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building, is a precaution which should never be omitted. Pipes may be laid on from them to those parts, such as the carpenters' room, scene room, and painting room, where fires would be most likely to break out, and where, if they did break out, they would be likely to be most dangerous.
2973. The buildings called hospitals are destined for the reception of the sick poor, for insane persons, and sometimes for particular diseases, among which old age may be enumerated, or disability from wounds, &c. in the public service, of which last class are the royal hospitals of Greenwich and Chelsea. There are some for the reception and education of foundlings, and others for the reception and delivery of pregnant women; and the term is sometimes used to denote a building appropriated to poor persons, where they have an allowance for their board and are lodged free; in short, what is otherwise called an almshouse. 2974. The ancients seem to have had no establishments like our nospitals for the sick; neither do they seem to have had asylums for those who suffered in the public service, though at Athens they were fed in the Prytaneum. In Sparta there does not appear to have been any such establishments; neither under the kings, consuls, or emperors of Rome does it seem there was any institution for the reception of poor sick persons. After the establishment of Christianity many hospitals were built by the emperors at Constantinople for poor infants, for aged persons, orphans, and strangers. To the honour of the nations of Europe, no city in it is unprovided with one or more hospitals. In Paris there are thirtytwo hospitals, and in London, we believe, some few more. The governments of France, Russia, Germany, and Turkey support these institutions; but in England, with the exception of Chelsea and Greenwich Hospitals, they depend upon the charity and foundations of benevolent individuals, as at Guy's, Bartholomew's, and the other hospitals of London. There is great reluctance often on the part of the poor to enter an hospital; and on this account we do not think that money ill bestowed which tends to impart to it an agreeable and cheerful exterior. It is almost unnecessary to insist upon a thorough warming, and, what is equally important, ventilation of the edifice: no means should be omitted to render the place wholesome, and to prevent infection spreading from one part to another. If possible, the hospitals of a city should be seated in the least populous parts, if the health of the city be consulted, or on each suburb; in which latter case the establishment would be nearer the quarter it is to serve, and more accessible in a short time in the case of accidents. 2975. The plans of some of the finest hospitals in Europe are given in Durand's Paralléle d'Edifices; among them may be mentioned that of Milan as a very fine example of disposition. It is indeed the most celebrated in Italy. A large portion of it remains still unfinished. The architect was Filarete, and, being commenced in 1457, it is of course in a half-Gothic sort of style. The accommodations for the men are on one side of a very large cloistered court, 152 feet wide and 204 feet long, and are in the form of a cross, 304 feet long on each side and 30 feet wide. In the intervals of the cross are four court yards, on whose remaining sides are rooms for the assistants. A canal flowing at the side answers the domestic purposes of the place, and also turns a mill for the use of the establishment. On the opposite side of the cloistral court above mentioned are similar accommodations for the women. And in the middle of the narrow side of the great cloister, opposite the entrance, is a church, which serves for the whole establishment. The cloisters of the large court and the main body of the building are in two stories, so that they form galleries of communications. This edifice has served for model to many others; and though it is now many years since we visited it, its excellence will not easily be effaced from our recollection. The hospital, given by Durand in the plates above quoted, De la Roquette, in the suburbs of Paris, designed by Poyet, was conceived on a magnificent scale, and was admirably planned. In this design each room, as well those on one side of the establishment for the males as those on the other side for the females, is appropriated to one particular disease. Each of these rooms is about 32 feet wide and 30 feet 6 inches high. Behind the beds (which are in two rows in each room) runs a passage about 3 feet 4 inches wide, which removes them so much from the walls, and allows therefore of the necessary waiting on the invalids, and hides the wardrobe attached to each bed in the window recesses. Above these passages, which are about 6 feet 6 inches high, is arranged on each side a row of windows, by which ventilation as well as light is obtained. The ground floor contains the halls and offices necessary for such an establishment. The designs for this building were made about 1788, on the instructions drawn up, after several years' investigation, by a number of the most skilful and learned medical men of France, so as best to unite health and convenience in such an edifice. One of the conditions prescribed by their programme was the complete insulation of each apartment, as well as an easy communication by covered galleries round the building, and these were required to be of such extended dimensions that the air around should be unobstructed and circulating in every part with freedom, thus affording a wholesome promenade for the patients.
2976. The hospitals of Greenwich and Chelsea are good examples for establishments of this nature; the former, indeed, adds to its other excellencies a magnificence in the architecture worthy the object, though not so originally intended. The Hotel des Invalides at Paris is another monument worthy of all praise; and indeed we scarcely know a quadrangle more imposing than the court of this edifice with its double tier of arcades. This hospital contains 7000 veterans, and has attached to it a library of 20,000 volumes. We know not how better to close this section than with the maxims, or rather general observations, of Durand upon the subject: “Dans des hospices,” says the author, “dont la disposition répondraient si parfaitement a l'importance de leur objet, on ne craindrait plus de venir chercher des secours. Leur aspect seul, si non magnifique, du moins noble et agréable, influerait sur l'efficacité des remèdes. En entrant dans des tels &difices, où tout annonce le respect que l'on porte a l'humanité, et surtout à l'humanité souffrante, on se sentirait soulagé du poids de la honte, fardeau souvent plus insupportable et plus accablant que celui du malheur méme.”
2977. In considerable cities and towns, humanity, and indeed justice, demands, independent of the injury done to the morals of the public, that the same building which confines the convicted felon should not enclose the debtor and the untried prisoner, as well as him whose offence is not of an aggravated nature. Where there is a mixture of the several classes of those that have violated the laws, the young soon becomes infected by the old offender with whom he comes in contact, and returns to society, after undergoing his punishment, a much worse member of it than he was before his incarceration. In small towns, where there is only one, perhaps small, prison, the separation of the prisoners is more difficult to accomplish; but it ought always to be obtained. We hardly need say that the separation of the sexes in a prison is indispensable.
2978. For whatever class of prisoners a building is erected, salubrity and ventilation are as essential as the security of those confined. The loss of liberty is itself a punishment hard to endure, without superadding the risk of disease and death in their train, to persons who may be even innocent of the crimes with which they are charged. Besides which, the disease engendered in a gaol called the prison fever may spread into the city and carry off its inhabitants.
2979. We shall here place before the student the principal requisites which the celebrated Howard has specified for prisons. “A county gaol, and indeed every prison, should be built on a spot that is airy, and, if possible, near a river or brook. I have commonly found prisons near a river the cleanest and most healthy. They generally have not (and indeed could not well have) subterraneous dungeons, which have been so fatal to thousands; and by their nearness to running water another evil almost as noxious is prevented, that is, the stench of sewers. I said a gaol should be near a stream ; but I must annex this caution, that it be not so near as that either the house or yard shall be within the reach of floods.” . . . “If it be not practicable to build near a stream, then an eminence should be chosen; for as the wall round a prison should be so high as greatly to obstruct a free circulation of air, this inconvenience should be lessened by rising ground, and the prison should not be surrounded by other buildings, nor built in the middle of a town or city. That part of the building which is detached from the walls, and contains the men felons' wards, may be square or rectangular, raised on arcades that it may be more airy, and have under it a dry walk in wet weather. These wards over arcades are also best for safety; for I have found that escapes have been most commonly effected by undermining cells and dungeons. If felons should find any other means to break out of the raised ward, they will still be stopped by the wall of the court, which is the principal security ; and the walls of the wards need not then be of that great thickness they are generally built, whereby the access of light and air is impeded. I wish to have so many small rooms or cabins that each criminal may sleep alone; these rooms to be ten feet high to the crown of the arch, and to have double doors, one of them iron-latticed for the circulation of air. If it be difficult to prevent their being together in the daytime, they should by all means be separated at night. Solitude and silence are favourable to reflec
tion, and may possibly lead to repentance.” . . . “The separation I am pleading for, especially at night, would prevent escapes, or make them very difficult, for that is the time in which they are generally planned and effected. Another reason for separation is, that it would free gaolers from a difficulty of which I have heard them complain : they hardly know where to keep criminals admitted to be evidence for the king; these would be murdered by their accomplices if put among them, and in more than one prison I have seen them for that reason put in the women's ward. Where there are opposite windows they should have shutters, but these should be open all day. In the men felons' ward the windows should be six feet from the floor; there should be no glass, nor should the prisoners be allowed to stop them with straw, &c. The women felons' ward should be quite distinct from that of the men, and the young criminals from old and hardened offenders. Each of these three classes should also have their day room or kitchen with a fireplace, and their court and offices all separate. Every court should be paved with flags or flat stones for the more convenient washing it, and have a good pump or water laid on, both if possible; and the pump and pipes should be repaired as soon as they need it, otherwise the gaols will soon be offensive and unwholesome, as I have always found them to be in such cases. A small stream constantly running in the court is very desirable. In a room or shed near the pump or pipe there should be a commodious bath, with steps, (as there is in some country hospitals,) to wash prisoners that come in dirty, and to induce them afterwards to the frequent use of it. It should be filled every morning, and let off in the evening through the sewers into the drains. There should also be a copper in the shed to heat a quantity of water sufficient to warm that in the bath for those that are sickly. There should also be an oven : nothing so effectually destroys vermin in clothes and bedding, nor purifies them so thoroughly when tainted with infection, as being a few hours in an oven moderately heated. The infirmary or sick ward should be in the most airy part of the court, quite detached from the rest of the gaol, and raised on arcades. These rooms should never be without crib-beds and bedding. In the middle of the floor of each room there should be a grate of twelve or fourteen inches square, covered with a shutter or hatch at night. The sewers or vaults of all prisons should be in the courts, and not in the passages, and (like those in colleges) close boarded between the seats up to the ceiling, the boards projecting ten inches before each seat. The infirmary and sheds will not render the court unsafe, provided the walls have parapets or small chevaur de frise. Debtors and felons should have wards totally separate; the peace, the cleanliness, the health and morals of debtors cannot be secured otherwise. The ward for men debtors should also be over arcades, and placed on one side of the gaoler's house. This house should be in or near the middle of the gaol, with windows to the felons' and to the debtors' courts. This would be a check on the prisoners to keep them in order, and would engage the gaoler to be attentive to cleanliness and constant washing to prevent his own apartments from being offensive. A chapel is necessary in a gaol. I have chosen for it what seems to me a proper situation. It should have a gallery for debtors or women; for the latter should be out of sight of all the other prisoners, and the rest may be separated below.” 2980. The above general principles are excellent, and are followed in all gaols of modern construction. The tread-mill is also introduced for punishment, as well as occasionally workshops for trades, to avoid the idleness of the prisoners. Society owes a debt of infinite magnitude to the benevolent man from whom the foregoing quotation has been taken. 2981. One of the most celebrated prisons on a panoptical system in Europe is the celebrated house of correction at Ghent. It is situated on the north side of that city, on the Coupure canal, which is bordered by a double row of large trees. A plate of the plan is given, No. 28. Durand's Paralléle d' Edifices. It was begun in 1773, under the reign of Maria Theresa, and is in the form of a slightly elongated octagon, in the centre whereof is a spacious court, which communicates with the different quadrangles of the edifice. Each quadrangle or ward (eight in number) has a yard, and in the centre of that, belonging to the female ward, is a large basin of water, in which the female prisoners wash the linen of the whole establishment. Each prisoner sleeps alone, in a small but well-aired room, and is employed during the day in working at the trade or business to which he or she is competent. Of the produce of such labour, government retains one half when the prisoners are detained merely for correction, six tenths when condemned to a term of imprisonment under martial law, and seven tenths when they have been sentenced to hard labour. The remainder is divided into two portions, one given weekly to the prisoners for pocket money, the other given to them on the expiry of their imprisonment, to assist their reestablishment in society. Religious service and instruction are provided; and if prisoners are destitute of the first elements of knowledge, they are taught reading, writing, and arithmetic, besides receiving other instruction. Solitary confinement is the punishment for insubordination or refractory conduct. The shops for refreshments sold to the prisoners are strictly regulated by the officers of the institution; and the profits resulting from the sale of the different articles are reserved for rewarding the most industrious and bestbehaved prisoners. The new part of the building, which has recently been completed, has cost 40,000l. sterling ; and the whole edifice, when finished, and there is much still to be done, will contain 2600 prisoners. The defect in the institution lies in the reception of unfortunate and criminal persons of all descriptions, from the simple mendicant to the hardened murderer. It is true that those confined for heinous crimes are separated from those who have been guilty of misdemeanours; but the knowledge, on the part of all its inmates, that they to a certain extent are considered in the same predicament, must necessarily so operate on their minds as to throw down the barriers between misfortune and crime, as well as between those who are only commencing a guilty course and those who have consummated their vicious career. The Penitentiary at Milbank, in London, has been erected in some measure on the principles of the house of correction at Ghent, but its inmates are such only as have received the sentence of a criminal court. Where, indeed, the population is so great as in the metropolis of England, prisons for each class of offenders should be provided, at whatever cost. It is a duty due from the government to humanity to see that this is done.
2982. Barracks, or buildings for the reception of the military, were common with the Romans, amongst whom they were called castra or camps. There were many of these at Rome and in the provinces; but the most perfect remains of Roman barracks are at Pompeii, of which sufficient remains exist to give us a general idea of their distribution. The distribution was in an oblong, and the quadrangle or parade was surrounded by a covered gallery on columns. From this gallery was the entrance to the rooms of the soldiers, but it also served as an ambulatory for exercise. Beyond the further end, opposite the entrance, was a theatre. A more perfect knowledge, however, than we have of the barracks of the ancients, would not assist us in providing better for the military in these days; indeed, there is little required to be said in this place on the subject, inasmuch as in respect of healthy situation, perfect ventilation, and security against fire, the principles which chiefly regulate the disposition and distribution of a hospital, are equally applicable in building barracks, which are, in truth, hospitia for the reception of men in health instead of sick persons. Private soldiers in barracks, however, usually sleep on inclined planes, raised from the floor, and at the head abutting against the wall, instead of being provided with separate beds. In Paris there are no less than thirty buildings used as barracks. The details necessary to be provided are a canteen or public-house, for the use of the privates and non-commissioned officers; a spacious mess-room and separate apartments for the officers, and an infirmary. In cavalry barracks, proper stabling and a riding-house of large dimensions must of course be added. For cleanliness, all the yards should be paved, and the utmost precaution taken for carrying off all filth and waste water by means of drainage into a sewer, having a considerable fall from the place. This will, as much as anything, tend to the healthiness of the building.
2983. Private buildings differ in their proper character from public buildings as much as one public building differs in character from another not of the same kind. The ends in both, however, in common, are suitableness and utility. The means are the same, namely, the observance of convenience and economy. The same elements are used in the formation of one as of the other ; hence they are subject to the same principles and the same mechanical composition. Distribution, which is usually treated distinct from decoration and construction, and very improperly so, as applied to private edifices, is conducted as for public buildings, that is, as we have said, with a view to utility and economy.
2984. If the student thoroughly understand the true principles of architecture, — if he possess the facility of combining the different elements of buildings, or, in other words, fully comprehend the mechanism of composition, which it has in a previous part of this Book (III) been our object to explain, nothing will remain for him in the composition of private buildings, but to study the special or particular conveniences required in each. There are some quaint old aphorisms of Dr. Fuller, prebendary of Sarum, which are so applicable to all private buildings, that we shall not apologise for transferring them to our es. 2985. “First,” he says, “let not the common rooms be several, nor the several rooms common; that the common rooms should not be private or retired, as the hall (which is a pandochaeum), galleries, &c., which are to be open; and the chambers, closets, &c. retired and private, provided the whole house be not spent in paths. Light (God's eldest daughter) is a principal beauty in a building ; yet it shines not alike from all parts of the heavens. An east window gives the infant beams of the sun, before they are of strength to do harm, and is offensive to none but a sluggard. A south window in summer is a chimney with a fire in it, and stands in need to be screened by a curtain. In a west window the sun grows low, and ever familiar towards night in summer time, and with more light than delight. A north window is best for butteries and cellars, where the beer will be sour because the sun smiles upon it. Thorough lights are best for rooms of entertainments, and windows on one side for dormitories.” 2986. “Secondly, as to capaciousness, a house had better be too little for a day than too big for a year; therefore houses ought to be proportioned to ordinary occasions, and not to extraordinary. It will be easier borrowing a brace of chambers of a neighbour for a night, than a bag of money for a year; therefore 'tis a vanity to proportion the receipt to an extraordinary occasion, as those do who, by overbuilding their houses, dilapidate their lands, so that their estates are pressed to death under the weight of their house.” 2987. “Thirdly, as for strength, country houses must be substantives, able to stand of themselves, not like city buildings, supported and flanked by those of their neighbour on each side. By strength is meant such as may resist weather and time, but not attacks; castles being out of date in England, except on the sea-coasts, &c. As for moats round houses, 'tis questionable whether the fogs that arise from the water are not more unhealthful than the defence that the water gives countervails, or the fish brings profit.” 2988. “Fourthly, as for beauty, let not the front look asquint upon a stranger, but accost him right at his entrance. Uniformity and proportions are very pleasing to the eye; and 'tis observable that freestone, like a fair complexion, grows old, whilst bricks keep their beauty longest.” 2989. “Fifthly, let the offices keep their due distance from the mansion-house; those are too familiar which presume to be of the same pile with it. The same may be said of stables and barns ; without which a house is like a city without works, it can never hold out long. It is not only very inconvenient, but rather a blemish than a beauty to a building, to see the barns and stables too near the house; because cattle, poultry, and suchlike must be kept near them, which will be an annoyance to a house. Gardens ought also to be disposed in their proper places. When God planted a garden eastward, he made to grow out of the ground every tree pleasant to the sight and good for food. Sure he knew better what was proper for a garden than those who now-a-days only feed their eyes and starve their taste and smell.” The same honest old dignitary (would we had some such in these days') says, “He who alters an old house is ty'd as a translator to the original, and is confined to the fancy of the first builder. Such a man would be unwise to pull down a good old building, perhaps to erect a worse new one. But those who erect a new house from the ground are worthy of blame if they make it not handsome and useful, when method and confusion are both of a price to them.”
2990. The common houses of the town are not those which will engage our attention. In London, and indeed throughout the towns of England, the habits of the people lead them to prefer separate houses for each family, to one large one in which several families may be well lodged, or, in other words, they prefer rows of mean-looking buildings, with holes in the walls for windows, to the palatial appearance which results, in Paris and most of the other cities in Europe, from large magnificent buildings with courts, and capable of accommodating a number of different establishments. The section will be confined chiefly to the arrangement of a house of the first class; and from what will be said, sufficient hints may be drawn for the composition of those in a lower class.
2991. The private buildings in a town are often in their composition beset with difficulties which do not occur in those of the country, where the extent of site is freer and ampler. These, therefore, may be isolated, and receive light from every side. Their offices may be separated from the main house, and the parts may be disposed in the simplest possible manner; but in cities the site is generally more or less restricted, often very