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irregular in form, and generally bounded by party walls. Yet, with all these obstacles, it is necessary to provide almost as many conveniences as are required in a country house; whence the disposition cannot be so simple in its application as where there is no restraint. All that can be done is to make it as much so as the nature of the spot will permit, and to produce the maximum of comfort which the site affords. 2992. Nothing must be considered below the attention of an accomplished architect, nor anything above his powers; he ought as cheerfully to undertake for the proprietor the conduct of the meanest cottage as of the most magnificent palace. Little will be requisite to be said on the common houses of London, or other cities and towns in which there are seldom more than two rooms and a closet on a floor, with an opening behind. These may be varied; but the general mode is to construct them with a kitchen in a floor sunk below the ground, and a room behind, serving for a variety of purposes; an area in front, with vaults under the street, and the same often in the rear of the house. The space opposite the descending stairs will form a dark closet; and the privies, and wine and beer cellars, with other small offices, are provided in the vaults. On the ground floor there is rarely more than a passage on one side, which conducts to a staircase; and this requiring more width than the passage itself, the best room on this floor is placed in front, and the back is a smaller room, often opening on a small light closet still further in the rear. A yard is supposed behind, by which light is obtained for the back room. On the one-pair and other floors the passage becomes unnecessary as an access; the drawing or front room therefore runs over it, and becomes larger, capable, in the upper floors, of subdivision for bedrooms, or other purposes, as may be required; and the back rooms, with their closets, if carried up, follow the form of those on the ground floor. Though little variety may be the result of the restricted space to which this species of house is usually confined, the addition of four or five feet either way will enable an intelligent architect to throw in closets and other conveniences which are invaluable, as relieving a small house from the pressure which otherwise will exist in the different apartments. But this will be obvious to the practical man, unless he walks about blindfold. The houses we have just described may stand upon a site of about twenty feet by thirty feet, independent of the vaults in front and rear, and the back light closet, which is an invaluable appendage to a house of this description; which is the scale of a second-rate house. 2993. Of the next higher rate of house the varieties are too great to be described, because the extent of the largest arrives at what would be called a palace on the continent. But, taking a mean between that just described and that last named, we may take one similar to a moderate one in Portland Place for example. In such a one we must provide, on the basement or sunk story, vaults under the street for beer, coals, wood, privies, and the like, the refuse or dust of the house. The body or corps de logis on this floor must contain housekeeper's room, servants' hall, rooms for butler and head footman, wine cellar, closets for linen, strong room for plate, with closets and other conveniences for the household. The ascending staircase must also have a space set apart for it. In the rear, under the open area behind, will be placed a kitchen, scullery, and the larder, with the other appendages of this part of the household; an area, covered, where the communication with the rest of the floor is made between the body of the house and the offices in question. Beyond the kitchen are often vaults (though the disposition is sometimes otherwise), over which the stables and coachhouses are placed, opening on the ground floor or to a mews parallel to the street in which the house is situate. The ground floor of this disposition has usually a dining-room in front, with a good-sized hall at its side, leading to a staircase which ascends in direction of the long side of the house; and this is necessary when the rooms above are to communicate by folding doors. In some old houses, however, the staircase ascends between the front and back rooms, and a back staircase is provided by the side of it. But more commonly this is placed beyond the principal stairs, to allow of throwing the drawing-rooms into one. . In rear of the dining-room is often placed a library for the gentleman of the house; and beyond this, and further than the back stairs, when the lateral staircase is used, a waiting-room, at the rear of which a water-closet may be placed, with a door from it to the area over the kitchen; or there may be a communication of this sort from the waiting-room, which may serve the purpose of access to the stables. On the one-pair floor the disposition will be two drawing-rooms, a boudoir over the waiting-room, and beyond this a water-closet. On the two-pair floor two bed-rooms, each with a dressing-room, or three bed-rooms and one dressing-room, and a bath-room and water-closet. Above this four bed-rooms and closets may be obtained ; and, if necessary, rooms in the roof in addition. For a good house of this class, with the offices, the plot of ground should not be much less than 100 feet by 30. 2994. Of the first class of houses, as a model may be taken the town-house, in Piccadilly, of His Grace the Duke of Devonshire, which, with the offices and court-yard in front, covers an area extending about 231 feet towards the street, and 188 feet in depth, whereof the house itself occupies a frontage of 163 feet and a depth of Iss feet, and opens on to a large garden in the rear. On the east side of the court-yard are dis.

posed the kitchen and other domestic offices, opposite whereto, on the west side, stand the coach-houses and stabling. The basement of the house contains apartments for the various persons attached to such an establishment. The principal floor to which the ascent is by an external staircase, contains an entrance-hall, 35 feet by 30 feet, and communicates to an apartment on the west side, 33 feet by 22 feet, leading to the southwestern corner room, which is 20 feet square. On the north of the last is a room, making the north-west angle of the building, and this is 40 feet by 20 feet. On the east side of this last, and facing the north, is a room 33 feet by 23 feet, and in the centre of the north front, corresponding with the width of the hall, is an apartment 30 feet by 23 feet 6 inches. To the east of the last is a room 33 feet by 24 feet, and east of that, forming the north-east angle, is a small room 20 feet square. Thus far these rooms, seven in number, are all en suite, but this is in some measure interrupted by the remainder of the east flank, which is filled with three smaller rooms. To that of them, however, at the south, which is 20 feet square, a passage is preserved, and from that you enter another room, 23 feet by 22 feet, which once more brings you back to the hall. The staircases are between the north and south rooms on each side of the hall. Above this floor are the lodging rooms, &c. The superficial area of all the reception rooms on the principal floor, added together, amounts to 5708 feet. 2995. Burlington-house, in some respects, –for instance, in its beautiful front court, — may be considered superior to that we have just described. It can be hardly necessary to add that, in such edifices, rooms must be provided for steward, butler, housekeeper, stillroommaid, servants' hall of good dimensions, valets, ladies' maids, &c.; for a muniment room and plate, both of which must be fire-proof. Baths also should be placed on the chamber floor, with other conveniences which will occur to the architect. The rooms for pictures, if possible, should be on the north side of the building. To Lord Burlington the English aristocracy is much indebted for the introduction of the Italian style into their dwellings; for the taste of Jones had almost passed away when the talented nobleman in question gave a new impetus to proper disposition and decoration. Plans and elevations of Devonshire-house are given in the Vitruvius Britannicus, which contains other town houses of importance well worth the student's attention.

Sect. XXII.

PRIVATE BUILDINGS IN THE COUNTRY.

2996. Of first-class private buildings in the country, we apprehend we cannot furnish better hints than by describing that of Kedlestone, in Derbyshire, erected for Lord Scarsdale by Robert Adam. There are others which are larger, but we do not think any superior in distribution and effect. The plans and elevations of it are to be seen in the Pitruvius Britannicus above mentioned. The main body so o of the house M (fig. 1038.), is about 136 feet by 105 o feet; and at each angle are quadrants of communication to the four wings A, B, C, and D, which are each about 70 feet by 54 feet. On the basement story of the main building are a large and small sub-hall in the centre, the former 67 feet 3 inches by 42 feet, and the latter 42 feet by 40 feet 7 inches. On the right of these are disposed a butler's room, 22 feet 6 inches by 17 feet 9 inches; a , - housekeeper's room, and a steward's room, 30 feet by 21 - lo feet 6 inches. On the left, a bath, a gun-room, 23 feet Fig. 1038. 9 inches by 23 feet 7 inches; a smoking parlour, 28 feet by 17 feet 9 inches; a boot-room, 22 feet 6 inches by 17 feet 9 inches, besides closets and staircases, &c. on either side. The wing B contains the stables, a chapel, and other apartments. C, sleeping and other rooms, eight in number, with a staircase which conducts to the corridor in the corresponding quadrant. D contains the kitchen and its requisite accessories, and a servants' hall. This wing has also a staircase to its corresponding corridor in the quadrant, which attaches it to the main body. On the principal story, the main body M has at the entrance, which is in the centre, and approached by a noble flight of steps, a magnificent hall, 69 feet 3 inches by 42 feet, at the end whereof is a saloon 42 feet diameter. To the right, entering from the hall, is the principal staircase, beyond which, laterally, is a bed-chamber 33 feet by 22 feet, with its accessories; and on its end, towards the back front, are ante-rooms, and towards the front the dining-room, whence by the corridor is access to the kitchen in the wing D, and from the ante-rooms above mentioned the corresponding corridor on that side leads to a conservatory in the back front of the wing, and the upper part of the chapel. On the left-hand side of the hall, with windows in the left flank of the main body, is the drawing-room, 44 feet by 28 feet; at the end towards the rear is a library, which is continued in the corridor leading to the wing A, wherein is a music gallery, 66 feet by 18 feet, with other rooms and a staircase. On the end of the drawing-room, towards the front, is a music room, 36 feet by 24 feet, whence the corridor leads to Lord Scarsdale's bedroom, 18 feet square, with dressing-rooms, and the lady's library, which, on this floor, are in the wing C. The wing D is occupied by the upper part of the kitchen, a laundry, 35 feet by 18 feet, and some bedrooms, to which access is by a gallery over part of the kitchen. The main body and wings contain a story over what has been last described, chiefly for chambers. We have before (in the First Book, figs. 221, 222.) noticed the splendid hall and salon, which occupy the height of the whole building, and are, though somewhat faulty in detail, very finely-conceived and well-proportioned apartments. The former is 40 feet high to the top of the cove, and the latter 55 feet to the level of the eye of the dome. Though the elevations exhibit defects, we are not inclined to quarrel with them in a dwelling which deserves rather the name of a palace than of a country house. 2997. England abounds with country seats of this class: among them is Holkham, which has already been mentioned in the First Book (51.1.); but we know none for disposition that can claim superiority over that which we have above described at length, from which the student may derive much information on the requirenda in a mansion of the first class. It is to be understood that we here intend modern buildings. The houses of the times of Elizabeth and James are many of them magnificent structures, but the comfort introduced into houses of later date leaves them, independent of their picturesque beauty, far behind the buildings of Kent, Carr, James, and many others. Blenheim is monumental in its design, and properly so, and hence does not fall within the category of the section. 2998. There are, of course, many intervening degrees between the mansion we have just described and the villa of the retired banker or merchant : it would be impossible to state them in detail. We have given the maximum in the above case, and we shall now give the minimum for the class last mentioned. 2999. The smallest site of ground on which a villa can be well designed is, supposing it an oblong, about 80 feet by 56 to 60 feet. This on the principal floor will admit of a hall, a salon or ante-room, which may lead to the principal apartments, a drawing-room, two secondary drawing-rooms, one whereof may be appropriated to the reception of a billiard table, a good dining-room, not less than 30 feet by 20 feet, a library of equal size, with other rooms, suitable to the particular taste of the proprietor, and the conveniences and accessories which such a building requires. The ground, supposing the domestic offices to be under the principal floor, should be raised, so that they need not be much sunk below the general level of the land. If the building be seated on rising ground, a little more sinking may be allowed than under other circumstances, provided the lower story be protected by dry drains all round the building, to prevent the earth lying against the walls, because drainage, the most important of all things in a building, may then be obtained easily by the natural fall of the ground. The plot we have mentioned will admit of all the offices below, which are necessary for the service of a good-sized family, and above, with only one story above the principal one, will afford a pretty fair allowance of dormitories; but if a concealed story for servants be practised in the roof, there are few establishments on a common scale for which, on the plot, accommodation may not be provided by a skilful artist. The stables and coach-houses and the greenhouses should stand apart. Some persons like to have these communicating with the villa itself; but the practice is destructive of symmetry, and very injurious (except in the villa on an irregular plan, which then rather approaches to the cottage orné) to the general effect of the architecture. 3000. The villas at Foot's Cray and Mereworth, imitations of Palladio's Villa Capra, so often mentioned in this volume, and represented in fig. 1018., are the maxima of villas: beyond this the villa becomes a mansion, and must be treated as one on a scale more or less grand, as the means of the proprietor allow the architect to provide for his wants. All precepts, however, on this head are valueless, because the architect is regulated so much by the convenience required. He must possess himself fully of that, and, attending to the general rules given throughout the work, but especially in this Third Book, he will find little difficulty in fulfilling the commission with which he is intrusted. Among other matters let him well inform himself of what has been done, and make himself master of the points involved in domestic economy, from the lowest to the highest grade, and he cannot, using that information, fail of giving his employer that satisfaction which is the first care that should animate him. 3001. It is not our intention to touch upon the cottage orné, as it is called. This is a nondescript sort of building, subject only to rules which the architect chooses to impose upon himself. The only point to be attended to, after internal comfort has been provided for, is to present picturesque effect in the exterior. It is a branch of practice requiring a minimum of mind on the part of the architect, and for the successful execution of which the landscapes of Gaspar Poussin will give him enough hints to stud a province with them.

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SECT. XXIII.
FARM-HOUSEs.

3002. The mere building denominated a farm-house is simple enough in its distribution, and scarcely justifies a section here, because the persons engaged in agriculture have generally the best notion of the mode of suiting it to their own particular business and the nature of the farm they occupy. It is first to be considered whether it is expedient to place it close to the other buildings of the farm, such as the barns, stables, and stalls for cattle, &c. If so, it should be designed in character with them, and a large space of ground is enclosed for the formation of a farm-yard; which, notwithstanding the seemingly repulsive nature of the subject, may be made a very picturesque composition as a whole. The farm-house itself, though it must be sufficiently large to accommodate the family of the farmer, should be restricted in the size of its rooms and the extent of its plan by the magnitude of the farm, it being altogether an absurdity to plan a large house on a small farm, not only because of the original cost, which the rent of the land will not justify, but because of the cost of the annual repairs which a large building entails beyond those of a smaller one. The same observation applies to the farm buildings themselves, which in extent must be regulated by the size of the farm cultivated. It is moreover to be considered, in respect of the latter, whether the farm be grazing or arable. In the first case more provision of cattle sheds must be afforded ; in the latter case more barns must be allotted to the cultivator. These, however, are matters upon which the architect receives his instructions from the proprietor, and whereon, generally speaking, he is himself incompetent to form a correct judgment.

8003. In the commonest farm-houses the external door may open to a plain passage, at the end whereof the staircase may be placed. On one side of the passage may be a common kitchen, and on the other side the better or larger kitchen, serving also as a parlour for the farmer and his family. Beyond these, on one side, may be placed the pantry, and on the other side the dairy-room, the last being much larger than the former, and being on the side of the parlour or best kitchen, not so liable to the heat. To these, as needful, may be added more rooms on the ground floor; the upper story being divided into bedchambers for the family, with garrets over them for the servants. The kitchens should be placed upon arched cellars on several accounts, not the least of which is that the farmer should have the means of preserving in good condition the malt liquor or cyder which is the principal beverage of his establishment. It is a sad mistake on the part of landed proprietors, though common enough, to think that such buildings are not only below the care of an architect, but that he is too ignorant of the wants of the farmer to be competent to the task; if, however, he will reflect for a moment, he must admit that the artist who can make the most of a large plot of ground, with numberless requirements in the accommodation, is not less able to turn to the greatest advantage for the comfort of the occupier even a small farm-house.

3004. In the erection of a larger farm-house the choice of the site, as before, must depend on the nature of the ground and the situation of the farm. Health and convenience are the primary governing matters. It must never be placed where it cannot be well drained. It should be central to the land, and as near the road as the conditions will admit. For such a building the principal door may open into a moderately wide passage, having therein a staircase to the upper rooms. On the right of the passage a common kitchen may be provided for the family, and on the left a room somewhat larger, which in very small farm-houses used to be called the best kitchen, but which in this may be really the parlour, where the family may sit retired from the servants. Under these, cellars, as above mentioned, may be provided. On the ground floor we may now add a bakehouse and scullery to the pantry and dairy provided in the first scheme, as also closets and such conveniences for the housewife. The floor above may be extended over the additional rooms just mentioned, thus giving lodging room to a larger number of persons than to those contemplated in the first scheme. “In this manner,” says Ware, in his Complete Body of Architecture, folio, London, 1756, “the young architect will very easily see how to enlarge or contract his plan for the building of farm-houses, according to the intended bigness.” . . . “They all consist of the same number of rooms, and in general of the same number of offices; this is where the bare article of convenience for farming is concerned. Where the inhabitant is grown rich, and intends to live in another manner, he may add what he pleases, which the architect may adopt.” . . . “It is then no longer to be considered a farm-house, but as the house of some person of fortune, who intends to live as those independent of business do, but withal to have some farming in his eye." When the farm-house comes to this extent it trenches hard upon the condition of the villa, though not quite reaching it, because the latter includes many provisions for a refined mode of living which the yeoman, the pride of England, does not require; a class which, we fear, the manufacturing and commercial classes are fast annihilating.

SECT. XXIV.
cottages.

3005. “Estates,” observes Kent, (Hints to Gentlemen of Landed Property, 8vo. London, 1776,) “being of no value without hands to cultivate them, the labourer is one of the most valuable members of society: without him the richest soil is not worth owning.” It follows, then, that his condition should be most especially considered, and it is a duty on every country gentleman to take care that the labourers on his estate are so considered as to be made at least comfortable. “The shattered hovels,” says the same author, “which half the poor of this kingdom are obliged to put up with, is truly affecting to a heart fraught with humanity.” . . . “The weather penetrates all parts of them, which must occasion illness of various kinds, particularly agues; which more frequently visit the children of cottagers than any others, and early shake their constitutions."... “We are careful of our horses, nay, of our dogs, which are less valuable animals; we bestow considerable attention upon our stables and kennels, but we are apt to look upon cottages as incumbrances and clogs to our property, when, in fact, those who occupy them are the very nerves and sinews of agriculture.” We fear the neglect of the comfort of the cottager has given a greater impulse to poaching and other crimes than his natural propensities have induced. This, however, is not a matter for discussion here. It is not to be supposed that we mean the labourer is to be placed in an expensive dwelling; a difference of rank must exist; and if the whole revenue of the country were divided among the population per head, it would be seen (as M. Dupin has recently shown in a most eloquent and sound address delivered in Paris as respects France) that the division of it per day, after allowing for the expenses of the most economical government that could be devised, would be such as would not satisfy the lowest class of labourer, much less the ingenious mechanic. This is a matter so susceptible of proof, and so proper to be generally promulgated, that we have here gone a little out of our way lest we should be considered too urgent with respect to the cottager.

3006. No cottage ought to be erected which does not contain a warm, comfortable, plain room, with an oven to bake the bread of its occupier; a small closet for the beer and provisions, two wholesome lodging rooms, one whereof should be for the man and his wife, and the other for his children. It would be well always, if possible, that the boys and girls in a cottage should be separated; but this unfortunately entails an expense, and perhaps is not so materially necessary, because the boys find employment at an early age. A shed for fuel should be attached.

Cottages should always be placed in sheltered spots, and as near as possible to the farm where the labourer is employed. The wear and tear of a man is not very dissimilar to that of an engine, and it tends as much to the interest of the farmer as it does to the comfort of the labourer that all unnecessary fatigue be avoided.

3007. In the erection of cottages it is not only more economical, but more comfortable to the occupiers, that they should be built double, or in twos at least. In those provinces where brick or stone can be obtained they should never be constructed with timber, and tiles, if they can conveniently be had, should always supersede thatch. Further observation on this subject will be unnecessary, for we have ill delivered the principles of our art if the student be not now prepared to carry out the few hints on the subject of cottages, —buildings, in point of fact, of importance paramount to the palace which the sovereign inhabits.

The following remarks are from a very talented and practical person, J. C. Loudon, Esquire.

o The essential requisites of a comfortable labourer's cottage may be thus summed up: —

“1. The cottage should be placed alongside a public road, as being more cheerful than a solitary situation, and in order that the cottager may enjoy the applause of the public when he has his garden in good order and keeping.

“2. The cottage should be so placed that the sun may shine on every side of it during the day throughout the year, when he is visible. For this reason, the front of the cottage can only be parallel to the public road in the case of roads in the direction of north-east, south-west, north-west, and south-east; in all other cases the front must be placed obliquely to the road, which, as we have previously shown, is greatly preferable to having the front parallel to the road.

“3. Every cottage ought to have the floor elevated, that it may be dry; the walls double or hollow, or battened, or not less than eighteen inches thick, that they may retain heat; with a course of slate or flagstone, or tiles bedded in cement, six inches above the surface, to prevent the rising of damp ; the roof thick or double, for the sake of warmth; and projecting eighteen inches or two feet at the eaves, in order to keep the walls dry, and to check the radiation of heat from their exterior surface.

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