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nown to the Tyrians; and, indeed, it seems scarcely possible that, by the help of the lone, they should have been able to maintain a commerce for tin on the shores of n, whose western coast furnished that metal in abundance, and whose islands (the Scilly) were known by the title of Cassiterides, or tin islands. In this part of Britain there seems unquestionable evidence that they settled a colony, and were the architects of Stonehenge, Abury, and other similar works in the British islands. In these they might have been assisted by that part of the swarm which reached our shores through Gaul; or it is possible that the works in question may be those of the latter only, of whom traces exist in Britany at the monument of Carnac, whereof it is computed 4000 stones still remain. From among the number of pillars of this kind still to be seen in England, we give (fig. 3.) that standing at Rudstone, in the east riding of Yorkshire. It is described by Drake, in his Eboracum, as “coarse rag stone or millstone grit, and its weight is computed at between 40 and 50 tons. In form (the sides being slightly concave) it approaches to an ellipse on the plan, the breadth being 5 ft. 10 in., Roo. and the thickness 2 ft. 3 in., in its general dimensions. so Its height is 24 ft. ; and, according to a brief account o communicated to the late Mr. Pegge, in the year 1769 atologia, vol. v. p. 95.), its depth underground equals its height above, as appeared from Yeriment made by the late Sir William Strickland.” (2.) Circles of Stone.—The Israelites were in the habit of arranging stones to repreme twelve tribes of Israel (Erod. xxiv. 4.), and for another purpose. (Deut. xxvii. 2.) n a circular form we find them set up by Joshua's order on the passage of the Israelites gh Jordan to Gilgal (5:53); a word in which the radical Gal or Gil (signifying a ) is doubled to denote the continued repetition of the action. In this last case, Joshua the arrangement a type of the Lord rolling away their reproach from them. Though traces of this species of monument are found in various parts of the world, in America, we shall confine our observations to those of Abury and Stonehenge, y referring, by way of enumeration, to the places where they are to be found. Thus 2ntion Rolbrich in Oxfordshire, the Hurlers in Cornwall, Long Meg and her daughters imberland, remains in Derbyshire, Devonshire, Dorsetshire, at Stanton Drew in Tsetshire, and in Westmoreland. They are common in Wales, and are found in the orn Isles. There are examples in Iceland, Norway, Sweden, Denmark, and various of Germany. Clarke, in his description of the hill of Kushunlu Tepe in the Troad, res, that all the way up, the traces of former works may be noticed, and that, on the it, there is a small oblong area, six yards long and two broad, exhibiting vestiges of the st antiquity; the stones forming the inclosure being as rude as those of Tiryns in is, and encircled by a grove of oaks covering the top of this conical mountain. The ce is from the south. Upon the east and west, outside of the trees, are stones ranging what we in England call Druidical circles. Three circles of stones are known in ica, one of which stands upon a high rock on the banks of the river Winnipigon. tupendous monument of Carnac in Britany, of which we have above made mention, of a circular form; the stones there being arranged in eleven straight lines, from 33 ft. apart, some of which are of enormous size. They are said to have formerly led three leagues along the coast. A description of this monument is given in vol. xxii. Archaeologia. Abury, or Avebury, in Wiltshire, of which we give a view in a restored state |.), is a specimen of this species of building, in which the climax of magnificence tained. Stukely, who examined the ruins when in much better preservation than st it, says, “that the whole figure represented a snake transmitted through a circle; hat, “ to make their representation more natural, they artfully carried it over a variety vations and depressions, which, with the curvature of the avenues, produces sufficiently sired effect. To make it still more elegant and picture-like, the head of the snake is d up the southern promontory of Hackpen Hill, towards the village of West Kennet; he very name of the hill is derived from this circumstance;” for acan, he observes, siga serpent in the Chaldaic language. Dr. S. then goes on to state, “that the draco name, amongst the first-learned nations, for the very ancient sort of temples of which ould give no account, nor well explain their meaning upon it.” The figure of the it extended two miles in length; and but a very faint idea can now be formed of what in its original state. Two double circles, one to the north and the other, to the of the centre, were placed within the large circle, which formed the principal body o rpent, and from which branched out the head to Hackpen Hill, in the direction o

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from the central - Fig. 5. hypothesis on Plain, about seven mi

tainly more artificial


safely referred to a later date. Fig. 5. is a restored plan of this wonder of the west, as it may well be called. The larger circle is 105 feet in diameter, and between it and the interior smaller circle is a space of about 9 feet. Within this smaller circle, which is half the height (8 feet) of the exterior one, was a portion of an ellipsis formed by 5 groups of stones, to which Dr. Stukely has given the name of trilithons, because formed by two vertical and one horizontal stone: the former are from 17 to 184 feet high, the middle trilithon being the highest. Within this ellipsis is another of single stones, half the height of the trilithons. The outer circle was crowned with a course of stones similar to an architrave or epissylium, the stones whereof were let into or joggled with one another by means of eggshaped tenons formed out of the vertical blocks. The ellipsis was connected in a similar manner. Within the inner elliptical enclosure was a block 16 ft. long, 4 ft. broad, and 20 in. thick. This has usually been called the altar stone. Round the larger circle, at the distance of 100 ft., a vallum was formed about 52 ft. in width, so that the external dimension of the work was a diameter of 420 ft. The vallum surrounding these sacred places seems to have been borrowed by the Canaanites in imitation of the enclosure with which Moses surrounded Mount Sinai, in order to prevent the multitude from approaching too near the sacred mysteries. The number of stones composing this monument is variously given. In the subjoined account we follow Dr. Stukely : —

Stones. Stones.

Great circle, vertical stones . - 30 Stones within vallum . - - 2 Epistylia - - - - 30 A large table stone - - 1 Inner circle . - - - 40 Distant pillar . - - - 1 Vertical stones of outer ellipsis - 10 Another stone, supposed to have been

Epistylia to them - - - 5. opposite the entrance

Inner ellipsis . - - - 19 Altar . - - - - l | Total . - - - 140

Northwards from Stonehenge, at the distance of a few hundred yards, is a large single stone,

which, at the period of its being placed there, has been by some thought to have marked

a meridian line from the centre of the circle. 19. Fig. 6. is a view of the present state of this interesting ruin from the west. Mr.

*Too ston-on-oxo

Cunnington, in a letter to Mr. Higgins, gives the following account of the stones which remain of the monument: —“The stones on the outside of the work, those comprising the outward circle as well as the large (five) trilithons, are all of that species of stone called ‘garsen’ found in the neighbourhood; whereas the inner circle of small upright stones, and those of the interior oval, are composed of granite, hornstone, &c., most probably procured from some part of Devonshire or Cornwall, as I know not where such stones could be procured at a nearer distance.”

20. Authors have in Stonehenge discovered an instrument of astronomy, and among them Maurice, whose view as to its founders coincides with those of the writers already cited, and with our own. We give no opinion on this point, but shall conclude the section by placing before the reader the substance of M. Bailly's notion thereon, recommending him to consult, in that respect, authorities better than we profess to be, and here expressing our own belief that the priests of ancient Britain were priests of Baal; and that the monuments, the subjects of this section, were in existence long before the Greeks, as a nation, were known, albeit they did derive the word Druid from 5pus (an oak), and said that they themselves were avrox00ves (sprung from the earth).

21. M. Bailly says, on the origin of the sciences in Asia, that a nation possessed of profound wisdom, of elevated genius, and of an antiquity far superior to the Egyptians or Indians, immediately after the flood inhabited the country to the north of India, between the latitudes of 40° and 50°, or about 50° north. He contends that some of the most celebrated observatories and inventions relating to astronomy, from their peculiar character, could have taken place only in those latitudes, and that arts and improvements gradually


travelled thence to the equator.

The people to whom his description is most applicable is the northern progeny of Brahmins, settled near the Imaus and in Northern Thibet. We add, that Mr. Hastings informed Maurice of an immemorial tradition that prevailed at Benares, which was itself, in modern times, the grand emporium of Indian learning, — that all that of India came from a country situate in 40° of N. latitude. On this Maurice says, “This is the latitude of Samarcand, the metropolis of Tartary; and, by this circumstance, the position of M. Bailly should seem to be confirmed. This is the country where, according to the testimony of Josephus and other historians cited by the learned Abbé Pezron, are to be found the first Celtae, by whom all the temples and caves of India were made. Higgins observes on this, that the worship of the Mithraitic bull existed in India, Persia, Greece, Italy, and Britain, and that the religion of the Druids, Magi, and Brahmins was the same. 22. (3.) Sacrificial Stones. – These have been confounded with the cromlech, but the difference between them is wide. They are simple stones, either encircled by a shallow trench (vallum) and bank (agger), or by a few stones. Upon these almost all authors concur in believing that human immolation was practised; indeed, the name blod, or blood-stones, which they bear in the north of Europe, seems to point to their infernal use. We do not think it necessary to pursue further inquiry into them, as they present no remarkable nor interesting features. 23. (4.) Cromlechs and Cairns. – The former of these seem to stand in the same relation to the large circles that the modern cell does to the conventual church of the Catholics. They consist of two or more sides, or vertical stones, and sometimes a back stone, the whole

being covered with one not usually placed exactly horizontal, but rather in an inclining

position. We here (fig. 7.) give a representation of one, that has received the name of Kit's Cotty House, which lies on the road between Maidstone and Rochester, about a mile northeastward from Aylesford church, and is thus described in the Beauties of England and Wales. It “is composed of four huge stones unwrought, three of them standing on end but inclined inwards, and supporting the fourth, which lies transversely over leave an open recess beneath. The dimensions and computed weights of these stones are as follows: —height of that on the south side 8 ft., breadth 73 ft., thickness 2 ft., weight 8 tons; height of that on the north side 7 ft., breadth 7% ft., thickness 2 ft., weight 84 tons. The middle stone is very irregular; its medium length as well as breadth may be about 5 ft., its thickness about 1 ft. 2 in., and its weight about 2 tons. The uRPo" stone or impost is also extremely irregular; its greatest length is nearly 12 ft., and its breadth about 94 ft.; its thickness is 2 ft., and its weight about 10% tons : the width of the recess at bottom is 9.ft., and at top 7% ft. ; from the ground to the upper side of the covering stone is 9 ft. These stones are of the kind called Kentish rag. Many years ago. there was a single stone of a similar kind and size to those forming the cromlech, about o: to the north-west: this, which is thought to have once stood upright, like a pillar, * . broken into pieces and carried away.” Another cromlech stood in the neighbourhood, which has been thrown down. The nonsense that has been gravely . * *: and similar monuments is scarcely worth mention. It will hardly be o ". . existed people who thought it was the sepulchral monument of king Catigern, * . of name, and others who consider it the grave of the Saxon chief, Ho". from its o y to Horsted. Cromlechs are found in situations remote indeed, a speo" lo o * the Malabar coast; and in the British isles they are so numero" that we do not thin it nec rv to give a list of them. 1t o .# or carra * we have in this section coupled . *...*io improperly, is a conical heap of loose stones. Whether os so.ttle skill in rio, from the words ---Mr (kern-ned), a coped heap, we o o asserted, they were raised not venture to decide; so we do not feel quite sure that o tion rather inclines to their over the bodies of deceased heroes and chieftains. 9." "..., Jacob gave the name of having been a species of altar, though the heap of stones *... the agreement between \\\\\\ Galeed, if it were of this species, was rather a ... but we should have considereo and Laban. It can scarcely be called an architecture w vote without naming the cairn. our notice of the earlier monuments of antiquo"> wo e blocks poised so micely on the 25. (5.) Logan or Rocking Stones. – Theo Yo lood oscillation. The weight of the points of rocks, that a small force applied to their v. computed at upwards of 90 tons. celebrated one in Cornwall, which is gran” has

rig-7 or. corry nototheim, so as to


The use of these stones has been conjectured to be that of testing the innocence of persons accused of crime, the rocking of the stone being certain, unless wedged up by the judge of the tribunal, in cases where he knew the guilt of the criminal: but we think that such a purpose is highly improbable. sal Stones. – The Tolmen, or hole of stone, is a stone of considerable magnitude, so disposed upon rocks as to leave an opening between them, through which an object could be passed. It is the general opinion in Cornwall that invalids were cured of their diseases by being passed through the opening above mentioned. “The most stupendous monument of this kind," (see fig. 8.) says Borlase, “is in the tenement of Mén, in the parish of Constantine, in Cornwall; it is one great oval pebble, placed on the points of two natural rocks, o - so that a man may creep under the great Fig. 8. rotox is coaswatt- one, between the supporters, through a passage of about three feet wide, by as much high. The longest diameter of this stone is 33 ft., being in a direction due north and south. Its height, measured perpendicularly over the opening is, 14 ft 6 in., and the breadth, in the widest part, 18 ft. 6 in., extending from east to west. I measured one half of the circumference, and found it, according to my computation, 484 ft., so that this stone is 97 ft. in circumference, lengthwise, and about 60 ft. in girt, measured at the middle; and, by the best information, it contains about 750 tons.” We close this section by the expression of our belief that the extraordinary monuments whereof we have been speaking are of an age as remote as, if not more so than, the pyramids of Egypt, and that they were the works of a colony of the great nation that was at the earliest period settled in central Asia, either through the swarm that passed north-west over Germany, or south-west through Phoenicia; for, on either route, but rather, perhaps, the latter, traces of gigantic works remain, to attest the wonderful powers of the people of whom they are the remains.


prl Asgic on cyclopeAN ARchitectuke.

27. Pelasgic or Cyclopean architecture, (for that as well as the architecture of Phoenicia, seems to have been the work of branches of an original similarly thinking nation) presents for the notice of the reader, little more than massive walls composed of huge pieces of rock, scarcely more than piled together without the connecting medium of cement of any species. The method of its construction, considered as masonry, to the eye of the architect is quite sufficient to connect it with what we have in the preceding section called Druidical or Celtic architecture. It is next to impossible to believe that all these species were not executed by the same people. The nature and principles of Egyptian art were the same, but the specimens of it which remain bear marks of being of later date, the pyramids only excepted. The Greek fables about the Cyclopeans have been sufficiently exposed by Jacob Bryant, who has shown that the Greeks knew nothing about their own early history. Herodotus (lib. v. cap. 6.) alludes to them under the name of Cadmians, saying they were particularly famous for their architecture, which he says they introduced into Greece; and wherever they came, erected noble structures remarkable for their height and beauty. These were dedicated to the Sun under the names of Elorus and Pelorus. Hence every thing great and stupendous was called Pelorian; and, transferring the ideas of the works to the founders, they made them a race of giants. Homer says of Polyphemus,

Kz, zzo 3avu' trirvaro roagiew, ovoi toxu
Avot, yi rurozzo, axxz fo wantyr.

Virgil, too, describes him “Ipse arduus, alta pulsat sidera.” Famous as lighthouse builders, wherein a round casement in the upper story afforded light to the mariner, the Greeks turned this into a single eye in the forehead of the race, and thus made them a set of monsters. Of the race were Trophonius and his brother Agamedes, who, according to Pausanias (lib. ix.) contrived the temple at Delphi and the Treasury constructed to Urius. So great was the same for building of the Cyclopeans that, when the Sybil in Virgil shows AEneas the place of torment in the shades below, the poet separates it from the regions of bliss by a Cyclopean wall: —

-- Cyclopum educta caminis
Moemia conspicio.” Æn. lib. vi. v. 630.


28. The walls of the city of Mycene are of the class denominated Cyclopean, thus denounced for ruin by Hercules in Seneca : — “ — Quid moror? majus mihi

Bellum Mycenis restat, ut Cyclopea
Eversa manibus mcenia nostris concidant.” Hercules Furens, act. 4. v. 996.

29. The gate of the city and the chief tower were particularly ascribed to them (Pausanias, lib. ii.) Argos had also the reputation of being Cyclopean. ... But, to return to Mycene, Euripides, we should observe, speaks of its walls as being built after the Phoenician rule and method : —

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30. Fig. 9. is a representation of a portion of the postern gate of the walls of Mycene, - for the purpose of exhibiting to the reader the character of the masonry employed in it. 31. The walls of Tiryns, probably more ancient than those we have just named, are celebrated by Homer in the words Tipuvêa reuxuoeorolav, and are said by Apollodorus and Strabo to have been built by workmen whom Praetus brought from Lycia. The words of Strabo are, Tipuv6, Öpumrmpiq, xpmaaoréau Soxes IIpoiros, kai reuxural bia Kukawirwrotos énora uev euval, raxeloréal Be Tao repoxeipas, Tpeopouevous ek rms rexyms, Praetus appears to have used Tiryns as a harbour, and to have walled it by the assistance of the Cyclops, who were seven in number, and called Gastrocheirs (bellyhanded), living by their labour. “These seven Cyclops,” says Jacob Bryant, “were, I make no doubt, seven Cyclopean towers built by the people.” Further on, he adds, “ These towers were erected likewise for Purait, or Puratheia, where the rites of fire were performed: but Purait, or Puraitus, the Greeks

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that the Cyclopeans worshipped the sun under the symbol of a serpent ; thus again connecting them with the builders of Abury noticed in page 6. Fig. 10. is a view of some portions of the walls of Tiryns, and for others we refer the reader to the Travels in Albania, by the Rev. Mr. Hughes. 32. Mr. Hamilton (Archaeologia) divides the specimens of Cyclopean buildings into four aeras. In the first he includes Tiryns and Mycene, where the blocks composing the masonry are of various sizes, having or having had smaller stones in their interstices. Second, as at Julis and Delphi, masonry without courses, formed of irregular polygonal stones, whose sides fit to each other. Third, that in which the stones - are laid in courses of the same height, but unequal in length of stones; of this species are specimens in Boeotia, Argolis, and the Phocian cities. Fourth and last, that in which the stones are of various heights, and always rectangular, whereof examples are found in Attica. It must here be observed that, in the Etrurian part of Italy, Cyclopean works exist, particularly of those which - Mr. Hamilton places in the second aera; as Fig. 10. Faar or run walls or Tiryns. at Norba in Latium, Cora, Signia, and Alatrium; in the three last whereof the walls resemble those of Tiryns, Argos, and Mycene; and at Fiesole, Arezzo, and other places. 33. We shall now return to some further particulars in relation to Tiryns and Mycene, from which a more distinct notion of these fortresses will be obtained; but further investigation of those in Italy will hereafter be necessary, under the section on Etruscan architecture. The Acropolis of Tiryns, a little to the south-east of Argos, is on a mount rising about fifty

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