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“4. In general, every cottage ought to be two stories high, so that the sleeping rooms may not be on the ground floor; and the ground floor ought to be from six inches to one foot above the outer surface. “5. The minimum of accommodation ought to be the kitchen or living room, a back kitchen or wash-house, and a pantry, on the ground-floor, with three bedrooms over; or two rooms and a wash-house on the ground-floor, and two bedrooms over. “6. Every cottage, including its garden, yard, &c., ought to occupy not less than one sixth of an acre; and the garden ought to surround the cottage, or at all events to extend both before and behind. In general, there ought to be a front garden and a back yard, the latter being entered from the back kitchen, and containing a privy, liquid manure tank, place for dust and ashes, and place for fuel. “7. If practicable, every cottage ought to stand singly, and surrounded by its garden; or at all events not more than two cottages ought to be joined together. Among other important arguments in favour of this arrangement, it may be mentioned that it is the only one by which the sun can shine every day on every side of the cottage. When cottages are joined together in a row, unless that row is in a diagonal direction with reference to a south and north line, the sun will shine chiefly on one side. By having cottages singly or in pairs, they may always be placed along any road in such a manner that the sun may shine on every side of them, provided the point be given up of having the front parallel to the road, a point which in our opinion ought not for a moment to be put in competition with the advantages of an equal diffusion of sunshine. “8. Every cottage ought to have an entrance porch for containing the labourer's tools, and into which, if possible, the stairs ought to open, in order that the bedrooms may be communicated with, without passing through the front or back kitchen. This, in the case of sickness, is very desirable, and also in the case of deaths, as the remains may be carried down stairs while the family are in the front room. “9. The door to the front kitchen or best room should open from the porch, and not from the back kitchen, which, as it contains the cooking utensils and washing apparatus, can never be fit for being passed through by a stranger, or even the master of a family, where proper regard is had by the mistress to cleanliness and delicacy. “10. When there is a supply of clear water from a spring adjoining the cottage, or from some other efficient source, then there ought to be a well or tank, partly under the floor of the back kitchen for drawing it up for use, as hereafter described in detail. The advantages of having the tank or well under the back kitchen are, that it will be secure from frost, and that the labour of carrying water will be avoided. “11. The privy should always be separated from the dwelling, unless it is a proper watercloset, with a soil-pipe communicating with a distant liquid manure tank or cesspool. When detached, the privy should be over or adjoining a liquid manure tank, in which a straight tube from the bottom of the basin ought to terminate; by which means the soil basin may always be kept clean by pouring down the common slops of the house. No surface being left from which smell can arise, except that of the area of the pipe, the double flap, to be hereafter described, will prevent the escape of the evaporation from this small surface, and also ensure a dry and clean seat. “12. The situation of the liquid manure tank should be as far as possible from that of the filtered water tank or clear water well. It should be covered by an air-tight cover of flagstone, and have a narrow well adjoining, into which the liquid should filter through a grating, so as to be pumped up or taken away without grosser impurities, and in this state applied to the soil about growing crops. “13. In general, proprietors ought not to intrust the erection of labourers' cottages on their estate to the farmers, as it is chiefly owing to this practice that so many wretched hovels exist in the best-cultivated districts of Scotland and in Northumberland. “14. No landed proprietor, as we think, ought to charge more for the land on which cottages are built than he would receive for it from a farmer if let as part of a farm; and no more rent ought to be charged for the cost of building the cottage and enclosing the garden than the same sum would yield if invested in land, or, at all events, not more than can be obtained by government securities. “15. Most of these conditions are laid down on the supposition that the intended builder of the cottage is actuated more by feelings of human sympathy than by a desire to make money; and hence they are addressed to the wealthy, and especially to the proprietors of land and extensive manufactories or mines.”

3008. The preceding observations of Mr. Loudon are extracted from a “Report to Her

Majesty's principal Secretary of State, from the Poor Law Commissioners, on an Enquiry

into the Sanitary Condition of the Labouring Population of Great Britain.” 8vo. London,

1842. We regret that this Report was not published in time for us to notice one

portion of it under its proper head, namely, that of sewers, a subject on which a very

lengthened experience has enabled us to acquire some knowledge. The writer of the Report, who himself cannot be supposed at all qualified for such a task, has recommended forms for sewers which practice has proved to be exceedingly inconvenient; and has moreover given to a gentleman having, as he says, “the experience and qualifications of an engineer,” the credit of having invented a method of flushing the sewers, and of carrying of all the refuse by water: a scheme so far from novel that we ourselves have used it on a very extensive scale for the last thirty-five years at least. We have thought it right here to notice this Report, which in many other particulars is ill and carelessly drawn up. It is much to be regretted that it was not committed to more competent hands; we mean such parts as relate to the sifting and arrangement of the evidence whereon it is founded. But this is the course of things in this country : a briefless barrister, without the least preparatory education for the task, delivers opinions er cathedrá, on which a scientific person would pause. “Thus fools rush in where angels, &c."—but the quotation is trite.

A PPEND IX.

I. — LAWS RELATING TO BUILDING.

The earliest legislative enactment relative to the buildings of the metropolis was, we believe, in the reign of Henry VII. ; but the first important statute regulating the thickness of walls, &c. was passed in the 19th Charles II., and became necessary in rebuilding the city after the great fire in 1666. This was, however, deemed insufficient, for the common council of the city of London found it necessary to pass, on the 29th of April, 1667, some resolutions for regulating buildings therein, which resolutions were confirmed and made binding in the city on the 8th of May following by the king in council. The regulations thus unade, as they are no longer in force, it is unnecessary here to enumerate; suffice it to say, that alterations were required, and that, consequently, they were enlarged, amended, and more fully explained by acts passed 6 Anne, c. 31.; 7 Anne, c. 17.; 11 Geo. I. c. 28.; 33 Geo. II. c. 30.; 4 Geo. III. c. 14.; 6 Geo. III. c. 27.; 6 Geo. III. c. 37.; 12 Geo. III. c. 73.; and, lastly, 14 Geo. III. c. 78., which repealed all the former acts, and is now the statute to which all buildings to be erected within the bills of mortality must conform. It is usually called the Building Act, and is in so many respects a mass of absurdity that it ought long since to have been repealed. As, however, it remains on the Statute Book, this work would be incomplete without it; and it is therefore here printed at length, with some diagrams of illustration.

An Act for the further and better regulation of buildings and party-walls, and for the more effectually preventing mischiefs by fire, within the cities of London and Westminster and the liberties thereof, and other the parishes, precincts, and places within the weekly bills of mortality, the parishes of Saint Mary-le-bon, Paddington, Saint Pancras, and Saint Luke at Chelsea, in the county of Middlesex ; and for indemnifying, under certain conditions, builders and other persons against the penalties to which they are or may be liable for erecting buildings within the limits aforesaid contrary to law.

Whereas an act of Parliament made and passed in the twelfth year of his present Majesty's reign, intituled “An Act for the better regulation of buildings and partywalls within the cities of London and Westminster and the liberties thereof, and other the parishes, precincts, and places in the weekly bills of mortality, the parishes of Saint Mary-le-bon and Paddington, Saint Pancras, and Saint Luke at Chelsea, in the county of Middlesex, and for the better preventing of mischiefs by fire within the said cities, liberties, parishes, precincts, and places; and for amending and reducing the laws relating thereto into one Act; and for other purposes,” hath been found insufficient to answer the good purposes intended thereby : And whereas it may tend to the safety of the inhabitants, and prevent great inconveniences to builders and workmen employed in buildings within the said citiés, liberties, parishes, precincts, and places, if the regulations contained in the said act were repealed, and other regulations and provisions respecting such buildings were established by law; May it please your Majesty that it may be enacted; and be it enacted by the king's most excellent Majesty, by and with the advice and consent of the lords spiritual and temporal, and commons, in this present parliament assembled, and by the authority of the same, that the several churches, chapels, Buildings divided meeting-houses, or other places of public worship, dwelling-houses, and all "o". other buildings whatsoever, at any time heretofore begun or built, or which “ shall at any time or times hereafter be begun or built, within the said cities, liberties, parishes, precincts, and places, on new or old foundations, or on foundations partly new and partly old, shall be distinguished by and divided into the seven several rates or classes of building herein-after described; and such seven several rates or classes of building shall be under the rules and directions herein-after contained concerning the same.

II. And be it further enacted, that every church, chapel, meeting-house, and other place of public worship, and every house or building for distilling and brewing of First rate of liquors for sale, for making of soap, for melting of tallow, for dyeing, for buildins, boiling or distilling turpentine, for casting brass or iron, for refining of sugar, for making

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of glass for chemical works for sale, of what dimensions soever the same respectively are or may be, and also every warehouse and other building whatsoever, not being a dwellinghouse, now built or hereafter to be built, (except such buildings as are herein-after particularly declared to be of the fifth, sixth, or seventh rate or class of building.) which does or shall exceed three clear stories above ground, exclusive of the rooms (if any) in the roof thereof, or which is or shall be of the height of thirty-one feet from the surface of the pavement, ground, or way above the area before either of the fronts thereof, to the top of the blocking-course, or the coping on the parapet thereof, and every dwelling-house now built or hereafter to be built, which, with the offices thereto belonging and adjoining, or connected otherwise than by a fence or fence-wall, or covered passage open on one or both sides, when finished, does or shall exceed the value of eight hundred and fifty pounds, and also every dwelling-house which does or shall exceed mine squares of building on the ground-floor, each square containing one hundred superficial feet, shall be deemed the first rate or class of building. III. And it is hereby further enacted, that every front, side, end, or other external wall Thi, one of (not being a party-wall) which shall after the twentyto ..." fourth day of June, in the year of our Lord one thouFig. 1934. sand seven hundred and seventy-four, be built to any first-rate building, or to any addition thereto or enlargement thereof, shall be built and remain, at the foundation thereof, of the thickness of two bricks and an half in length, or one foot nine inches and an half at the least, and shall from thence regularly and gradually di. minish on each side of the wall two inches and a quarter to the top of the footing of every such wall, except where any immediate adjoining building will not admit of such footing being made on the side of such wall next such adjoining building, in which case such footing shall be made as near to the dimensions herein directed as the case will admit; which footing shall be nine inches high at the least, and wholly below the upper surface of the pavement and flooring-boards of the cellar story two inches at the least; and every such wall shall, from the top of such footing, be of the thickness of two bricks in length, or one foot five inches and an half at the least, up to the under side of the one pair of stairs floor, and from thence of the thickness of one brick and an half in length, or thirteen inches at the least, up to the under side of the plate under the roof or gutter of every such building, and from thence of the thickness of one brick in length, or eight inches and an half at the least, up to the under side of the blocking-course or coping on the parapet of every such first-rate building, except such parts of every such wall as shall be wholly of stone, which parts so being of stone shall be of the thickmess of fourteen inches at the least below the ground-floor, and of nine inches at the least above the ground floor, and except all recesses above the ground-floor in the said walls, which shall be arched over in every story, so nevertheless as that the arch and the back of such recess shall be respectively of the thickness of one brick in length, or eight inches and an half at the least. IV. And it is hereby further enacted, that every party-wall which Thiernes of , shall, after the said twenty-fourth day of June, be built Ho!""" to any first-rate building, or to any addition thereto ... ... o.o. 4; See Fig. 1939 or enlargement thereof, shall be built and remain, at the foundation thereof, of the thickness of three bricks and an. half in Fig. 1059. length, or two feet six inches and an half at the least, and shall from thence regularly and gradually diminish on each side of the wall four inches and an half to the top of the footing of every such wall, which footing shall be one foot high at the least, and wholly below the upper surface of the pavement and flooring-boards of the cellar story two inches at the least; and every such party-wall shall, from the top of such footing, be of the thickness of two bricks and an half in length, or one foot nine inches and an half at the least, up to the under side of the ground-floor, and from thence of the thickness of two bricks in length, or one foot five inches and an half at the least, up to the under side of the floor of the rooms (if any) in the roof of the highest building adjoining to such party-wall, and from thence of the thickness of one brick and an half in length, or thirteen inches at the least, up to the top of every such party wall, V. And be it further enacted, that every warehouse, stable, and other building, not being a dwelling-house, except such buildings as are herein particularly declared to be of the first, fifth, sixth, or seventh rate or class of building, now built or hereafter to be built, which does or shall exceed two clear stories, and shall not contain more than three clear stories above ground, exclusive of the rooms (if any) in the roof thereof, or which is or shall be of the height of twenty-two feet and shall not be of the height of thirty-one feet from the surface of the pavement, ground, or way above the area before either of the fronts thereof to the top of the blocking-course or coping on the parapet thereof, and every dwelling-house now built or hereafter to be built which, with the offices thereto belonging and adjoining, or connected otherwise than by a fence or fence wall, or covered passage open on one or both sides, when finished, does or shall exceed the value of three hundred pounds, and shall not amount to more than the value of eight hundred and fifty pounds, and also every dwelling-house which does or shall exceed five squares of building on the ground plan, and shall not amount to more than nine squares of building on the ground plan thereof, shall be deemed the second rate or class of building. VI. And it is hereby further enacted, that every front, side, or other external wall (not being a party-wall) which shall, after the said twenty- Thickness of fourth day of June, be built to any second-rate build- “... ing, or to any addition thereto or enlargement thereof, Fig. 1035. shall be built and remain, at the foundation thereof, of the thickness of two bricks in length, or one foot five inches and an half at the least, and shall from thence regularly and gradually diminish on each side of the wall two inches and a quarter to the top of the footing of every such wall, except where any immediate adjoining building will not admit of such footing being made on the side of such wall next such adjoining building, in which case such footing shall be made as near to the dimensions herein directed as the case will admit, which footing shall be nine inches high at the least, and wholly below the upper surface of the pavement and flooring-boards of the cellar story two inches at the least; and every such wall shall, from the top of such footing, be of the thickness of one brick and an half in length, or thirteen inches at the least, up to the under side of the one pair of stairs floor, and from thence of the thickness of one brick in length, or eight inches and an half at the least, up to the under side of the blocking-course or the coping on the parapet of every such second-rate building, except such parts of every such wall, being above the ground-floor, as shall be wholly of stone, which parts so being of stone shall be of the thickness of nine inches at the least, and except all recesses above the ground-floor in the said walls, which shall be arched over, so nevertheless as that the arch and the back of each such recess shall respectively be of the thickness of one brick in length, or eight inches and an half at the least. VII. And it is hereby further enacted, that every party-wall which shall, after the said twenty-fourth day of June, be built thickness of to any second-rate building, or to any addition thereto ..."..."" or enlargement thereof, shall be built and remain, at Fig. 1040. the foundation thereof, of the thickness of three bricks and an half in length, or two feet six inches and an half at the least, and shall from thence regularly and gradually diminish on each side of the wall four inches and an half to the top of the footing of every such wall, which footing shall be nine inches high at the least, and wholly below the upper surface of the pavement and flooring-boards of the cellar story two inches at the least; and every such party-wall shall, from the top of such footing, be of the thickness of two bficks and an half in length, or one foot nine inches and an half at the least, up to the under side of the ground-floor, and from thence of the thickness of two bricks in length, or one foot five inches and an half at the least, up to the under side of the floor of the two pair of stairs story, and from thence of the thickness of one brick and an half in length, or thirteen inches at the least, up to the top of every such party-wall. VIII. And be it further enacted, that every warehouse, stable, and other building, not being a dwelling-house, except such buildings as are herein particularly declared to be of the first, fifth, sixth, or seventh rate or class of building, now built or hereafter to be built, which does or shall exceed one clear story and shall not contain more than two clear stories above ground, exclusive of the rooms (if any) in the roof thereof, or which is or shall be of the height of more than thirteen feet and shall not be of the height of twenty-two feet from the surface of the pavement, ground, or way above the area before either of the fronts thereof to the top of the blocking-course or the coping on the parapet thereof, and every dwelling-house now built or hereafter to be built which, with the offices thereto belonging and adjoining, or connected otherwise than by a fence or fence-wall, or covered passage open on one or both sides, when finished, does or shall exceed the value of one hundred and fifty pounds and shall not amount to more than the value of three hundred pounds, and also every dwelling-house which does or shall exceed three squares and an half of building on the ground plan and shall not amount to more

second rate.

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Fig. 1040.

Third rate.

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