

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180. The Romans, until the conquest of Greece, borrowed the taste of their architecture from Etruria. Even to the time of Augustus, the species called Tuscan was to be seen by the side of the acclimatised temple of the Greeks.

181. The atrium or court, in private houses, seems to have been an invention of the Etruscans. Festus derives its name from its having been first used at Atria, in Etruria : “Dictum Atrium quia id genus edificii primum Atriae in Etruria sit institutum.” We shall, however, allude in the next section to Etruscan architecture as connected with Roman; merely adding here, that in about a year after the death of Alexander the nation fell under the dominion of the Romans.

Sect. XIII.
Roxi.A.N ARCHITEcture.

182. The Romans can scarcely be said to have had an original architecture; they had rather a modification of that of the Greeks. Their first instruction in the art was received from the Etruscans, which was probably not until the time of the Tarquins, when their edifices began to be constructed after fixed principles, and to receive appropriate decoration. In the time of the first Tarquin, who was a native of Etruria, much had been done towards the improvement of Rome. He brought from his native country a taste for that grandeur and solidity which prevailed in the Etruscan works. After many victories he had the honour of a triumph, and applied the wealth he had acquired from the conquered cities to building a circus, for which a situation was chosen in the valley which reached from the Aventine to the Palatine Hill. Under his reign the city was fortified, cleansed, and beautified. The walls were built of hewn stone, and the low grounds about the Forum drained, which prepared the way for the second Tarquin to construct that Cloaca Maxima, which was reckoned among the wonders of the world. The Forum was surrounded with galleries by him; and his reign was further distinguished by the erection of temples, schools for both sexes, and halls for the administration of public justice. This, according to the best chronologies, must have been upwards of 610 years B. c. Servius Tullius enlarged the city, and among his other works continued those of the temple of Jupiter Capitolinus, which had been commenced by his predecessor ; but the operations of both were eclipsed by monuments, for which the Romans were indebted to Tarquinius Superbus, the seventh king of Rome. Under him the Circus was completed, and the most effective methods taken to finish the Cloaca Maxima. This work, on which neither labour nor expense was spared to make the work everlasting, is of wrought stone, and its height and breadth are so considerable, that a cart loaded with hay could pass through it. Hills and rocks were cut through for the purpose of passing the filth of the city into the Tiber. Pliny calls the Cloacae, “operum omnium dictu maximum, suffossis montibus, atque urbe pensili, subtergue navigata.” The temple of Jupiter Capitolinus was not finished till after the expulsion of the kings, 508 B. c. ; but under Tarquinius Superbus it was considerably advanced. In the third consulship of Poplicola, the temple was consecrated. As the name, which was changed, imports, this temple stood on the Mons Capitolinus, and embraced, according to Plutarch, four acres of ground. It was twice afterwards destroyed, and twice rebuilt on the same foundations. Vespasian, at a late period, rebuilt it; and upon the destruction of this last by fire, Domitian raised the most splendid of all, in which the gilding alone cost 12,000 talents. It is impossible now to trace the architecture of the Romans through its various steps between the time of the last king, 508 B. c., and the subjugation of Greece by that people in the year 145 b. c., a period of 363 years. The disputes in which they were continually engaged left them little leisure for the arts of peace; yet the few monuments with which we are acquainted show a power and skill that mark them as an extraordinary race. Thus in the year 397 B. c., on the occasion of the siege of Veii, the prodigy, as it was supposed, of the lake of Alba overflowing, when there was little water in the neighbouring rivers, springs, and marshes, induced the authorities to make an emissarium, or outlet for the superfluous water, which subsists to this day. The water of the lake Albano, which runs along Castel Gondolfo, still passes through it. A few years after this event an opportunity was afforded, which, with more care on the part of the authorities, might have considerably improved it, after its demolition by Brennus. This event occurred 389 B. c., and was nearly the occasion of the population being removed to Veii altogether, a place which offered them a spot fortified by art and nature, good houses ready built, a wholesome air, and a fruitful territory. The eloquence, however, of Camillus prevailed over their despondency. Livy (b. vi.) observes, that in the rebuilding, the state furnished tiles, and the people were allowed to take stone and other materials wherever they could find them, giving security to finish their houses within the year. But the haste with which they went to work caused many encroachments on each other's soil. Every one raised his house where he found a vacant space; so that in many cases they built over the common sewers, which before ran under the streets. So little taste for regularity and beauty was observed, that the city, when rebuilt, was even less regular than in the time of Romulus; and though in the time of Augustus, when Rome had become the capital of the world, the temples, palaces, and private houses were more magnificent than before, yet these decorations could not rectify the fault of the plan. Though perhaps not strictly within our own province, we may here mention the temple built in honour of Juno Moneta, in consequence of a vow of L. Furius Camillus when before the Volsci. This was one of the temples on the Capitoline hill. The epithet above mentioned was given to the queen of the gods, a short time before the taking of Rome by the Gauls. It was pretended that from the temple of Juno a voice had proceeded, accompanied with an earthquake, and that the voice had admonished the Romans to avert the evils that threatened them by sacrificing a sow with pig. She was hence called Moneta (from monere). The temple of Juno Moneta becoming afterwards a public mint, the medals stamped in it for the current coin took the name of Moneta (money). This temple was erected about 345 years b.c., on the spot where the house of Marcus Manlius had stood. 183. In the time that Appius Claudius was censor, about 309 B. c., the earliest paved road was made by the Romans. It was first carried to Capua, and afterwards continued to Brundusium, a length altogether of 350 miles. Statius calls it regina viarum. Paved with the hardest stone, it remains entire to the present day. Its breadth is about 14 ft. ; the stones of which it is composed vary in size, but so admirably was it put together that they are like one stone. Its bed is on two strata; the first of rough stones cemented with mortar, and the second of gravel, the thickness altogether being about 3 ft. To the same Appius Claudius belongs the honour of having raised the first aqueduct. The water with which it supplied the city was collected from the neighbourhood of Frascati, about 100 ft. above the level of Rome. The Romans at this time were fast advancing in the arts and sciences; for in about nineteen years afterwards we find Papirius, after his victory over the Samnites, built a temple to Quirinus out of a portion of its spoils. Upon this temple was fixed (Pliny, b. vii. c. 60.) the first sun-dial that Rome ever saw. For a long while the Romans marked only the rising and setting of the sun; they afterwards observed, but in a rude clumsy manner, the hour of noon. When the sun's rays appeared between the rostra and the house appointed for the reception of the ambassadors, a herald of one of the consuls proclaimed with a loud voice that it was mid-day. With the aid of the dial they now marked the hours of the day, as they soon after did those of the night by the aid of the clepsydra or water-clock. The materials for carrying on the investigation are so scanty, and moreover, as in the case of Grecian architecture, without examples whereon we can reason, that we will not detain the reader with further speculations, but at once proceed to that period (145 B. c.) when Greece was reduced to a Roman province. Art, in the strict application of that word, was not properly understood by the victorious Romans; and a barrenness appears to have clung about that whereof we treat, even with all the advantages that Rome possessed. It may be supposed that the impulse given to the arts would have been immediate; but?like the waves generated by the ocean storm, a succession of them was necessary before the billows would approach the coast. Perhaps, though it be only conjectural, the first effect was visible in the temple reared to Minerva at Rome, out of the spoils of the Mithridatic war, by Pompey the Great, about sixty years B.c., after a triumph unparalleled perhaps in the history of the world; after the conclusion of a war of thirty years' duration, in which upwards of two millions of his fellow-creatures had been slain and vanquished; after 846 ships had been sunk or taken, and 1538 towns and fortresses had been reduced to the power of the empire, and all the countries between the lake Maeotis and the Red Sea had been subdued. It is to be regretted that no remains of this temple exist. The inscription (Plin. lib. vii. c. 26.) was as follows : —

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